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Full text of "Australian Garden and Field"

THE UNIVERSITY 
OF ILLINOIS 
LIBRARY 

650.5 
ALTS 



Digitized by the Internet Archive 
in 2014 



t 



https://archive.org/details/australiangarden3819unse 




Vol. XXXVIII. No. 1. { Re S^ B ' I JUNE, 1912. Price 6d. 



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ICE CREAM AND COOL DRINKS. 



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EI. 38 & 4Q, Waymouth Street, Adelaide. 



THE GARDEN AND FIELD. 



June, 1912 



HENRY SEWELL 



offers for sale Flower Seeds for present sowing, of 
choicest strains. 



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Roses ! Roses ! Roses ! 

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200,000 Ornamental Shrubs, Trees, and Climbers ready for 
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Fruit Trees of all kinds. 

Catalogues, post free on application. 



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H. SEWELL/: 



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. . PAYNEHAM. 



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ESTABLISHED 1849. 



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What is Landscape 
Gardening ? 



W. Vortriede in " Hort 1 culture " 
the nuestion thus : — 

" The term landscape garieuing 
leaves such a vague idea, even in the 
minds of many well-educatd people, 
that it would not seem out of place 
to discuss it quite frequently. 

Landscape, or landslip. < ardening is 
a modern word co'nrd by Shenstone. 
Landscape gardening, says A. J. 
Downing', differs from gardening in its 
common sense in that it embraces the 
whole scene immediately about a 
country house, wuich it softens and 
refines, or renders more spirited and 
striking by the aid of art. So it 
means the art of beautifying and 
bringing into harmonious unity, by 
careful planning, the different scenic 
pictures out of doors. 

The first attempts of art o-arden'n - 
were most probably in the geometric 
or formal stvle.' which was brought 
to such perfection by the celebrated 
French artist LcNotre. It held sw a v 
all over Europe ; but the <>ood sense 
and" great love of the Anglo-Saxon 
for nature soon shook off th-'s ware 
of artificial art, and the true land- 
scape-gardening art sprang up— t^e 
Natural or English style, as it is 
yet called i n Europe. 

The geometric was nartly due to 
the limited material in use for 
oardenin?, owing fo the i^n' ranee of 
BOtany and the difficult* of oM tin 
ing appropriate material of natural 
"lar.t form ; hence form had to be 
rved out of growing plants. The 
rlesoue, abominable, Rococo stvle 
architecture of that time had a 
eat deal to do with leading pardpn- 
info such a mechanical, artificial 
! : and this stv'e r f barbaric 
l~ndor is at present establishing a 
thol.-l in our country. 

Let us turn in time from such a 
Fate path, with its limited, formal 
(.orders of artificiality, which create 
a wrong impression of real art by 
their ostentatious, laborious readi- 
nes«. Let the wealthy of Europe and 
America possess such countrv estates 
«r they want to, but guard the 
treasures of the common people, the 
park systems, against too much of 
«uch a style. 



Most of the work of landscape 
gardening has happily been, until 
recently, in the natural style, due to 
the great stimulus imparted by the 
examples of the two above named 
artists. Some writers and lovers of 
formal gardening try to quote in 
defence of this style : " It goes with- 
out saying, that the true natura'l 
landscape garden debars all improve- 
ment by man ;" meaning that a 
natural landscape is perfect as evolved 
by nature and should be left alone, 
f'an such reasoning stand analysis ? 
The term gardening at once excludes 
such a meaning. Landscape garden^ 
ir<g, Downing says, is a un'om of 
natural expression and harmonious 
cultivation. The development of the 
beautiful is the end and aim of land- 
scape gardening, as it is of all other 
of fine arts. The finest landscapes, 
such as painters love to perpetuate, 
are, in Europe, not the many formal 
wardens — let the photographers attend 
to that kind of art— but the seem- 
inglv pristine bits of scenery. But 
in densely Populated Europe where are 
the untouched, natural landscapes ? 
There is baTcHy a spot to be found 
where man has not been disturbing 
and working and arranging, in some 
Way or the other, the scenerv. even 
if unaware of it. Rut gardening per- 
mits snch work with the object of im- 
proving, if possible, and presenting 
(he choicest bits of landscape giving 
in its 'best form the natural stvle 
without showing the hand of m«n 
anv more than can possiMv be avoid- 
ed : except in the superior beauty of 
specimens r.nd croups, and the more 
perfect harmonv in color of foliage 
^nd Homers of the native flora. We 
can hardly call a ium'de of "l-int.« 
collected frOn entirelv different 
'•o"r tries, a natural landscape, even 
if harmonious in form and color. 

Adolnh St ranch savs in the America-i 
("Yclonedia of Horticulture : The ideal 
landscape garden, like the ideal land- 
scape painting, expresses or empha- 
sizes some single thou<rh or f"elin*. 
Its evpression may be gav. >-old. 
retired, ouiet, fior ; d ; but if it is 
natural its expression will conform 
fo the place. Tt should be a picture, 
not a collection of interest obiects. 
•T. if, Jarvis, in The Art Idea, speak- 
ing of Central Park, Nf-w York, savs: 
A" institution like this, combining 
art. science, and nature inharmonious 
unifv. is a great free school for the 
people, of broader value then mere 
grammar schools ; for besides afford- 



ing pleasing ideas and useful facts, it 
elevates and refines the popular mind 
by bringing ii in ' intimate contact 
with the true and beautiful under 
circumsf ances conducive to happi- 
ness and physical well being. 

Sir Joshua Reynolds, in Discourses 
on Art, says : The beginning, the 
middle, and the end of everything 
that is valuable in taste is comprised 
in the knowledge of what is trulv 
nature ; for whatever notions are 
not conformable to those of nature, 
or universal opinion, must be con- 
sidered as more or less capricious. 

In Architectural Styles, Rosengarten 
says : If we wish for a landscape 
picture in accordance with our times, 
both the purpose and internal truth 
must be predominant, and at the 
same time everything that savors of 
pretence and 'unreality must be avoid- 
ed ; that is to say, all forms which 
represent something which they really 
are not, and express intentions which 
are not existent. 

Does not the idea of all these great 
artists and philosophers, applied to 
landscape gardening, mean that it is 
a fine' art ? And that it is as such as 
little akin to formal gardening as to 
a pristine natural landscape ? 



A Nice Border. 



Pvrethum, the " Dalmatian In- 
sect Powder Plant," from the 
flowers of which " insect powder," 
" insectibane," and such insecti- 
cides are made, is worthy of a 
special place as a border plant. 
The foliage is pretty ; it is ex- 
tremely hardy, growing readily in 
all the sections of southern Aus- 
tralia, whether it be wet Gipps- 
land or hot Broken Hill. It stands 
through the driest summer in the 
Adelaide plains without anv arti- 
ficial watering. Of course it dries 
off but recovers with the first rains 
of autumn. The (lowers are white 
and pretty, and useful for wreaths, 
or, if picked, dried, and powdered, 
for insect powder which will des- 
troy nearly all the home insect 
pests, fowl lice, etc., and when 
burned in a room full of mos- 
quitoes, the latter fall to the door 
dead. 



Drink 

COOPER'S 

PURE BEER. 

Orders to the Brewery, 
Upper Kensington. 



6(>012<J 



2 



THE GA. , AND FIELD. 



June, 19 11 



Hardy Shrubs — Planting and 
Treatment. \\\\ 

i ■ ~~\ — 

— Shrubs' for Small Ga ide ns. — 

A paper road before the Society of 
American Florists. 

I will assume that we all understand, 
by the term "hardy shrulw," the class 
of perennial bushy plants, deciduous 
and evergreen, though mostly largely 
deciduous, which are used for orna- 
menting lawns and gardens. Though 
mostly of moderate size when planted, 
some of them eventually attain the 
proportions of small trees. The term 
hardy will vary with the location of 
the planting, but will not materially 
affect the suggestion here presented. 
How to plant them will be considered 
in a two-fold light. First, the dis- 
tribution and arrangement of the 
plants on the lawn, and second, the 
method of setting the roots in the 
ground. 

As a general rule, the most effective 
way to plant shrubbery is in masses 
with not too much variety in one 
group. Prof. Bailey says: "The shrub- 
bery masses should be placed on the 
boundaries ; for it is a fundamental 
concept of landscape gardening that 
the centre of a place shall be open. 
In' most places the mass or border 
planting should Ije the rule and the 
isolated specimens the exception ; but 
unfortunately the rule is usually re- 
versed." It is easy to see conspicuous 
evidences of the truth of the above 
statements in almost any suburban 
neighborhood in examples of gO<yd and 
of poor arrangements. 

Many planters seem to think it de- 
sirable to h'ave a well developed "plant 
of as many varieties as can find 
accommodations on the lawn, in order 
that they might enjoy each plant in- 
dividually as it passes through its 
varying changes of foliage, flowering, 
fruitage and leaflessness throughout 
year. Such an arrangement may be 
appropriate for an arboretum on trial 
grounds, and there are special charms 
in such a collection of shrubs as each 
successively comes into bloom. But 
as the blooming period of most shrubs 
is only from two to four weeks, the 



E. A. LASSCOCK, 

TX)CKLEYS NURSERY. 
LOCKLEYS. 

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Good assortment of Perns at reason- 
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Catalogues Free. 



Telephone No. 34, Henley B«aoh 



beauty of foliage hues both in the 
greenness of summer and in autumn 
foliage such as that of the golden 
elder and philadelphus, variegated 
weigvla, purple-leaf plum and barberry 
etc., is considered done very effective- 
ly, but more frequently the result is 
a conspicuous blotch amid the verdure. 
The handling of bright colors always 
requires a high degree of artistic skill 
or the result will be displeasing to the 
most refined tastes ; it may afford 
valuable object lessons to the student 
and gardener but it is not the way to 
produce the most effective results in 
lawn adornment. 

The . quote again from Prof. Bailey's 
essay on shrubbery : " Plants scatter- 
ed over a lawn destroy all appearance 
of unity and purpose in the place. 
Every part of the place is equally ac- 
cented. The area has no meaning or 
individuality, The plants are in the 
way. They spoil the lawn. The place 
is random. In large grounds the 
shrubbery border should be composed 
of successive masses of several plants 
of one species together, followed by 
another harmonious group of another 
sort, the border of the two trroups in- 
termixing with earh other, making a 
no.turerl an I e.isv transit-on from one 
variety to the other. Let the transi- 
tion from one variety to another be 
gradual, not too sudden, and let the 
groups be not too large or too exclu- 
sive. An odd plant taller or different 
from the others may occasii n dlv stand 
out or above its companions, very ef- 
fectively ; of course tall growers at the 
back flanked w ith smaller and low 
branching snecies in the fore. Tt is 
not advisable to mix evergreen and 
deC'duous shrubs in the same group. 
A few shrubs seem to be admirably 
adapted for filling in plants. Tamarix 
is one of these which may often be 
used to relieve a too monotonous sky 
line, or formality or to add variety/ in 
foliage effect, it being a tall, neat, in- 
offensive plant which will harmonize 
with almost any other. 

One of the most sat ; sfactor\- plant- 
ings of rhododendrons was p. small bed 
at the south corner of a residence. 
They were wanted in this position but 
the owner had h»°n told that they 
would not succeed in southern expos- 
ure. Recognizing the fact that a large 
pear tree southeast of this bed would 
afford middav shade, and groups of 
large forest trees and neighboring 
buildings not far aw>iv would afford 
shelter from wind, the location was 
considered eligible. The natural so'l 
was ouite sandv — but by generous ex- 
cavation, two feet deep, and fi , l ; n r ' 
with muck and vegetable mould taken 
from open ditches on a n°arby farm , 
and a few barrels of good peat, a 
soil was prepared which nrovrd suit- 
able. The rhododendrons were planted 
four to five feet aoart and all vacant, 
snacos filled in with Mah'ona at,tiifoHa, 
V. -TaPonica and heath arborvitage 
(Thuraericoidpsl until the bed was a 
solid mass of foliao-e. effectuallv shad- 
ing t*ie stems 'of the slants and th^ 
ground ar^u^d 'hem. T^e g-'Mind was 
then covered with a mu'oh of leaves a 
foot deep, with instructions to keep 
the mulch there all the tilme, renewing 
it everv autumn, and as the rhododen- 
drons grew and spread be cut back or 
removed. This planting was made 



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Contains t*4 per cent. Proof Spirit. 



June, 1912. 



THE GAH.DEN AND tltiLD. 



nine years ago* and has been success- 
ful. 

— Shrubs for Small Gardens. — 

A most difficult problem in shrub 
arrangement, more frequently met with 
•n the practical 1 experience of florist 
and jobbHng gardeners than in the lay- 
ing out of large lawns where general 
rules of landscape gardening micrht ! e 
employed is the requirement of own- 
ers of small yards, who want- one 
dozen of their old favorites set in a 
bod or along a garden fence. Perhaps 
it will be a lilac, forsyth'a, snowball, 
cydonia, weigela, spirea, deutzia, chino- 
anthus, dog-wood. hydr;\no-ea and a 
purple filbert and such other incon- 
gruous neighbors. He who can arrange 
such a group as this tastily and so it 
will continue attractive throughout 
the year is a master in the art of 
shrub arrangement. Hocelt-ss ns this 
task may se°ni the>-e t • »-'»nts which 
we may always took to for help in 
such emergencies. The sl°nder soravs 
of feathery foliage of th° tamT'X. the 
gracefully drooping bran"hes of S'urea 
Thunbercrii, Sterhanandra flexuosa. 
the sinqle flowpred kcrrias in'dud'ng 
the white form known *a ^hodotvmis 
kerrioides with its crinkled foliace. 
»re all gentle, inoffensive subnects will- 
ing to help fill un a r/in ami hide 
from miblic gaze the awkwardness of 
their fellows whereever such s°rvice is 
needed. Pv adding a few nNnis of 
these slender species t''e stiffness of 
a group may be much relieved and 
some of its awkwardness softened. 

One of mv most valuaMe lessons 
about olanting was learned in wal'-'ing 
through a lawn with an "H g-irdoner 
who remarked. "The m- n who nl<>nte(] 
this place understood his business. 
See — everv tree is set on a little hill 
or rr,ound." The next time you have 
onportunitv, compare the difference in 
»nne a rance of a lawn wh»r° *rees an-l 
shrubs stand in mounds slight lv above 
the level of the surrounding lawn. an r ' 
other plantings where the lawn level 
is carried un to the roots of the plants, 
or as is sometimes seen. wher° nlants 
«ta»'l in a depression. See which you 
like best, and then iudcre of th" wis- 
dom of the above suo-gestion. A bed 
or border for shrubbery should be 
heavilv manured and drig or plowed 
deeply and prepared as carefully es fo*- 
com or anv other cron which is 



T. SHEPPARD 

WATCH IMPORTER. 
BOWMAN'S ARCADE, ADELAIDE. 



Sole Importer of the Famous 

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Sflveroid Double-cased Keyless Chrono- 
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Sheppo Watehe* are Lifetime Watches, 
no other* to pood. 



wanted to grow well. If I tell you not 
to run the roots into a little hole in 
the ground but to set then\ on a little 
mound, you will think I am joking, 
but that is pretty nearly what I mean. 

It would seem as though every gar- 
dener should be tired of hearm-- the 
trite advice to dig big holes for shrubs 
and trees, but the innumerable evi- 
dences of violations of the rule show 
that many planters have not yet 
'earned this lesson. Some shrubs, as 
forsythias. spireas, deutzixs, etc., may 
flourish if stuck in th> ground anv 
way. but many others ne?d the rest of 
care to insure success, and careless- 
ness in sett'ng often discredits good 
material r.nd a job which in other re- 
spects mav be all riqht. Dig holes 
larger and deeper thpn the roots re- 
quire and larger in diameter at boH^m 
than at top. then fill in some of the 
best soil obta'nable, making a little 
cone or mound in the c°ntre of the 
hole. Then spread out the roots of 
olants around this mound of earth so 
that all roots tend downwards rather 
than horizontal or upwards. Fill >n 
the richest soil, first tramping firrrlv 
e.s the filling orfCeeds. F°member 
Peter Henderson, ''s chanter om the " Use 
if the Foot in Peantino-." Also bear 
in mind that it is results that count 
and five minutes spent in care of 
planting may mean one or two yeaTs 
saved in attaining the desired end. 

Under the heading " How to Treat 
Shrubs " I will allude to manuring, 
mulching and pruning. After planting 
apply a good mulch of manure to con 
serve moisture, furnish nourishment 
and suppress weeds. An annual 
mulching of leaves, with coarse man- 
ure to prevent their blowing away, is 
beneficial to almost every class of 
plants, and mulched or fallow ground 
is better than grass aeound the stems. 
Most decid'i«us shrubs should be 
nruned severelv, when nlanted. Rho- 
dodendrons, azalias, andromedas, etc.. 
are usually transplanted with balls of 
earth, and do not need much pruning 
but, where it is needful, will not hurt 
them. 

— Pruning. — 

The annual pruning is a most im- 
portant part of the work of the da re of 
shrubibery and the point most deflicult 
to cdve instructions on by written de- 
rections. It is an art which must be 
l"am"d by practice and observation. 
The general rule is to trim ectly 
bloomers. as soon as they are 
ihroinrh flowering, nnd midsummer or 
late bloomers, in winter, conta-ins a 
suggestion, but the indiscriminate cut- 
ting back of every shrub every year is 
a great mistake. When a shrub septus 
weak and needs strengthening, cut out, 
declining shoots and apply manure 




t ? T 

• • • 

HOUSES ! 
GARDENS ! 
FARMS ! 



If you want a House, Farm or 
Garden satisfaction will be guar 
anteed if you consult 

H. M. CHARL/CK, 

LAND & ESTATE AGENT. 



Telephone No. 850. 



Established 1880. 



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Wholesale and Retail Saddler. 
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Chief Officii for Sooth Australia— 

36, Grenfell St., Adelaide 

Toil Steele, Acting Local Manager. 



around it. When one is too vigorous 
and rampant remove or shorten super- 
fluous shoots and' reduce to symmetry 
with as little mutilation as possible. 
W'hen one has become overgrown and 
dilapidated in appearance, cut back a 
part, or perhaps all, of its unsightly 
3tems, severely, probably at the 
ground, and allow new shoots to re- 
store the beauty and vigor of youth. 



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4 



THE CrARDEN AND FIELD. 



Garden Notes. 

— Seed Ro^s\ j^n^Artrtkj— 

These form a most important 
item in the Burnishing of a garden, 
especially if it 1>c the intention to 
grow annuals, for it is by plant- 
ing the seed at stated intervals 
that a succession of bloom is kept 
up in the beds. There are few 
thin»s to compare in beauty to a 
garden filled w th well-grown an- 
nuals. What a sight beds of 
the different colored candy. tuft 
make ! Then, again, the blue 
lobelia, used as an edging, what 
is there to equal it ? And the 
nhlox drummondi, nemophila, and 
stock, the mignonette, godetia, 
and Virginian stock. But there 
is no end to the list of their vari- 
ety. The trouble is to know what 
to grow and what not to grow, 
for, as I have often counselled in 
these notes, do not try to irrow 
all of them, but make a iudicious 
selection, taking into account, 
first, what von want them for, 
whether for the decoration of the 
garden or the beautifvine- of the 
rooms of vour 1n>us.' ■ second, the 
size of the garden ; third, "its 
position ; and fourth, its soil. In 
the following lists i have aimed it 
rnvincr as complete a selection as 
space will allow : — 

T. The following annuals are se- 
lected as being <rood cutting 
flowers — Sweet oeas, ten-week 
stock, callionsis, cornflowers, lin- 
arias, Shirlev nntvni^, gnodetia«, 
schizanthuses. nhlox drummondi, 
scabious. -rMllardias. \unual chrv- 
santhemums, collinsi-js, candy- 
tufts, o-viieonbila , inalor>°s, nin-'d- 
ias. luoin°'S, bartonia, and Venuis's 
looking glass. 

The heights of thp Forefro'ti'O" arp 
h>ti'"rp||v nrinted on the packet of 
seed, hut if not there it can al- 



wavs.be found in the well-appoint- 
ed catalogues issued bv the seeds- 
men. There will he no lack of 
good cutting (lowers if these are 
jrrown, and thev are also most 
effectiv e in the garden. A .point to 
be remembered is that all leaves 
should be removed from the part 
of the stem which is placed in the 
water, but not above. 

2. All the following annuals can 
be sown where thev are to grow, 
and are selected because of their 
fragrance : — Mignonette, sweet a- 
h ssum, sweet peas, stocks, nicoti- 
ana, sweet sultans, and ' scabious. 

The following makes a great 
show when grown in beds or 
masses : — Linuin grandillorum 
(crimson), luoinits nanus (blue), 
godetias (white and crimson), 
nasturtiums (the dwarf kinds, 
crimson, scarlet, and yellow), nemo- 
pila (blue) escholt/.ias (orange), 
and clarkias. 

4. Edging Annuals. — The follow- 
ing are of a dwarf compact habit 
and thus make good edging plants: 
— Lobelia, sweet alvssum, me- 
sembryanthemum tricolor, ncmo- 
philas, Virginian stock, forget-me- 
not, saponaria, kaulfussia, platy- 
stemon, etc. 

The flowering season of all an- 
nuals can be prolonged by prevent- 
in"' the nlant from seeding ; but 
this is almost impossible in some 
cases, as the labor would he so 
excessive, such as in the case of 
the nemophilps, candytufts, and 
collinsias. But if the sweet peas 
he allowed to pod the flowering 
ceases in a short time, whereas if 
the flowers; he snipped off as they 
fade, thus preventing seed forma- 
tion, and a sufficient quantitv of 
moisture and food he supplied to 
the roots, flowering will continue 
throughout the season. It is the 



same with others that can be 
treated in a like manner. 

Take up and divide herbaceous 
perennials, such as the daisy, poly- 
anthus, cowslip, eje, and manure 
before replanting. Cuttings of 
pentstemons, z on ale pelargoniums, 
carnations, pinks, roses, and 
fuchsias can be put in now and 
w'ill be ready for planting out in 
the carlv spring. 

The hoe is a most useful imple- 
ment 1 at this time of the year. 
The surface of the beds soon be- 
comes battened down by the 
winter's rain, and the fork-hoe 
should be in constant use break- 
ing it up again. 

The cineraria and pansy planted 
out earlier must be given liquid 
manure at intervals, the soil 
moved round them, and all weeds 
removed. 

The ten-week stock would also 
benefit bv a similar treatment. 

Roses and other shrubs and trees 
may be pruned. Keep the centre 
free from thick growth and re- 
move weak and spindly shoots. 

Deciduous shrubs and trees may 
be transplanted as noon as they 
are dormant, which can be recog- 
nised bv the leaves being off. 
Shakes must be supplied to sweet 
peas as soon as thev are out of 
the ground, as they crow so quick- 
lv and want a support at once. 

In preparing beds for roses dig 
deeply and thoroughly mix with 
the soil a quantitv of rotten man- 
ure, or if you prefer to use chemi- 
cal manure dig in basic slag at 
the rate of three-quarters of a 
pound the square, yards, and later 
on in the earlv spring hoe in a 
mixture of sulphate of, ammonia 
and superphosphate in the propor- 
tion of one to eight, sowing it at 



KEMP'S CHAMPION ROSES. 

The Largest and Best Stock of Roses in the Commonwealth. 

Verified by the Leading Growers in this and other States. Come and Inspect. No others are grown in such 
an exposed place as the Kingswood Nursery on the corner of Cross Bonds and Unley Road. 

A large stock of all the BEST NEW VARIETIES. 

CARNATIONS : 5,000 plants of the best and most up-to-date sorts ready for immediate delivery. 

A Large Stock of SHRUBS, CLIMBERS, FRUIT TREES, FERNS, ZONALE PELARGONIUMS, 
COTTON PALMS, HEDGE PLANTS, COPROSMA, PITTOSPORUM, RHAMNUS, &C. 

SUGAR GUMS and SHADE TREES 
SEEDLING ANNUALS for present planting 2s. per 100, assorted ; 2s. 6d., post free. 

H- KEMP, Unley Park Nursery, ADELAIDE, S.A. 

Telephone, 1282. 



THE GARDEN AND FIELD. 



5 



the rate of iolbs. to 40 square 
yards of garden. 

Carnations which were layered 
in summer time are now sufhcieu|t- 
ly rooted to be removed from the 
parent plants, the work is best 
done in moist weather. Where rust 
is prevalent an authority oi car- 
nation growing suggests that dead- 
ly infected plants sliould be root- 
ed up and burnt. Valuable- vari- 
eties onlv sligbtlv diseased mis:ht 
be treated as follows : — Take 210s. 
each vitriol and sugar, 4lbs. fresh- 
ly slaked lime, ana 27 gallons of 
water. Mix first the vitriol, 
lime, and water well together till 
clear, then add the sugar and 
mix thoroughly. .Svringe' the 
plants once a week early in the 
morning. The syringing should 
be done quickly, evenly, an d lineiy. 

w 

Edging Plants. 

I am not an advocate of " edg- 
ing, preferring in small gardens 
that the shape of the beds should 
be defined by ornamental tiles or 
bricks or jarrah, but where these 
cannot be procured an edging oi 
some kind is undoubtedly needed 
to give the design of the garden a 
more definite shape. 

— Rosemary. — 

At one time the old rosemary 
was a prime favorite, but owing 
to its grossness it has quite gone 
out of date. 

— Fairy Rose. — 

The fairy rose is justly high in 
popular favor. It must not be 
allowed to grow wildly, but 
should be kept in order by regular 
attention to clipping. This means 
extra work, and where it cannot 
be regularly attended to the fairy 
rose should not be grown. It 
strikes very easily irom slips, 
which should be about six inches 
long, and planted so that only the 
two top buds of the cutting are out 
of the ground. In the spring time 
and for several months on t/his 
edging looks very beautiful. 

— Box Edge. — 
The box edge is also neat and 
im when properly attended , to, 
A. has, in a greater degree per- 
ps, the objection to all edging, 
at it forms a harbor for snails, 
slugs, and other pests. It is pro- 
parated by cuttings inserted in the 
bed where they are to grow. 

— Strawberry. — 

The strawberrv plant forms a 
V«rv pretty border, even for a 
flower garden, and i n the cooler 



districts has the additional advan- 
tage of supplying a delicate fruit 
for the table. 

— Ivy. — 

In England and other European 
countries the ivy is largely used 
as an edging plant. Pieces of 
ivy are planted at distances oi 
three feet, and the long trailers 
trained round the edge ol the bed. 

— Pansies. — 

Borders of pansies are very ef- 
fective for the cool districts, t or 
this purpose the plants should be 
raised from seed sown in a box. 
Transplant at b.inch spaces when 
the seedlings are large enough. 

— Polyanthus. — 

The polyanthus tribe (English 
primrose, polyanthus, auricula, 
polyanthus primroses, English 
cowslips) is also very good for 
edging in the cool districts, such 
as southern Victoria and the hills. 
It woidd be much cheaper to raise 
these from seed than to procure 
the plants from a nurseryman, but 
the latter saves trouble, and is 
quicker. I faucv that the poly- 
anthus primrose is the best of tiie 
different varieties, as it contains a 
greater diversity of color in its 
llowers. 

— Pyretheum. — 

Pyretheum, or Golden Feather, 
forms a good edging, its yellow or 
golden foliage presenting a very 
charming effect, contrasting well 
with the deeper green ol the 
perennials in the border. It ger- 
minates very speedily from seed, 
and a single packet will produce 
several hundred of plants. It needs 
replanting every second year, as 
the plants become too large for 
the purpose. 

— Daisies. — 

The double English daisy (readi- 
ly propagated by seed planted in 
a box, or by division of the root) 
forms a very neat edge, but owing 
to its uniform and dwarf habit 
it gives the garden a rather too 
regular and prim appearance. 
Otherwise it is one oi the best 
edging plants you can ihave for the 
cooler districts. A drawback to 
it on the plains, however, is that 
it does not stand the hot weather 
of the trying summer any too 
well, unless given almost unlimit- 
ed water. 

— Violets. — 

These old friends scarcely need 
any recommendation — they carry 
references with them. The violet 
likes a light soil, enriched with 
old manure, and of wood ashes are 
procurable the violet will bo 
thankful for the addition. Unlike 
most other edging plants, this pro- 



duces one of the sweetest of 
blooms for the decoration of the 
house ; and as a garden is not a 
garden that does not possess a 
violet, when looking for a suitable 
edging plant we might go further 
and fare very much worse. To 
propagate them, select healthy 
runners in October or November. 
These must not be too long, and 
should be cut off close to the 
crown of the old ^lant. Insert in 
a bed of good, light, sandy soil. 
The whole length of the runner, 
except iin. of the top, ;should be 
under ground. Let the young 
plants be kept moist during the 
summer bv spreading over the bed 
a mulch of old manure. Keep all 
runners off the young plants, and 
bv the following autumn they will 
have become nice stocky little 
plants. 

— Annuals. — 

Annuals are sometimes used as 
edging plants, but they are not 
altogether a success in that capa- 
city,, as after looking pretty for a 
week or two they go off — have to 
be pulled up, and the border re- 
planted. Phlox and dwarf ten- 
week stock are about the best, of 
the annuals to be used in this 
way j as they remain such a long 
season in bloom — longer by far 
than an y of the others. 

W. H. PENGILLY'S 

MOSKFIELD NURSERY, 
FULLARTON, S.A. 

Fruit Trees. 

all the leading varieties, well grown, 
and well-rooted. Peaches, Apricots, 
Plums, Quinces, Figs, Almonds, Vines 

best table varieties. 
1 have again to offer the finest grown 
lot of Standards and Dwarf Roses in 
this State. 
'Phone 1,108. 

Send for Catalogue 1911. 



EXECUTOR TRUSTEE 

AND AGENCY CO., OF S.A., LTD. 

Subscribed Capital • £75,000 
Amount at Credit of Estates, Trusts, 
and Clients, £2,388,695 Is. 7d. 

DIRECTORS. — W. J. Magarey (Chairman), W. 
Herbert Phillipps, Esq., L. A. Jesiop, H. C. E. 
Muecke, Richard Smith, E. W. van Senden, Esq. 

The Company transacts all classes of business as 
Executor, Trustee, Attorney and Agent. When 
winding up an estate only one charge is made for 
realization. 

MONEY TO LEND AT CURRENT RATES. 
The Company's SAPE DEPOSIT provides ab- 
solute security (or the storage, under Depositor's 
sole control, of CA8H, DEE US, JEWELLERY 
SCRIP, PLATE, and other VALUABLES. 

YEARLY RENTALS OF SAFIS, from £1 Is. 

W. W. CARTER, Manager. 
Offices, 22 Orenfell Street. 



6 



June, 1912 



Chrysanthemum Show. 



Visitors to the Chrysanthemum 
Show experienced a pleasant sur- 
prise, for contrary to expectation 
the display proved to he one of 
the best which has been staged 
in Adelaide. Not only were the 
'" Mums " excellent but other 
classes were equally good. The 
award for the Champion Japanese 
was easily gained by the veteran 
Victorian grower, Mr. T. \V. 
Pockett, whose reputation in his 
chosen llower is world wide. In 
Europe and America the Pockett 

creations are .is well known as in 
the Commonwealth. The bloom 
staged by Mr. Pockett was a truly 
magnificent specimen of Edith S. 
Ouittcnton, a glorious white, which 
easily outclassed its rivals. Apart 
from this victory competition 
among the seven growers who were 
represented, was very keen, each 
class being well contested. Some 
of the varieties which were speci- 
ally well represented, w.re the Hon. 
Mrs. Lopes, a variety which was 
champion last year ; Stanley, Gol- 
den Gate, Maud Jeffries, Mr. W. 
A. Reid, Mary Ann Pockett, Lady 
(Jsborn, Miss Kellerniann, J. C. 
Nisi, S. F. Wright, Ruby KUand, 
Bendigo, Mrs. Duckam, Australian 
Cold, Pockett's Crimson, and 
J umbo. 

Amongst the Roses, a " Not for 
Competition," exhibit of Rayon 
D'Ors was easily the most attrac- 
tive. This is, we believe, the first 
time this variety has been shown 
in Adelaide, and we have no doubt 
that its unique colouring and fine 
form, as shown in this exhibit, 
will lead to a big call being 
made for it this season. The Lyon 
Rose, of the same type, was 
ehosenf from one of Mr. Kemp's 



entries as the best in the show. 
This is also a novelty to most 
growers, but one which they 
should make a point of getting 
better acquainted with. Mr. Kemp 
was, as usual, the most successful 
exhibitor with Messrs. Howell, 
Ifould, and Fairy in close attend- 
ance in the open classes. Messrs. 
Gibbons & .1. W. Field were suc- 
cessful in the class for growers 
with under loo and 2O0 plants 
respectively. The bowls of roses 
were an interesting class ; in this 
Mr. Kemp had to give place to 
Airs. II. II. Howell's delightful 
grouping of Madame. A. Chate- 
n ays. 

Amongst the Dahlias some of the 
finest flowers yet seen m Adelaide, 
were staged. There is no doubt 
of the increasing popularity of this 
Queen oi the Autumn garden. 
Fine displays of the lesser known 
Single, peoney-flowered and collar- 
ette varieties, no doubt, made 
many friends for thesa charming 
additions to the great Dahlia 
family. 

THE "CAVE " AND "LEWIS" 
TROPHY. 

We have been asked to publish 
the names of individual blooms in 
the splendid exhibit which was 
awarded this much coveted prize. 
Miss Nicholas (the winner) has 
kindly supplied the following 
list :— 

— Japanese. — 

Hazel Eland, Jumbo, Mr. W. 
Collins, Lord Hopetoun, Mrs. T. 
W. Pockett, Mrs, Duckham, An- 
netta Henley, Maud Jeffries, Lady 
Osborne, Mrs. Thompson, Mrs. H. 
Weeks, S. T. Wright, F. T. Vallis, 
Aust. Gold, Miss Kellerman, Gol- 
den Gate, Madam Radialla, Wine- 



fred, W. A. Reid, Pockett's Crim- 
son, Gladys Blackburn, Kerslake 
bin., J. C Neil, H. Stevens, Mrs. 
Cummings, Tom Carrington, Mary 
Ann Pockett, Tom Trembath 
Olive Nicholas, Flora. 

— Chinese. — 

Prince Alfred, Patria, Eve, Ruby 
Eland, G. L. Atkins, Brockley 
Gem, Pio None, Lyn Jun., Antfon- 
ella, J. Kerns, Violet Murchke, 
Bendigo, Drover, Miss M. Wan- 
namacher, Airs. Dennison, Joan d' 
Arc. 

— Anemone Flowered. — 
Pettridge, Dame Blanche, Airs. 
II. Eland, dames Weston, King, 
Surprise, Mrs. Shimmins, The 
Governor, Mrs. Trembath, Ettie, 
Her Majesty, W. Nicholas. 

«> 

Sewell's Nursery, 

The name of Henry Sewell has 
been long and honorably known 
in the world of Horticulture in 
its various branches, and very 
many years have passed since Mr. 
Sewell first established himself in 
his profession, but before doing so 
he had experienced considerable 
training which has stood him in 
good stead. Mr. Sewell has always 
been ready to help forward the 
cause in which he has been so 
keenly interested. As a writer on 
Horticultural subjects he, for many 
years, contributed to this paper. 
As a member of various Horti- 
cultural Societies he has been an 
active worker, whilst as an experi- 
mentalist he has adso done good 
work. Passing years have brought 
him much success and the three 
fine nurseries which he now owns 
are testimony to the very exten- 



SIXTY YEARS AGO 

SMITH'S Plants, Trees, Shrubs, Climbers, Roses, Hedge Plants, G urr >s, 
Peppers, Palms, Ferns, Pelargoniums and Flowering Plants, etc, etc. were 
THE BEST and they still hold that reputation. A trial will convince you 

Catalogues Free, send for one. 

W J SMITH CLIFTON NURSERIES - 

' WALKERVILLE, SOUTH AUST. 

ESTABLISHED 1851. 'PHONE 372. 



June, 1912 



THE GARDEN AND FIELD. 



7 



sive business which he has built 
up. Mr. Sewell is much more 
than a nurseryman and plaint 
seller, for he has always been 
really interested in the more 
scientific side of his work and Aus- 
tralian gardeners owe much to him. 
In Petunias, Pansies, and other 
lines the name of Sewell is recog- 
nized through the Commonwealth 
as one of the foremost exponents 
in plant breeding. As an im- 
porter of new and rare varieties 
for distribution, and as a collec- 
tor, Mr. Sewell has taken a lead- 
ing part. He has been fortunate 
in being able to gratify his tastes 
in this direction, with the result 
that his gardens, and houses, in- 
clude an unusually large, and un- 
usually interesting collection. In 
Aquatic plants, and in the Succu- 
lent tribes particularly, he has an 
almost unique display to show 
•to visitors interested in these 
(Classes. The Payneham Nurserv 
is nicely laid out, the greater por- 
tion being more of a garden than 
[is usually the case. Many fine 
specimens, not commonlv grown, 
may be noted, whilst the extensive 
range of ^lass houses contain a 
very extensive and varied assort- 
ment of the more tender plants, 
in which Mr. Sewell takes a very 
[special interest. The extent of the 
stock carried and Mr. Sewell 's 
ability to meet anv order, however 
large, may be gathered from the 
■act that there are at all times 
over one quarter of a million 
pot plants ready for customers. 
In the shade houses, which are 
larre and commodious, the visitor 
will find a delightful variety in 
Cpalms and allied classes, * and 
hardy ferns. He will also note, 
if he is at all observant, that the 
great collection of plants under 
Mr. Sewell 's direction is clean and 
Malthv. The Marden Nurseries, 
^situated some few minutes' walk 
(from the parent establishment, are 
devoted largely to Fruit Trees. 
fThe buyer will find here the same 
wealth of variety and evidence of 
the same careful handling. In the 
■election of fruit trees Mr. Sewell 
Bs always pleased to place his 
knowledge at the disposal of in- 
gendinrr purchasers in the selection 
of varieties, likely to be suitable 
for their requirements, as to soil, 
climatic conditions, time of ripen 
ing, etc. Ik-fore leaving the Mar- 
den Nurseries we should mention 
tthat Mr. Sewell has an immense 
■umber of all the best varieties of 
table and wine grapes ready for 
this season's planting. At Aldgafce 
Mr. Sewell has established a Nnr- 
»crv for the cultivation of trees, 
more particularly of shade and 
.Ornament;.], all plants more par- 



ticularly suited for hills' condi- 
tion. Within these limits there is 
the same wide choice as at bis 
other nurseries, and the same evi- 
dence of expert management. Mr. 
Sewell's catalogues are always 
well arranged and well got up 
and may be procured on applica- 
tion to the onlv postal address, 
Payneham, S. Australia. Readers 
should* not forget that Mr. Sewell's 
collection of Roses is unusually 
large. 

<$> 

The Last Rose of Summer. 

People who during the last few- 
weeks have travelled on the Uniey 
tram line have had the opportunity 
of seeing the last rose of summer in 
all its glory at Mr. H. Kemp's Kings- 
wood >>ursery. In the old song, if we 
remember correctly, the last rose 
bloomed in solitary state — at these 
nurseries it blooms by the, tens of 
thousands, for there are acres devot- 
ed to the Queen of Flowers. It has 
been a glorious sight at any time of 
the day, but those who have passed 
during the very early hours have been 
able to enjoy an added fragrance in 
the scented air. 'lis even better to 
stroll through the nursery (visitors 
are always welcome) and examine 
more at leisure the beauty of all the 
favourites of the rose-w^orld which are 
here grown in masses— from the dusky 
wine red tints of Prince Camille de 
Rohan to the spotless purity of the 
glorious Drushki, or one may enjoy 
the beauties of a bed of one of the 
best of all roses La France or one or 
other of the roses which everybody 
grows, Cochet, white and pink, K. A. 
Victoria, The Bride, and others. A 
little further on we may note C. G. 
Graham, Petty, Kdlarney, Joseph Hill 
and half a hundred of the newer 
beauties of the rose world. Not far 
off Rayon D'or flaunts, its vivid colors 
in the sunshine making its mark, 
even in this (great collection Richmond 
and iVarrior and others of that 
brilliant company make crimson 
patches in the distance, with Mrs. 
Walter Kasly, ( 'oxhead and. Lieutenant 
Ch.-uire, three of the best light red 
roses to soften ^and harmonise the 
whole. Nearer at hand that rdorious 
rose, Georges Schwartz, leads a 
brave band of yellow teas and 
Hybrids— Lady Hilling-don, Peace, Mrs. 
Leonard Petrie and others which carry 



the range of colour from deep gold 
to palest yellow. It is always in- 
teresting to know what other people 
are doyng, and Mr. Kemp was emphatic 
in his opinion that the rose was more 
than holding her own in popular- 
favour, and that amongst them the 
favourites of a decade ago are, broad- 
ly speaking, the favourites of to-day. 
Asked of the newer roses and how 
they were catching on, we were in- 
formed that though very far behind 
the output of the old favourites many 
of the newer have assured for them- 
selves a permanent place in the Aus- 
tralian rose world, such as William 
Sheen, Mrs. U. McKie, Molly Sharman 
Crawford, Joseph Hill, C. J. Graham 
Mrs. Maynard Sinton, My Maryland, 
Principal A. H. Pirie, Soliel D'Ang-ers, 
Mrs. Foley Hobbs, Mrs. Arthur Cox- 
head, Marcjiuise de Ganey, Marie 
Delesaille, Marchioness of Waterford, 
Lieutenant Chaure, Mrs. John Craig, 
Lady Hillingdon, Madam Malamie 
Soupert, Juliet, Konigen Carola, 
J. L. Mock, Lady Illchester, Grafin 
S. Wcdel, Excelsa, Etugeme Boullet, 
Claudius, Madame Soupert, G. C. 
Ward, Cynthia Ford, Edward Mawley, 
probably the best Crimson H T in 
existence, Duchess of Westminster 
Klizabeth, Leslie Holland' and last but 
not least the Lyon Rose. Being a 
little curious as to how people select- 
ed their roses, we asked whether his 
customers sent in their own lists or 
left the selection to him, and were a 
little surprised at the answer, which 
was to the effect',- that Wo per cent, did 
the former. He also mentioned that 
he was sometimes amused and some- 
times almost saddened at the 'weird 
selections of roses forwarded. We 
were more than ever confirmed that 
our oft repeated advice to give your 
nursery man a free hand is good 
advice, especially when, as in this 
case, the choosing of roses will be in 
the capable hands of the proprietor of 
the Unley and Kingswood Nurseries. 

<$> 

Zante Currant Vines. 

Mr. T. E. Yelland, secretary of 
the S.A. Farmer's Co-Operative 
Union, 32 Franklin Street, has a 
very choice selection of the above 
vine cuttings for sale. They are 
well matured, in a healthy con- 
dition, and will be sold cheaply by 
taking- the lot (about 700), or 
smaller quantities may be had at 
usual market rates. 



ALBERT O. PIKE, 

(Late GAMEAU BROTHERS). 

dairville Nursery, Hectorville. 



All kinds of fruit trees for sale, Citru s trees, Lemons and Oranges a special- 
ity. Send for illustrated catalogue. 
Telegraphic Address— Pike, Hectorville, Payneham. Telephone— Central 2768. 



THE GARDEN AND FIELD. 



Planting Shade Trees. 

Seedlings of soft-wooded trees are 
generally large enough to transplant 
from the seed beds, oik 1 year old, and 
the seedlings of hard^wooded trees 
from two to three years oid. 

From the time the seedling are 
placed in nursery rows, strict atten- 
tion should ibe given towards develop- 
ing one leader, and subordinating all 
side branches, and laterals to one 
straight stem. Shade trees when 
lirst planted in permanent positions 
should be clear of side brunches from 
the base, »up to, say about six feet, 
but the preparation for this should 
be a gradual process. It is well 
known that the growth of side 
branches give strength to the main 
stem, and the best results are at- 
tained when these are partially re- 
moved in the nursery row, and wholly 
removed to about the six feet limit 
when the tree is permanently planted. 

Leaving all the side branches en- 
tirely unpruned in the nursery, and 
suddenly removing theroi to the neces 
sary limits, when the tree is planted, 
we think is a mistake. 

In the rush of tree planting, nine- 
tenths of which is usually done in 
spring, notwithstanding the wisdom 
and much better way of doincr it early 
in the fall, the pruning and smooth 
dressing of all bruised and lacerated 
roots, and the cutting back of 
long straggling oues, proportionately 
should never under any' circumstances 
be neglected. 

Of late years I have come to the 
conclusion, that in the pruning of 
healthy, well - balanced hard - wood 
trees, when they are planted, their 
leaders should be left uncut, but the 
side branches should be well cut back. 
They begin root action more rapidly, 
and start into vigorous growth more 
freely, if the side branches are severe- 
ly pruned. 

I have come across some horti- 
culturists of late years, who have 
reasoned with me, that, if trees are 
perfectly dormant, when they are 
transplanted, pruning is unnecessary. 
1 have no hesitation in saving that 
theory, observation and practice are 
opposed to this, and I have seen 
much poor success, and a good many 
failures due to this neglect. 



When trees start froia a good 
foundation, a little occasional prun- 
ing, to remove any congested, or. 
decrepit branches, and to regulate 
symmetry of the lower limbs extend, 
it is best to cut them close to the 
trunk, as the trimming of the pendent 
twigs is only a temporary relief. 

Some trees usually produce dense 
heads of overcrowded branches, and 
this congestion causes some of the 
limbs to decay. Such trees can be 
benefited by a little thinning, but the 
branches should be cut close to the 
trunk. To cut them partially back 
only aggravates the evil of density. 
It is trite advice to give to any one 
who has any understanding of the 
leading principles of prun'ng, that in 
the cutting back, ana removal of all 
branches wherever necessary, scrupu- 
lous attention should be paid towards 
cutting close to " joints " or to the 
trunk, and covering all wounds of anv 
considerable extent, with coal tar, to 
exclude rot and fungoid deseases. 

The practice quite frequently seen 
of removing the tops of street trees 
or " heading back " for no reason 
whatever, when they are otherwise 
healthy, is a form of barbaric 
butchery that cannot be too strongly 
condemned. How the " professional 
tree trimmer " can induce some intel 
ligent people to have their trees 
treated in this way, passes compre- 
hension. Thousands of trees are to- 
day dying slow deaths from (his 
cause. 

There are conditions in the lives of 
some full-grown trees \\h j n the heroic 
treatment of pollarding may be re- 
sorted to intelligently, but it is a 
dangerous practice. 

<•> 

Garden Paths. 

One of the most important 
points in the laying out of new 
grounds is the making of the paths 
and walks. These have tried the 
patience of a great many genera- 
tions of gardeners, for weeds will 
grow on them, disfiguring their 
surfaces and stores and. rocks will 
work up, making them rough and 
uneven. One good plan is to dig 
out the soil of the path to a 



WATCHMAKERS, JEWELLERS and 
OPTICIANS. 

J. TROWBRIDGE 

(15 years with Stevenson Bros.) 
57 GOUGER STREET, ADELAIDE. 

Engagement and Wedding Rings are 
made to order. Buy from the maker. 

A splendid assortment of WATCHES 
CLOCKS, JEWELLERY, & OPTICAL 
GOODS. All Lenses ground by expert 
workmen. Every article of the latest 
design, suitable for presents. 

Repairs a Speciality aod Guaran- 
teed. A Trial Solicited. 



FURNITURE! 

Why pay high prices ? 

Buy from those who make it and sell 
from workshop to public direct. 

RENOVATIONS A SPECIALITY. 
Write, call, or 'phone— Central, 2403, ; 
Furniture Manufacturers. 

Borthwick Reiri & Harper, 

PIRIE ST. ADELAIDE. (next to 
" Army " Citadel.) 



depth of 5 to 6 in., but if the 
stones to form the foundation are 
rather large it will be found ne- 
cessary to dig it deeper. Care 
must be taken as you advance to 
the top that smaller and closer 
fitting materials are used. 

It is important that materials 
disliked by the earth worm be used, 
such as rubble and, broken mortar, 
stones, and brick-bats, clinkers, or 
rough cinders ; rough gravel will 
follow next, and then a covering 
of sand, and the whole made firm 
by rolling well with the garden 
roller. 

I have seen a good path made 
bv filling in the excavation with 
2 or 3 in. of rough stones like 
road metal. This was covered 
with coarse sand, so as to amply 
hide all the stones, and after the 
surface had been well rolled and 
made smooth an inch or two of 
white sea shells was placed on 
top. This made a most pleasant 
walk. 

The shells soon got broken, and 
after rain or. even while it is rain- 
ing they are in better order than 
at anv other time. The weeds, 
too, arc more easily removed than 
from the surface of a hard-setting 
gravel path. 

Concrete paths arc preferred by i 
some. These are prepared in the* 
following way : — Dig out 4in. audi 



Fruit Trees, Roses, Vines, &c 

INSPECTION INVITED. 
Largest Stock in this State. All grown on new ground, being healthy 
and free from insect Pests. 
CATALOGUES FREE BY POST. 'Phone— Henley Beach, 36. 



TT W HOP AS Findon Nursery, 

XX. VV . ^^AO, LOCKLEYS, S.A- 



June. 1912 



9 



fill in with rough stones or gravel 
to a depth of 3in., water and roll 
well, then place I or 2in. of con- 
crete oo the top ; this must be 
well rolled also, and given a good 
watering-. Next a thin covering of 
fine sand or finelv-sifted gravel 
should be spread over and the 
roller again put over it until the 
gravel forms part of it, as it 
were. And when the whole is drv 
a pick would hardly break the 
surface. The concrete is made bv 
mixing coarse gravel and sand an,i 
lime in the proportions of five to 
one. 

— Asphalt Paths. — 

Some prefer these. The follow- 
ing is the method of forming 
them : — The materials are stone 
screenings and gas tar. The 
screenings should have as little 
dust as possible. Get them as dry 
as possible. Fine weather musjt 
be chosen for mixing. The tar is 
to be mixed with the gravel or 
screenings in sufficient quantitv to 
give each stone a little, but no 
more ; and this can only be done 
by well mixing and turning it 
over, and doing onlv a small 
quantitv at a time. , Before spread- 
ing this, the foundation of the .path 
should be well rolled or rammed, 
to give the asphalt a solid bed. 
Then spread the mixture of gravel 
and tar to a depth or 2 or 3m. 
- Give a good , rolling and a sprinkle 
of some fine sand. It would be 
better if it were rolled occasional- 
ly until set. 

<$> 

Removing Large Trees. 

It would certainly be a wonder- 
ful convenience if large trees could 
be removed from place to place 
with as much ease and certain tv as 
ordinary seedlings, so that the 
gardener would not have to wait 
as long as is at present the case 
before getting useful trees for 
shade and ornament. Some trees 
even of good size, can be moved 
with some certaintv of success ; 
willows, for instance, arc rather 
accommodating, and naturally de- 
ciduous trees are more likely sub- 
r jects than evergreens. Speaking 
generally, however, the moving of 
large trees is a matter requiring 
F considerable ingenuity and some 
[ expenditure of cash. We remember 
; reading of a Scotch nobleman who 
had an avenue a mile long and 
[ over a hundred vears old moved 
► from one part of the estate to 
another and are still trying to 
believe it. The ordinary indivi- 
L dual will find that it is not easy 
to remove a tree satisfactorily 



which is more than three inches 
in diameter in the trunk. Trees 
up to six inches in diameter can 
be removed but great care is ne- 
cessary in order to be successful. 
Trees of this size have a large 
root area, probably covering a 
space 30 to 40 feet in diameter, 
and it is impossible to lift such 
trees without cutting off a large 
portion of their roots. The roots 
of a tree this size, for a diameter 
of eight feet at least, should be 
left as intact as possible, in lift- 
ing. To do this, the tree should 
first be dug around in a circle from 
four to four, and a half feet from 
the trunk, to a depth of about 
two feet. The top soil can be re- 
moved down to the mass of fibres, 
and the ground cut away under 
the tree, until all roots 'are 
severed. 

There are several mechanical me- 
thods by which the tree can then 
be lifted. The most simple is, we 
believe, to dig a roadway down to 
level of the lower roots. Back the 
fore carriage of a waggon with 
the reach pole attached against 
the tree, lift the pole erect against 
the tree and tie securely. The tree 
is then brought down horizontally 
bv pulling on the top of the pole. 
The tree in this way is lifted from 
the ground a nd hauled to wherever 
wanted, and lowered into place by 
the same method. It is advisable 
to tie the branches of the tree 
into a compact shape, in order 
that thev may not be injured 
much. 

No matter what care is exer- 
cised, the check to the tree in 
transplanting is great. It should 
be done before the buds have 
started in the spring, and no more 
roots than absolutely necessary 
should be disturbed. The top of 
the tree moved should be lessened 
verv considerably by pruning, to 
correspond in part with the loss 
of roots. Do not go to extremes 
in this, however, and spoil the 
natural shape of the tree. Some 
cut off a large part of the top, 
rendering the tree unsightly. Pre- 
serve the natural shape of the 
tree always as far as it is pos- 
sible to do so 



The Polyanthus. 

Now is a good time to put in 
the seed of these popular plants. 
Thet are very hardy and adapt 
themselves to almost any position 
or soil, but prefer the following 
compost to grow in : — Two parts 
of a good garden loam, half a 
part of very old and well-rotted 
cow manure, and half a part of 
leaf mould, with a little sand 
added. 

Thev are propagated by seed and 
by division of the root. 

Sow the seed thinly in a box 
or seed pan and cover lightly. 
When the seedlings have formed 
their second leaves, prick them 
out into a prepared border, 6in. 
apart, keeping them well watered 
in dry weather. The only care 
they require is to keep them clear 
of weeds and slugs. It may in. 
terest some to know the charac- 
teristics of a good polyanthus. 
The foliage should be large and 
abundant, and the stem of the 
liower strong and stout enough to 
bold the truss well above the 
leaves. The truss should consist 
of at least five flowers, and the 
footstalks of each flower be able 
to support each bloom level with 
the rest. Each pip should be 
round and flat, neither inclined to 
cup nor reflex. Thei pips, that is, 
the flowerets, should be divided 
near the outermost edge into seg- 
ments, each segment should be 
slightly indented in the centre. 
Each flower should have a yellow 
centre or eye. This yellow cen- 
tre, including the tube containing 
theanthers, should be of the same 
width as the " ground " or body 
color, which color should be a 
rich, dark crimson or a bright red. 
Round this body color the mar- 
gin or lacing should appear of a 
uniform width, surrounding each 
petal, and continuing down the 
centre of each to the yellow eye. 
The color of this margin or lacing 
should be uniform, whether it is 
sulphur, lemon color, or clear 
yellow. 



HAMBURG HOTEL 

RUNDLE STREET, ADELAIDE. 

HAS SIXTEEN ADDITIONAL BEDROOMS, 

Electric Light Throughout. 
Hot and Cold Baths. 'Phone 1130. 

J. FLANNAGAN . . . Proprietor. 



10 



THE GARDEN AND FIELD. 



June, 1912. 



Fruit Notes for Amateurs 
for June. 



The nurserj men are busy, for most 
people want trees auout ten minutes 
after they have decided lo order them, 
and the farther they are away from 
ihe nurserymen ihe quicker they waul 
the trees, 'they don't get them, so no 
great harm is done. 

With June people who are not in a 
hurry should really decme what they 
want, rnaKe out the order, select, a 
nurseryman trom among those woo 
snow themselves alive by advertising 
in these pages, and send him the order 
so that he will have time to excute it 
with justice to himseii and you. 

The perennial question crops up 
nearly every day at this season of tho 
year : 

" What size should the holes be dug 
for trees '?" 

My reply is, it defends on the size 
of the roots of your tree. Dig them 
large enough to put in the trees with- 
out Dendrng the roots. 

"Oh, but 1 don't mean that. 1 mean 
how wide and deep should the holes 
be. dug Derore idling in T' 

The reply is that 1 do not think 
that the practice oi digging holes two 
by two feet or three by three feet for 
lruit-trees is the best. 1 think, it much 
better to have the whole area oi the 
garden ploughed and sui,so.led or 
douole dug, and then in planting 
make holes just large enough to take 
the roots oi the tree. If one cannot 
have the whole area thus treated, do 
a plot four or live feet in diameter 
where the tree is to be planted, keep- 
ing the top sod on top or mixing it 
altogether. Then, as time permits, 
treat the rest of the ground the same 
way. in planting a trellis of trees 
double dig a strip six feet wide along 
the line oi the trellis. The sam/e 
should apply to the planting of vines 
in the home garden, it is really sur- 
prising how well fruit-trees and vines 
often thrive in Australia in unprepar- 
ed soil; but all the same, it pays to 
prepare the ground well. 

In planting an orchard I would 
strongly recommend that the whole 
area be subsoiled except .on open 
sandy soil. 

Another question often asked is : 
.Should 1 manure my trees when plant- 
ing ? 

This depends on the conditions. 
Where the soil is \ rich, one should cer- 
tainly not give manure, for the diili- 
culty with young trees under such con- 
ditions is to keep therm back and get 
them to settle into the fruiting habit. 
In the case of poor land manure is 
advisable, but not in close contact 
with the roots. A handful, or say £ 
lb. of super and half that of sulphate 
of potash and a'sprinkling of sulphate 
of ammonia well mixed with the soil 
will help the tree wonderfully in be 
coming established. Then manure can 
be given to the remaining ground year 
by year as the trees grow. In the 



home garden to mix old manure and 
ashes with the soil is good, and when 
the trees are growing give well. diluted 
bedroom slops now and then. 

Pruning and planting are the order 
of the day during this and next 
month. Clear away all primings as 
soon as possible and burn them, 
because they are harbors for the 
spores of lungi and the egigs of insects. 
After old trees have been pruned give 
them a good spiaymg with either 
lime sulphur and salt, or spray with 
potash and lish oil. Take 1 lb. pot- 
ash lye, li pints lish oil, and 3 giallolis 
soft water. Dissolve the lye in water 
by boiling ; add the od and boil two 
hours. This will make a potash soft- 
soap. For use use 1 lb. of soap to 
(i gallons of water. A potash soft- 
soap such as Burford's will do as well 
and will destroy eggs of insects, 
lichens, and moss, and clean and 
soften the bark of old trees. Mark 
old trees intended to be reworked, 
but dcj not cut them until the sap is 
rising. Prune vines and cut any 
cuttings required for planting, and 
heel them in until August. When 
pruning trees save any wood which 1 
may be wanted for grafting or to 
give to friends, and heel it in under 
the tree. In -any sppre time tie them 
with zinc labels, and bury in sand or 
earth in a cool, shady place to keep 
till wanted. Pfut in cuttings of; goose- 
berries and red, black, and white 
currants • shorten raspberry canes, 
cut out dead wood, and make new 
beds of suckers where required. Di|g 
in superphosphate and potash round 
old fruit trees where needed, using 
from three to ten pounds of the 
super, and one to four of potash to the 
tree, according to the size and need 
for reinvigoratinig. Dig in stable ma- 
nure and 2 lb. super to the rod 
round currants, strawberries, goose - 
berries, and raspberries. At the end 
of the month begin to make root 
grafts for blight-proof stocks. 



Just now gardens generally are 
receiving the annual overhauling, 
and beds axe being prepared for 
the receiving of plants and seeds. 
Then comes the pleasure of mak- 
ing a selection of the many beau- 
tiful seeds, flowers, shrubs, etc., 
for the forthcoming season. There 
are so many nurseries and other 
persons catering for the require- 
ments of the horticulturist that it 
is often a puzzle for one to know 
where to make the best purchase. 
It is imperative to obtain first 
class results to secure the neces- 
saries appertaining to the garden 
from a most reliable source, and 
with this end in view we have 
pleasure in recommending to our 
many readers) the old and well- 
known name of Mr. Lasscock, , who 
has for many vears been one of 
the foremost producers of real 
good and genuine seeds and plants. 
W hen he commenced business as a 
nurseryman many of his present- 



day customers gave him a trial 
order, and so satisfied were they 
that thev have no desire whatever 
to make a change ; this in itself 
being sufficient to satisfy the most 
sceptical as to the quality of the 
goods supplied by Mr. Lasscock. 
Flower seedlings (assorted) are 
sold in lots of loo for 2/- ; post- 
age being extra (6d.), whilst Pe- 
tunia Grandifiora arc available ior 
a 1/- per dozen. Ferns are made 
a speciality, which are also pro- 
curable at very reasonable rates. 
Mr. Lasscock invites promoters 
of bazaars and fetes to commu- 
nicate with him when desiring a 
Supply of flowers, etc., for decora- 
tive purposes ; the prices for this 
class being at wholesale rates. 
Catalogues, it may be mentioned, 
are procurable for the asking. M r . 
Lasscock's telephone number is 
34, Henley Beach. 



FORMALIN 




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DISINFECTANT 
ANTISEPTIC 
DEODORANT, 



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for household use 



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as a preventive to contagion 
from infectious diseases. In- 
valuable for use with telephones. 



The Adelaide Chemical 
and Fert. Co., Ltd., 

CURRIE STREET. 



y y y / / y 



June, 1912 



THE GARDEN AND FIELD. 



11 



® Selected Fruits ® 



The selection of suitable varieties of 
ruits is a matter of some importance 

0 the amateur who as a rules is more 
:oncerned about getting the very oest 
(Uahty than heavy crops of perhaps 
nferior fruit ; he also, as a rule, 
sishes to secure a succession of fruits 
through the season. We have at 
various times published lists likely to 
W useful to such growers, supplied by 
Hr.Wicks and others. This year we 
publish two very complete collections, 
lor which we are indebted lo the 
dndness of Messrs. Wicks and Xobelius. 
Lhey have been prepared with special 
reference to the requirements of the 
grower of fruit for home use ; and 
will, no doubt, be appreciated by 
many ai our readers. 

MR. WICK'S LIST. 

— Grape Vines. — 
Cornelian, Koyal Muscadine, Sweet- 
water, Crystal, Pedro Ximines, Black 
Hamburgh, Black Prince, Madres- 
field Court, Muscat Gordo, Muscat 
Hamburgh, Muscat Woods Red, Gros 
Colmar, Black Alicante, Red Malaga, 
Frontignac, Lady's Finger, Waltham 
Cross, Black Malaga, Royal Ascot, 
Sultana. 

— Six Dessert Apples. — 
Beauty of Bath, Williams Favourite, 

[Gravenstein, Jonathan, Cleopatra, 
King David, or Rome Beauty. 

— Six Kitchen Apples. — 

, Lord Suffield, Twenty ounce, Em- 
peror Alexander, Prince Bismarck, 
Rokewood, stone Pippin. 

— Eight Pears. — 
Wilder, Clapps Favourite, Wil- 

lliams Bon Chretien, Beurre 'Bosc, 
telou Morceau, Latiers Seedling, Jose- 
phine de Malines, Harrintrtous Vic- 
toria, (Late Stewing). 

— Three Quinces. — 

Pine Apple, Mammoth, Smyrna, * 
— Three Loquats. — 

Early Oval, Herds Mammoth. Chats 

1 worth Victory. 

— Six Plums. — 

Early Rivers, Early New Orleans, 
Washington Gage, Giant, Grand Duke. 
1 Jefferson. 



— Six Japanese Plums. — 
Climax, Burbank, Santa Rosa, Wick- 
son, Kelsey, October Purple. 

— Twenty Peaches. — 
Sneed, Highs 'Early Canada, Llatis 
Truniph, Hales Early, i'eregnne, Car- 
men or Wiggins, Ruby Red, Louis 
Grognet, Mountain Rose, Royal 
George, Early Crawford, Belle of 
Georgia, Elbert a, Red Shanghai, Kal- 
amazoo, Finlayson's Seedling, Lady 
Palmerston, Usprey Improved, Sal- 
way Improved, Late Red Italian 
Cling. 

— Eight Cherries. 
Early Purple Guigne, Early Twy- 
tord, Knights Early Black, Early 
Lyons, Burcrdorfis Seedling Biggaieau 
Napoleon, Black Tartarian, St. Mar- 
garet. 

— Seven Apricots. — 

Newcastle Early, Oullins Early. 
Riverside, Royal, Telton, Moorpark 
Robins Imperial. 



MR. XOBELIUS' LIST. 
The following varieties of the more 
commonly grown fruits have been re- 
commended to us, at our request, by 
Mr. C. A. Xobelius, of the Gembrook 
Nurseries, as being specially desirable 
for home use. The descriptions are 
taken from his 1912 catalogue. 

— Peaches. — 

Sneed. — The earliest peach known ; 
is said to ripen two weeks before 
" Briggs' Red May." It is a seed- 
ling from ' Chinese Cling"; fruit me- 
dium size, somewhat oval in shape ; 
colour creamy white, with rich red 
blush on sunny side, ripens evenly to 
the pit, and is of line quality ; very 
early. 

Triumph. — The earliest yellow peach 
known, just after "Sneed" and with 
''Alexander." This variety is much 
esteemed in United States, where it 
is well known. 

High's Early Canada. — A very early 
peach of greatest excellence, rip< n 
same time as "Brigg's Red May," 
but a better betarer. 

Hale's Early. — A really, first - class 
peach in eveej way, and always bring 
the top price in the market. 



Royal, George. — Large, handsome, 
rich, mid-season, clingstone. 

Kia Ora. — A seedling from "Elber- 
ta," identical in size and general ap- 
pearance of the fruits with that 
most esteemed of all yellow - fleshed 
peaches, but of superior flavour ; a 
much better cropper and hardier tree. 

Shipley's Red. — This is one of the 
mosA beautiful oi peaches, 6and very 
popular where known. The fruit is of 
large size and fine appearance, flesh 
white, with beautiful flush, tree vig- 
orous and very productive ; late. 

Peregrine. — A distinct mid-season 
variety, distinguished by its good 
constitution and productiveness. The 
fruits, are large and handsome, with 
a brilliant skin ; the flesh rich, nighly 
tlavoured, and parting readily from 
the stone. Raised by Mr. Rivers. 

Champion (Waikato.)' — A very late 
seedling variety, hardy and produc- 
tive, fruit very large, yellow fleshed. 

Surecrop. — As the name denotes, a 
sure and abundant cropper; ripe about 
middle of January ; fruit large and 
handsome ; flesh white, melting, and 
juicy ; tree a vigorous grower and 
extremely hardy. 

Foliar 's Cling.— This very fine can- 
ning peach was raised by Mr. P. Pul- 
lar, of Ardmona. It is a very large, 
highly coloured clingstone peach, and 
preferred by the canning factories 
above all other sorts ; it is a good 
grower and heavy bearer. 

APRICOTS. 

Sardinian. — A very early small apri- 
cot of good flavour, strong grower 
and a heavy bearer. 

QnUm'a Early Improved. — A very 
fine early apricot, said to be an im- 
provement on "Ouillin's Early Peach" 
apricot. 

Shipley. — Deep yellow, ail early 
productive variety. 

Alsace. — Large, pale orange, rich and 
eood •; medium. 

Hemskirke. — Bright orange, tender, 
rich and juicy, and excellent bearer ; 
medium. 

Mansfield Seedling. — Very large one 
of the finest grown ; late. 

NECTARINES. 
Irrewarra. — Medium or above medi- 

( Continued to page 14). 



H. wicks 9 Riverside & Balhannah Nurseries 

FRUIT TREES All the Leading Varieties, Hardy and Well-Rooted. 

GRAPE VINES; NEW APPLE (Glengyle Red); BURBANK'S NEW PLUMS • APPLES in 70 varieties; large 
, Stock PEARS. SPECIAL QUOTATIONS FOR QUANTITIES. VERY LARGE STOCK BEST PEACHES 
AND NECTARINES. 40 ACRES NURSERY STOCK. CATALOGUES POST FREE. 



H. WICKS, RIVERSIDE AND BALHANNAH NURSERIES. 



Postal Address : PAYNEHAM, SOUTH AUSTRALIA 



1-J 



June, 1912 



r 



To Keep Your Orchard 



Free from Pests 



m 



STOP ! ! ! 
LOOK!! 
LISTEN ! 



jg=r 



USE 



Crude 



Petroleum 



THE MOST EFFECTIVE 
SPRAYING OIL KNOWN 

For 

MUSSEL SCALE, WOOLLY 
APHIS, ETC., ETC 

Packed in barrels containing 12 gallons 
and in 8 -gallon and 4 gallon Drums. 

COSTS ONLY ONE THIRD OF ANY 
OTHER SPRAYING OIL. 

Healthy Trees and Clean Fruit are the 
results of spraying with Crude Petroleum 



The 

British. 



t i 



SHELL" SPIRIT 



for Motors 

It is tKe Most Economical, therefore it 

is Cheapest. 



Imperial Oil Co. Ltd. 

Union Bank Chambers, Kins William 
Street, Adelaide. 

AND THROUGHOUT AUSTRALASIA. 



June, 1912 



THE GARDEN AND FIELD. 



13 



General Principels of 
Manuring as Applied to the 
Fruit Trees. 



It should be well known to aD 
fruit growers and farmers that the 
elements which become deficient in 
the soil through long cultivation 
and the removal of crops, be they 
in the form of fruit, grain, or fod- 
der, are nitrogen, potassium, and 
phosphorous. 

N'itrogen must be in the form 
of nitrate before plants can take 
it as a food. Potassium must 
be changed into a soluble sub- 
stance, Phosphorous is generally 
found with lime, as it exists in 
bones and phosphatic rocks which 
can be made soluble by sulphuric 
acid, and giving us the soluble 
superphosphate of lime, which is 
available to plant life. Besides 
these three, magnesium, calcium, 
(generally known as lime), iron, 
and sulphur are necessary for the 
proper growth of all plants, but 
as thev* are onlv required in very 
small Quantities, the soil contains 
sufficient, and it is not necessary 
to add anv of these, with perhaps 
the exception of lime where fruit 
trees are grown. 

The conservative fruit - grower 
persist in pinning their faith to 
farmyard manure, and, although 
'the greatest care has been bestow- 
)ed on the pruning and tilling of 
the land, the trees take a rest for 
fa year now and then, and give no 
yield at all. 

t Now-a-days, however, not even 
pruit trees may be allowed to rest, 



and it one can j^ct an increase of 
crop, better quality, stronger trees 
by a comparatively small outlay, 
the chance of forging ahead in 
spite of competition is assured. 

That yields can be gradually, 
permanently, and profitably in- 
creased by the use of properly-bal- 
anced manures, has now been suf- 
ficiently demonstrated by experi- 
ments and in practice. Unfortun- 
ately, very few if- any, exact ex- 
periements have been carried out 
with fruit trees in Australia, but 
so carefully have these been car- 
ried out in Germany that the re- 
sults achieved there should be a 
useful guide to fruitgrowers here, 
and also convince them that the 
judicious use of commercial fertil- 
isers will be a profitable one. 

— Quantity Required. — 
On the average the various kinds 
of fruits require : — 

Potash, v 100-150 lb. to acre. 
Xitrogen, 50-75 lb. 
Phosphoric acid, 40-50 lb. 
Lime up to 200 11). 

According to the soil in which 
the trees are growing. 

Although lime is required in the 
largest proportion, the majority 
of soils contain sufficient. We 
know that very heavy clay soils 
benefit by the addition of lime in 
a caustic state. 

The nitrogen can be applied in 
the form of expensive nitrates, 
but the best way to obtain nitro- 
gen in the soil, and the least ex- 
pensive is by the use of those 
plants to which nature has given 



T. EI. ElEIEIS 

191 GRENFELL STREET 
(opp. New Market). 
Trolly, Dray, and Buggy Builder, 
Wheelwright and General Smith. 
Tyring done daily. Horses Shod. 

A TRIAL SOLICITED. 



the power of taking the nitrogen 
from the air, and, when fixed, the 
plants must be ploughed under. 
This is the method known as green 
manuring, and about which pages 
can be written. 

— Potash. — 

Potash, the most necessary, has 
been the most neglected of all 
manures ; no matter how rich the 
soil, its application is a very pro- 
fitable one. Until lately this 
plant food was not considered in 
the same light as nitrogen and 
phosphates, but now it is a fact 
that no commercial fertiliser is 
complete without a good percent- 
age of potash. 

Potash plays an important part 
in every respect, including the 
growth of wood and foliage, the 
formation of blossom and fruit, 
and especially in regard to size, 
colour, taste, and aroma of the 
latter. 

Potash, in Australia, is con- 
sidered to exist in sufficient quan- 
tities in the soil, as the majority 
of the soils are of a clay texture, 
but this is a fallacy, as every 
time potash has been used in the 
composition of the fertiliser the 
results have been so much better 
that even in the richest clay soils 
there has often been found too 
little available potash for the im- 
mediate requirements of the crops. 

As sources of potash in nature 
the most noteworthy and world- 
renowned are the Stassfurt Pot - 
ash Mines in Germany. They are 
now the great source of the 
world's supply. The deposits ex- 
tend over great areas, and are 
practically inexhaustible. 

The manures which contain pot- 
ash are known under the names 
of kainit 12% per cent., muriate 
of potash 60 per cent., and sul- 
phate of potash 52 per cent, pure 
potash. For saflidy soils the kain- 
it is much used, for heavier soils 
the others are preferred. 

The other plant food, phosphoric 
acid, is applied as bone dust, sup- 
perphosphate, basic slag, or rock 
phospate. It plays an important 
part in fruit culture, and in the 
presence of potash aids in the pro- 
duction of early and abundant 
fruit. It helps the flowers to set 
well. 



FRUIT TREES. 

By far the Largest Stock in Australia. 
200 Acres— Clean, Healthy, Well-Grown, and Free from Insect Pests. 



Inspection Invited. 

CATALOGUES FREE BY POST. 

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Emerald (Vic), Australia. 



14 



THE GARDEN AND FIELD. 



(Continued from page 11). 

um size, highly coloured, ol pood 
flavour, a freestone, and very early. 

Early Rivers. — Fruit of largest s ; 
skin rich crimsota on side nearest sun. 
light yellow, marked with red on the 
shaded side ; llesKC> is tender, juicy, 
ami very rich, with a decided "Stan 
wick" flavour ; very early. 

Hunt's Tawny. — Pale orange and 
deep red, rich and juicy; early. 

Lees Seedling. — This magnificent 
nectarine was raised fay Mr. Lees, of 
Reenak. from a Peach some 2(1 years 
ago, and is still bearing ''beautiful 
fruit ; the sample brought to us mea- 
sured 9 ins. in circumference. It is of 
beautiful colour, and flavour all that 
could he desired. Doing so well at 
Reenak, being a cool district, it 
should be very hardy. We have no 
hesitation in saying that this is the 
best nectarine we have seen, and 
should become a great favourite with 
planters. 

Goldmine. — This nectarine originated 
in the garden of Mr. Lundon, of Par- 
nell. N.Z. The fruit is of an enor- 
mous size. Tt is a perfect freestone, 
the pit or stone being extremely small 
for so large a fruit. The flesh is a 
beautiful cream colour, tender, juicy, 
melting, and sugary, and of most 
delicious flavour ; colour bright 
bronzy red ; season of ripening;, last 
week of February. 

PLUMS. 

Rhie Pock. — Raised by Mr. Rivers, 
England. Large and very rich : one 
of the very best early dessert plums. 

Agelina Burdett. — Juicy, rich, and 
highly flavoured, early. 

Sugar Prune, — This new prune is de- 
scribed as far superior to the "French 
Prune"; tree in every respect a better 
grower, and will carry and mature a 
larger crop of fruit. The 1 fruit is 
even in size and very large, averag- 
ing 13 to 15 to the pound. This vari- 
ety is being- planted in California hv 
the thousand — a sufficient guarantee of 
its value. 



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Grand Duke. — Very large purple, 
richly flavoured, very productive; con- 
sidered the l*est late plum grown. 

Monarch. — Fruit very lanjre; round - 
ish oval ; dark purplish blue » free- 
stone; of excellent auglity. Tree ro- 
liust, and abundant beater, trees three 
^ears from the graft bearing |arp>* 
crops of fine plums. A most valuable 
late mnrket plum. 

Greengage. — A well known and valu- 
able plum, very distinct. 

Coe's Golden Drop.— A splendid var- 
iety, large yellow: medium. 

Jefferson. — Large golden yellow, ju- 
icy and highly flavoured, one of the 
best ; medium. 

Diamond. — Very dark large DUrple, 
with a blue bloom, sweet and rich. 
"•(> •stone, an abundant bearer- ' 
first-class certificate Royal Horticul- 
tural Society, England. 

Emerald. — This plum originated here 
and is evidently a seedling of "Yellow 
Magnum Bonum." which it resembles, 
lvut is a much freer grower and heavy 
regular bearer. Tt is on 1 of the very 
b "st for iam or canning, much supe 
rior to its sup' os d parent - late. 

JAPANESE PLUMS. 

She.rp's Early. — This varic*-- which 
originated with Mr. John Sharp, of 
Cambridge, N.Z., is undoubtedly th° 
best early and most profitable Japan- 
ese plum in cultivation. Of lar<re size 
and splendid app°arance. and of deli- 
cious flavour : the flesh is firm, v'ei 
iuioy. without bitterness at stone. 
The tree is hardy and an upri^M. 
symmetrical grower, and most prolific 
and regnlar cropper. 

Barbank. — Large size, nearly globu- 
lar in shane : colour clear cherry red. 
with a thin lilac bloom • flesh deep 
yellow, verv sweet, with a peculiar 
and agreeable flavour : strong grower 
and a most wonderful bearer. 

October Purple — Another of Mr. 
Rurbank's seedlings. It is a verv 
large, purple, heart-shaped nlum, with 
no splashes of lighter colour : flesh 
amber vellow, red beneath the skin 
very juicy, but yet firm, sweet and of 
most delicious : clingstone. 

Santa Rosa — Very large, purplish 
crimson, of first rniality for dessert. 
This is by far the best blood plum 
ever introduced. Strong grower, good 
habit, and regular bearer. 

Wickson— The fruit from the/ time it 
is half-grown until a few days before 
ripening is of a pearlv white colour, 
but all at once a soft pink shading 
creeps over it, and in a few days it 
has changed to a heavy whitd bloom • 
the stone is verv small and the flesh 
is of a fine texture, firm sugary, and 
delicious : one of the best. 

Combination — Raised by Luther 
Rurbank,, who describes it as a 
Japanese plum. The trees are un- 
usually hardy : the bark, leaves, and 
fruit are all unicjue ; early, reo-ular, 
and abundant hearer of large, hand- 
some, globular fruit of uniform size ■ 
flesh straw colour, extremelv sweet, 
with a pronounced pineapple flavour j 
stone small, 



PEARS. 

.Jargonelle — A wellknown early pear. 

Clapp's Favourite — An American pear 
of highest excellence, ripens just 
before " Williams' Ron Chretien ;" 
early. 

Williams' Ron Chretien (Duchess)— 
Large, buttery, and melting ; one of 
the lin"st summer pears grown ra""l 

Conference— Fruit large pyriform : 
skin dark green nnd russet ; flesh 
salmon-coloured, melting, juicy, and 
rich ; tree robust and hardy, makin r 
a strong healthy growth. Very 
nrolific and a valuable market sort. 

Mount Vernon — Large, nearly globu- 
lar ; colour rich cimnamon russet ; 
flesh juicy, melting, with a spicy 
vinous flavour which is peculiar and 
distinct from that of any oH'her known 
sort ; tree is a vigorous grower, and 
Conies into hearing early; late. 

Beurre Rose; — A large dessert pear 
of first-rate quality ; medium. 

Paekham's Triumph — Raised by Mr. 
Paokham, of Molong, N.S.W. This 
is the finest near T ever saw. It is 
of beautiful T'-<r?« sha"e. and of the 
most perfect flavour, a good grower, 
early and prolific bearer ; ripe in 
April. Has received first prize every 
time it has been exhibited. 

Bountiful— Fine flavour, rich, melt- 
ing, and aromp.tic ; immense cropper, 
fruit large ; autumn. 

Josephine des Malines — A most 
delicious pear, also one of tin long- 
est keeping sorts ; late. 

Bezi Mai — Large size and delicious 
flavour, a heavy and regular hearer, 
commencing to bear the th'rd and 
fourth year, i'ncre»s'n~ raridly in 
ouantity of crop; strongly recommend- 
ed for home and market use ; late. 

Winter Cole — Melting, juicv, rich, 
and of exquisite flavour ; a first-class 
pear ; late. 

Packhfim's Late — Another variety 
from Mr. Pack-ham, who speaks in 

growing terms of this, his latest pro- 
duction. Fruit fairly large'; heavy 



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THE GARDEN AND FIELD. 15 

Vegetable Garden. 



June, 1912 



cropper, anrl promises to rival 
Triumph. 

— Dessert Apples. — 

Irish Peach — Good lieaivr and does 
not blight ; early. 

Gravenstein — A splendid apple, good 
flavour and colour ; early. 

Kins David—" King David " is a 
rich dark red apple with yellp»vish 
flesh : flavour good, juicy and rich, 
indeed the quality is of the very best. 
The anple is supposed to be a cross 
between Jonathan and Arkansas 
Rlack, and adds the quality of the 
former to the fine apoearance of the 
latter. The King David apple has 
been exhibited at a number of horti 
cultural meetingB, and several years 
ago was awarded the premium by the 
Illinois ^tate Horticultural 1 Societv 
for the best new apple. Tree is hardy 
and vigorous. This apple has now 
fruited, and is fully up to expecta- 
tion. 

Foster — This beautiful apple was 
raised by Mr. W. N. Foster, of 
Neerim South. It is of a most beauti 
ful colour, and of very fine flavour. 
Coming into use. in February it will 
fi'l up a gaD in the market between 
the very early apnles and " Jooa- 
than," when good dessert apples are 
scarce. We feel sure it will sell before 
anv other apnle at that season, and 
will keep, if necessary, to middle of 
April. So far, the parent trees have 
not been affected with the woolly 
aphis : it is a free grower and heavy 
bearer. This will, no doubt, becomie 
one of our very best early export 
apples. 

Fn<dp.nd's Glory (" Gascoigne Scar- 
let ") — A verv handsome, red-ch°eked 
apo'e from Kent, free grower and a 
ereat bearer ; a first-class dessert 
apple. 

Senator— A new apole of superior 
merit. For rare beauty ami singu- 
larly fine quality, the choice of everv- 
one. The (Treat show aoole at the 
World's Fair. Just the right size to 
attract hnvers. Tree a vigorous 
iPTower and rejgular bearer : flesh 
yellowish white and of exq.uisite 
quality. 

Delicious — A strong grower, hardv 
and most prolific bearer, fine colour, 
'ike " Jonathan." and most exquisite 
'flavour, One of the best life keeping 
apples. - , 

Pomme de Veige — Flesh white, n 
! fine market apple ; medium. 

•Tohn Sharp — A seedling from 
" Primmp de Nek'e," anrl is perhaps 
the best of Mr. IT. F. Sham's seed 
lin«s : perfectly blieht -proof . enormous. 
Jfv profluctive. large size, most hand- 
Home appearance ; good in sbaoe and 
colour, and keeps over a lone season. 
The hardiest and best apple of it - 
season. 

; f'leonatra — The best known apple, 
floes be«t in dry localities. 



— Planting Out. — 

It is always good advice to plant 
just before a change. It is also 
advice which can only l>e partially 
acted upon, because the gardener must 
keep things going and he cannot do 
three days or three hours' work in 
one. Personally in a home garden I 
prefer to run the risk of having to 
tinish planting out after rain has 
started rather than put out the young 
plants in the hot days which in our 
climate freqruently come before a 
change. Still, one cannot always do 
as he wants, and when planting has 
to be done in dry weather the plaja 
is to have the soil moist enough to 
take water nicely and dry e'nough to 
be crumbly. Then let the water-can 
follow the planting, and although the 
plants may droop they will not hurt. 

Make successive sowings of broad 
beans and peas. Of peas, the seeds- 
men will supply many new sorts 
which I advise the grower to try, be- 
cause one never knows when he will 
get a new thing- specially suited to his 
conditions, but the good old Yorkshire 
Hero still remains my favourite, and 
whatever else I plant some of this. 
Transplant vouno onions as they are 
ready in early districts, and in later 
ones prepare the seedbeds and plant 
at once. Tt is the custom of many 
onion-growers in late districts to sun- 
ply seed a"d arrange with people in 
early districts to grow the plants at 
Is. per 1,00ft. Where this i3 not done 
to get early plants, seed should be 
sown in late districts in April, so that 
the plants mav be well on the way 
liefore the cold weather. Tn the South- 
Fast of South Australia and in the 
P.allarat districts seed mav be drilled 
in the fields in September, and the 
plants are riot then transplanted. The! 
land must be clean, and kept so. For 
the home garden the best plan is to 
biM plants from the nurservmen or 
seedsmen. 

Seakale shoidd now be covered to 
force. 

Sninach. turnips, carrots, etc., must 
be kept weeded, and the soil of all 
bpds should be stirred when the wea- 
ther will permit . 

Slugs will play havoc unless dealt 
with. The best remedy is to keen the 
whole garden clean, and Provide no 
harbour 1 for them. After some wars 
of effort thev trouble me verv little 
now, but T am always on the look ont. 
and when onlv a few are seen T 0"O 
nil over the beds, not onlv where dam- 
nee is being done, but a'l over with a 
little air-slaked lime in the bottom of 
a branbag. T select a clear, calm 
nbdit about 9 p.m. — all the better if 
moonlight— and can dust the whole 
n-arden ; n .. snov f fj mP without 'lend- 
ing m'- ' ack. A grain or two of lime 
dust ;eems to settle a slug, and T 
fi' d them lying dead next morning. 

For sns-ils, T gather the big ones at 
night and crn.sh them, leaving (berry 



on the spot, and next day dust a little 
Paris green, London purple, arsenite 
of lime, or white arsenic on the dead 
snails, and next night all snails and 
slugs within range will make for the 
bait, and so be poisoned. It is sur- 
prising how snails and slugs make for 
a dead fellow and feast on him by the 
side of tender young seedling without 
touching the latter. 

Dig over asparagus beds, and give a 
mulch up to G'inches of stable mannre, 
to which add .litis, of superphosphate 
and 2tTis. sulphate of potash per rod 
of ground. Nitrogen can be added in 
spring in the form of sulphate of am- 
monia or nitrate of soda in two dres- 
sings each of lib. to the rod. 

Dig up and store Jerusalem arti- 
chokes and ' prepare to plant new beds. 
Like Dahlias, they will stand anv 
ciMantity of manure and water. Dig 
deeply, manure freely, using from 4 to 
(5 lbs. of super and 3 Ibis, of sulphate 
of potash to the rod before planting. 
Top dress with nitrogenous manure in 
sprin>>\ as with asparagus. 

Plant rhubarb. You cannot pre- 
pare the ground too well or hardlv 
manure too heavily. Use double the 
quantities recommended for artichokes. 

Ptepare asparagus beds if not al- 
ready done. As with rhubarb, it lasts 
years, and must be well manured. As 
Freataently described, the bed should 
be double dug with plenty of manure 
in the bottom and dug in. The same 
quantities of artificials should be given 
as advised for rhubarb. Salt does 
not appear to be really necessarv if 
experiments count for anything, but 
the idea is an old one, and a pound 
to the rod can do no harm. 

The following seeds mav be sown 
where the ground is not too wet and 
sodden : — Asparagus, carrots, cress, 
endive, kale, leek, lettuce, mustard, 
nastnrtim. onions, parsley, radish, 
rape, red and white beet, sea kale 
spinach, swedes, and turnips. Also 
broad beans and peas. 

Plnnt out globe artichokes, aspara- 
gus roots, brocoli, cabbage, cardoons. 
cauliflower, chives endive. garlic, 
herbs, shallots, horse radish, leeks, let- 
tuce, onions, rhubarb, seakale, tarra- 
gon, Potato, onions, tree onions, 
Jerusalem artichokes. 

Keep down the we<d^, for early 
weedintr saves work. Choose dry. 
warm dnvs for this. Clean paths, and 
also rubbish from corners, for they 
harbour snails, s'rigs, and other pests. 
Get as much digging done as possible 
before the wet month of Julv. 

Green manuring is as useful in a 
garden as in a field, except that its 
necessity is less on account of the 
humus added in the form of manure. 
Still, a crop of clover, peas, or tares 
f?rig in in snrine is a heln. and if 
Troiind is not wanted for a crop this 
i! a very good way of using it. 

Prepare hot -beds for earlv cucum- 
bers, melons, tomatoes, and marrow's, 



16 



THE GARDEN AND FIELD. 



June, 1912 



Raising Early Plants in the 
Hot Bed. 



— The Frame for a Hot Bed. — 

The frames used for this purpose 
vary greatly is size and construction, 
however, the following sized frame will 
be found suitable for nil the amateur's 
requirement :— 20 in. high in front, by 
30 in. high at the back, l>v 6 ft. wide 
froim back to front, and 6 to 8 feet 
long to take two lights. For a 
smaller frame, make the width half 
the above, i.e., 3 ft. 

— Heating Material to he Used. — 

The most suitable material for form- 
ing hotbeds is stable manure. When 
fresh it must be laid in heaps I or 5ft. 
wide by about 3 or 4ft. high, after, it 
has been lying for three or four davs 
a brisk fermentation should be takin" 
place. Tt will then be necessary to 
turn it over, taking care, however, 
that what was at the bottom is now 
at the top. and vice versa. After a 
few more davs a second fermentation 
will have taken place and the strawv 
matter should have been decaved 
enough to be torn asunder with a 
fork. The manure is now sufncientlv 
matured to be made un into a hot- 
bed. For districts where thev hav*> n<> 
hca^ - winter frosts, the best heating 
material can be made bv mixin" on" 
part of stable manure prepared a« 
above an equal miantitv of dried 
leaves ; this will give a more lasting 
and not so violent a fermentation. 

— The Hot Bed. — 
To form the hotbed, clear a space 
18 in. larger all round than the frame 
intended to be placed on it. On this 
cleared space, place the prepared 
manure to a hc'n-ht of a^ out' two feet. 
The frame should then be placed on 
it. and a foot more of the manure 
placed on the inside, and banked 
round the frame on the outside. The 
manure will of coiirse sink. 

The inside surface of the frame 
should be levelled and a dressing of 
about six inches of potting comnost 
or good soil placed on it. When this 
lms been done, wait a dav or two 
till' the heat has had time to permeato 
through the soil. Tf the frame is for 
encumbers, the seed should be sown 
direct on the compost, bxit if it is 



only intended to bring on cucumbers, 
tomatoes, and eggplants, etc., for 
transplanting out later, the seed 
should be sown in pots and these 
plunged into the soil. 

The soil and air should not be 
warmer than about 70 degrees. Hot- 
beds should always be placed in a 
sheltered position, facing the east, 
and, when possible, on dry soil. 

When the heat of the manure begins 
to flag it may be renewed bv remov- 
ing the outer bank of manure and 
substituting a fresh lot of fermenting 
manure. 

— The Trench Hot Bed. — 

Tf a frame is unobtainable, a very 
simple, cheap and effective hotbed may 
be made as follows : — Take out a 
trench in the garden, say 2ft. 05m. 
deep, from 2 to 4 ft. wide, and anv 
length you may desire ; the earth 
that is removed should be banked up 
all round to prevent water runn'ng 
in, fill this to about 18 in. from the 
top of the bank with the manure 
prepared as I have iust stated, tread 
it firmlv down, and on if place a layer 
of loam about Oin. thick. The plants 
may be planted in this, and on ton 
of the whole li<rhts can be placed. 
This plan will be found very advan- 
tageous for market cardeners, as long 
trenches may inexpensiv -]y be made, 
ann a large simply of verv earrv 
encumber raised for market. 

— Inexpensive Lights. — 

A verv cheap light for hot j bj ds mav 
be made bv making p fram° from light 
timber, 2 ft. 6 in. wide and anv re- 
qnired length. On this nail a width 
of common cheao wh : *- e«Ueo. Pnd 
give it a coat or two of pale varnish 
or o'l. This in s»vera'' wavs is pre- 
ferable to glass, cheapness, no fear of 
breakage ; it also prevents the hot 
sun from scoreh'ng the tender plants. 
(Dissolvhicr i Tb. soao and mixing 
with 1 gallon of hot linseed oil and 
pa'ntinrr on the calico will do verv 
well.— Fd.) 

— Fruiting Cucumbers in a Hot -Bed. — 

Cucumbers reaiuire plenty of light 
and a regular supply of water and a 
regular temperature of about 70 dc- 
■When thev show fruit, keep pinched 
back to the second joint. This will 
induce them to put out other growths, 



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and fruiting shoots will form 1 in abun- 
dance. It is necessary to give a little 
attention to thinning in order to 
prevent the space becoming over- 
crowded. Only leave enough leaves 
to keep the plants healthy. 

Sometimes the fruit is bitter. This 
is caused by the plants lagging. Thev 
should, therefore, be pushed along 
briskly with plenty of heat and 
moisture, and should not receive a 
check from want of either of these. 

Sulphate of ammonia and nitrate of 
soda, \ oz. to a gallon of water, will 
be found a very nice stimulant for 
cucumbers. Under a light, say, fi ft. 
x 3 ft., two or three plants may be 
grown on little hillocks. 

— The Management of Hot-beds. — 

Tf the frame gets too hot, air must 
be carefully admitted by slightly 
raising the light. In any case fresh 
air must be admitted in the morning 
to allow the fumes which have col- 
lected during the night to escape. 
Care must be taken not to let the 
cold air strike the plants. 

Tomatoes, cucumbers, egg-plants for 
planting out later should be sown in 
small pots, say \ dozen seeds to each 
pot. and afterwards thi'n out to one 
strong, sturdy plant, and care must 
alw*ays be taken not to let them 
liecome weak and leggy. 



June, 1912 



THE GARDEN AND FIELD. 



17 



Fruit Trees on Trellises for Home 
Gardens for Amateurs. 



("Reprinted from the Garden and 
Field). 

These notes will be open to cri- 
ticism by the trained gardener 
familiar with and well accustomed 
to growing fruit trees as espali- 
ers, cordons, fans, or in the other 
score of ways of almost mathemati- 
cal regularity of English, French, 
and German home gardens. They 
will be equally open : to the objec- 
tions of the practical fruit grower 
if he does not at once recognise 
the simple fact that thev are not 
intended for commercial opera- 
tions. It is well, therefore, to at 
once disarm friendlv critics by 
drawing a clear line of distinction 
between a fruit garden intended 
either solely or chietlv for home 
use and one planted purelv for 
commercial purposes, i.e., with 
the one object of producing fruit 
of good market aualitv as econo- 
micallv as possible. 

- — Object of the Commercial 
Grower. — 

It cannot be too clearly stated 
or more completelv recognised — 
1st, that under ordinary commer- 
cial conditions the fruit grower 
should limit the number of varie- 
ties he grows, not onlv to those 
most suitable to his soil and cli- 
mate, but also to such of those as 
he can profitably market ; and 
2nd, that in training the trees he 
must adopt the system that will 
will give the maximum of results 
with the minimum 'of labour and 
expense. 

— Purpose of the Home Garden.— 

For the home garden the first 
consideration is as great a vari- 
ety of fruit trees as possible, in 
small or moderate quantity, ex- 
tending over as long a fruiting 
period as can be arranged. Pro- 
vided this object can be attained, 
the cost within reason is not a 
matter of so much moment. 

For the commercial fruitgrower 
the initial cost of providing the 
trellis, followed by the time and 
labour needed to tie in the shoots 
and to keep the trees well in 
hand, place anv system of trellis- 
ed fruit trees on ai large scale out 
of the range of practical work 
under ordinary conditions in Aus- 
tralia. Tn small homestead allot- 
ments or blocks, where the holder 
can pet timber for his fences 
cheaply, and where he wants to 



set aside a small paddock for the 
cow and another for lucerne and 
other fodder, and utilise the bal- 
ance of the land to , the best pur- 
pose for the intense culture of 
fruit, herbs, and vegetables, com- 
bined with fowls, there is much to 
commend the trellis system for 
the fruit. By using netting on the 
trellises or some of them he can 
not onlv use the land between- for 
vegetable crops, but he can, when 
the ground is free and the fruit 
not liable to damage, place hur- 
dles at the ends and turn the 
space into fowl, duck, or chicken 
runs. It is quite certain that a 
man who knows how can get as 
much fruit from half an aerie of 
trellised trees and grow as many 
vegetables between as he could on 
an acre in the ordinary way, pro- 
vided he puts the same labor and 
manure into it. 

— Meaning of Trellis. — 

At first thought I would not 
use the term trellis in connection 
with these notes, because the Eng- 
lish and Caneinental trained gar- 
dener ordinarily associates the 
term with a much more regular 
and more difficult work of train- 
ing cordons, spaliers, fans, or 
other mathematically regular sys- 
tems of trees. The: word trellis is, 
however, defined by Webster as 
" A structure or form of cross- 
bar or lattice work used for vari- 
ous nurposes, or for supporting 
trees." It does not imply any 
set method of training. I am, 
therefore, adopting the term trel- 
lised • trees as carrying a generally 
accepted meaning in Australia of 
trees trained in any way regular- 
ly or irregularly on a framework 
of wood, wires, or netting. 

— Regular Spaliers, etc. — 

The training of trees as cordons, 
either horizontal, oblique, or up- 
right, or as fans in their various 
modi (led forms, or as < regular spa- 
liers in various forms, is one of 
the perfections of the gardener's 
art. The work, however,, is more 
tedious than actually difficult pro- 
vided that in addition to knowing 
the principles of pruning and the 
special habits of each variety of 
tree, the gardener has either seen 
the work done, or by experience has 
learned all the points on which 
complete success so greatly de- 
pends. I have often seen amateurs 
look at the illustrations in Eng- 
lish, German, and French books 
on gardening, and express incre- 



dulity over the perfect symmetry, 
mathematical regularity, and often 
curious shapes into which the 
trees are trained. There need be 
no doubt about the genuineness of 
the illustrations, for if Nature- 
does not provide a bud in the 
right place, the gardener puts one, 
there, a/nd if the shoot does not 
bend as it is wanted it is made 
to do so. Not only is it difficult 
to teach one of these systems on 
paper, but the number of them 
and the slow work of covering a 
trellis when thev are adopted are 
further reasons for advocating the 
easier, though less perfect, irregu- 
lar training. The plan is not as 
good, but it gives quicker results, 
and requires little, if any, more 
skill than the ordinary tree. After 
a while many will not be satisfied 
with it, and will then be led to 
adopt the better, though more 
difficult, regular training. 

— The Plan Suggested. — 

In a few sentences T suggest to 
the amateur that he should lay 
his ground so that he can run a 
series of good posts down the 
rows, stretch wires (about No. 12 
will do) six inches apart, plant 
his trees close to the trellis, sup- 
press all wood except that which 
lies close to the wires, and ' train 
that as a rough fan, rub off all 
shoots which start outwards, thin 
out the others, and otherwise 
prune as in the case of a standard 
tree. That sounds simple enough 
for anyone, and it is certainly un- 
orthodox. As he proceeds he will 
find that he can make many im- 
provements, and as he studies the 
behaviour of the trees he will de- 
sire greater regularity, and be 
thus led to study the proper 
training of fans, spaliers, and so 
forth. 

— Distance apart of Trellises. — 

The, distance between the tellises 
and between the trees on the trel- 
lises 1 are matters over which one 
might argue until to-morrow 
morning. The fact is they depend 
on conditions and circumstances. 
As 1 am writing only of the home 
garden, I presuppose careful culti- 
vation, irrigation when necessary, 
and full attention to manuring. 
Now, if these things are attended 
to it does not matter how close 
the trees are, and the matter of 
light or shade and utilisation or 
otherwise of the spaces between 
the trellises are the only factors 
to be considered in deciding on the 
distance apart of the trellises. It 
just amounts to this, if you plant 
one tree in a rod of ground its 
roots in time fill the whole of the 
ground, and the tree grows in pro- 



18 



A RECORD ! 

A II L P A N A 
WINES . . 

in competition againat all 

AUSTRALIA 

at ADELAIDE WIN E SHOWS. 



1904. CHAMPION CUP for 

HOCK 

1906. CHAMPION CUP for 

CLARET 

1906. CHAMPION CUP for 

SHERRY 

Beaidea alao many 

FIRST PRIZES 

too numerous to mention 
Town Office : 

Australasia Chambers, 
King Wm. St., Adelaide. 

Vinajrarda and Collars : 

Magill, South Australia. 



portion. If yon want four trees 
on the ground the roots have only 
the sarnie feeding area, and the 
tops the same air space, so that 
the four will necessarily be dwarf- 
ed. If they are close, however, 
there is not enough light and the 
trees try to run upwards and can- 
not thrive and hear properly: 

My plan is to run the trellises 
north and south, and then I find 
that they may he as close to- 
gether as thev are high ; but for 
six feet trellises I like eight feet 
apart as the minimum. That will 
give room for a vegetable bed five 
feet wide between. If the garden 
is shaded by buildings, then more 
room must be given ; and if the 
owner ha« space available from 
ten to sixteen feet between the 
trellises is close enough. If the 
owner desires to cover in bis 
trees with permanent wire netting 
he can make two trellises six 
feet apart, with twenty feet be- 
tween the double trellises. A frame 
[0 feet wide will cover the whole 
in and allow two feet between t he- 
netting and each trellis on the 
outside, and that is enough to 
work in, though I would advise 
six inches extra. 

— Distance Apart of Trees. — 
The distance apart of the trees 
on the trellis is also a matter of 
adaptation, and my ideas will, I 
know, be criticised ; but I have 
tested them, and know that for the 
object aimed at they are all right. 
My purpose, and I think that of the 
home gardener in general, is to 
have as great a variety as pos- 
sible of the best fruits, over as 
long a .period as possible, and not 
enough of any to tire the family 
of that sort, or more than can be 
used in the short time some sorts 
last. 

Now, in peaches the amateur 
wants at least two dozen sorts to 
secure the above object. If he 
plants 20 feet apart on the old 
style he must have a quarter of 
an acre under peaches, and when 
the trees grow he will have so 
many that he does not know what 
to do with them. My plan is, 
thesefore, to groiw a small tree of 
each which, when carrying a full 
crop, will give, six eight or ten 
dozen prime peaches, and I can get 
that on five feet of trellis six feet 
six high. At five feet apart my 
24 sorts will occupy 120 feet of 
trellis. Thus on this 120 feet of 
fruit fence I would have peaches 
from the beginning of December to 
the end of March. All would not 
bear equally well each year ; but 
it would not be too much to ex- 
pect from 120 to 150 dozen a ^ r ear 



on a well-cared-for trellis. Pour 
short trellises 30ft. long, with six 
trees on each, would give the same 
result, and if these were 8ft. apart 
the minimum ground area for the 
24 sorts, allowing 4ft. on the 
outer side of each, would be 40 
by 30 feet. 

This is not too much for many 
suburban gardens ; but is too great 
for a cottage allotment, and the 
amateur must either reduce the 
number oi varieties, or place them 
closer together. In such a case 
my plan would be to plant not 
more than three feet apart on the 
trellis. On a space 20 by 30 feet 
I would, in fact, stick to the full 
number of varieties, and plant 
close enough to get them in the 
space available. Trees planted two 
feet apart on a trellis hit. (An. high 
will have at least 26 square feet 
of bearing surface each, and, allow- 
ing three peaches to the square 
foot, would permit of 78, or, say 
six dozen on each tree carrying a 
good crop. How very much bet- 
ter is this plan than having two 
or three big trees giving only that 
number of sorts of peaches? The 
additional cost is the expense of 
the trellis, and the extra cost of 
trees. The trellis need not be ex- 
pensive, and against it may be set 
the extra area of; ground for grow- 
ing potatoes and other vegeta|b(les. 
The trees are not expensive, and 
the cost of the greater number is 
counterbalanced by the fact that 
they will produce more fruit and 
of a better quality. 

In advocating such close plant- 
ing, I do not desire to urge the 
matter at all strongly. Those who 
have not tried the plan may well 
be excused for not following me 
fully, and I can only assure them 
that it is all right. If they do 
not care to risk two or three feet, 
they may feel quite safe in plant- 
ing at five or six feet. 

— Several Sorts of One Tree. — 

There is another plan of securing 
a selection, and that is bv plant- 
ing at six or twelve feet and bud- 
ding two, three, or four sorts on 
each tree. I have done this with 
capital results both on trellised 
trees and on the ordinary stan- 
dards. 

— First Year's Work. — 

It is not necessary to put up the 
trellis the first year. All that is 
necessary is to carefully lay out 
the ground and mark where the 
trellis is to be. Then divide the 
space for the number of trees you 
are willing to plant and put them 
in, cutting each hard back to two 
short spurs painting along the line 



June, 1912. 



THE GARDEN AND FIE'LI). 



9 The Farm 9 



the trellis is to occupy. During 
the growing season suppress all 
the shoots which grow outwards, 
onlv allowing those to grow which 
are in the line of the trellis. Two 
shoots from each tree are enough, 
and, in fact, the best number to 
begin with. Keep the trees 
watered, especially after Christ- 
mas, and get a strong growth as 
a foundation. Tie to stakes in the 
line of the fence to begin the 
training. 

— Putting up the Trellis. — 

When the time comes for put- 
ting up the trellis, and for prefer- 
ance this should be before the trees 
are planted, I would advise that 
the end posts be good strong ones. 
Any timber which will stand and 
any shape will do e-nr-T 1 " v. -U ex- 
cept for appearance. If jarrah be 
used I advise 4x4 and nine feet 
long. This allows for 30 inches in 
the ground and 6ft. 6in. out. 
These end posts must be well 
strutted, the strut reaching to 
within a foot of the top and hav- 
ing its bottom against a peg eight 
or nine feet away. Do not be 
tempted to use short struts. For 
the intermediate posts lighter stuff 
is good enough, 3x2 jarrah being 
what I have used, and I put them 
from 8 to 10 feet apart. The holes 
are best bored beforehand. The 
top wire should be three inches 
from the top of the posts, and the 
bottom one nine inches or a foot 
from the ground. The bottom and 
top wires shoidd be No. 10, but 
the others may be No. 12, and for 
short lengths of 20 feet bv putting 
a middle wire of No. 12, the rest 
i mav be No. 14. I would stretch 
' the bottom wire and temporarily 
fasten it, for this will check any 
tendency of the end posts to rise, 
[ for with short struts it is easy 
' when straining the top wire to 
pull the posts right out of the 
ground. 

— The Use of Netting. — 

If it be intended to combine the 
' t fruit trellis and fowl runs I would 
i put up three wires ,one at the 
i top, one at the bottom, and one 
L in the middle, and stretch 6ft. 
» bv lin. No. 18 wire netting neat- 
¥ ly and tightly. In training the 
■ trees on the netting I would keep 
all the permanent wood on one 
side of the netting, which is very 
i convenient for tving in the fruiting 
wood. 

What I have written will, I 
think, show the amateur what is 
I suggested as a desirable plan of 
growing home fruit ; and also ex- 
plain all that is necessary for the 
beginner to do now. 



Health on the Farm. 



Country air and country condi- 
tions are conducive to the produc- 
tion of healthy men and women, 
always provided that too much 
trust is not put in them. Some 
farmers are careless about the 
surroundings of their homes, and 
when insanitary conditions exist, 
ill health is the natural conse- 
quence. Where there are open 
closets (lies frequently carry dis- 
ease. City residents have the ad- 
vantages, as a rule, of good drain- 
age, and a better system of 
getting rid of sewage. If the far- 
mer will add these conditions 
there is no doubt but he will 
have little need to call in the 
medical man. Where water is 
plentiful, and the dwelling house 
situated on sloping ground, it is a 
comparatively easy matter to 111- 
stal a system of sewerage. Pipes 
leading to a septic tank is all that 
is necessary. The farmer who 
can afford to spend a little money 
in rectifying the matters men- 
tioned will effectively increase the 
standard of health and personal 
comfort of all residing in his 
home. 

<$> 

The Farmer of To-day. 



The farmer of to-day is a very 
different type to the one of half 
a century ago. There are many 
reasons for the change, but chief 
among them is the fact that the 
standard of intelligence has been 
raised proportionately higher than 
probably in any other calling. 
Agricultural and other colleges 
have sent voting men back to the 
land to introduce new methods, 
and to induce their elders to aban- 
don old systems not in keeping 
with present-day conditions. The 
application of cold storage, the in- 
vention of the harvester, the oil 
engine, and the various other 
machines and implements: designdd 
by the skill and ingenuity of the 
engineer and mechanic have revo- 
lutionised farming. Agricultural 
papers have also played an im- 
portant part in the education of 
the modern farmer. They are his 
professional literature, and cover 
all phases of farming. Another 
thinir that has been invaluable in 
helping on the farmer is the rail- 
way. It enables him to see more 
of the countrv and the city. He is 
no longer in the hands of the 



local storekeeper, and the days of 
barter are gone. He is thorough- 
ly acquainted with the latest 
market quotations, and there is 
not now much hope of the dis- 
honest dealer taking him down. 
When we visit the agricultural 
shows the change that has taken 
place in his methods is most ob- 
servable. His exhibits now repre- 
sent quality rather than quantity. 
The handsome cows give place to 
the one that yields the most and 
the richest milk, the biggest 
potato is supplanted by the best 
potato, the big pig is ousted bv 
the best bacon pig, and so right 
along the whole line of the numer- 
ous products of the farm. The 
more we study the present-day 
farmer and his methods, the more 
apparent it is that he has become 
to a large extent a business man. 



/^^\ ZEALAND 

^^^^m lnsurance * - 

TO STOCK OWNERS. 

This well-known COLONIAL OFFICE 
is now issuing. 

LIVE STOCK POLICIES. 

with most lenient conditions, special- 
ly prepared to meet local requirements 
covering 

DEATH FROM FIRE, NATURAL 

CAUSES, AND ACCIDENT. 



Foaling Risks a Specialty. 



FOR RATES AND PARTICULARS 

APl'LY TO THE LOCAL AGENT. 
(N.B.— The well-known ' Maori Head ' 
Agency plate is to be seen in all the 
chief centres), or THE MANAGER, 
112 KING WILLIAM ST., ADELAIDE. 
Claims paid exceed £7,500,000. 

Departments — FIRE, MARINE, 
ACCIDENT, EMPLOYERS' INDEM 
NITY, PLATEGLA88, FIDELITY 
GUARANTEE, ADMINISTRATION 
BONDS. BURGLARY, LIVE STOCK. 



20 



,Iun», 1912 



Diseases of Sheep. 



— By If. Leeney, M.R.C.V.S. — 

Sheepbreeders in general probably 
give but little credit to the veterinary 
profession for recent improvements in 
the treatment of ovine diseases. A 
great deal that lias been written 
might be summed up in the cautic 
words of a reviewer, who said of a 
hook, ' It contains much that is new. 
and much that is I rue, and that ■which 
is new is not true, and that which 
is true is not. new.' The sheepbreeder 
is like others, inasmuch as he does 
not like being preached at, and the 
attitude of the breeder is. truth to 
tell, the correct one for the veterin 
arian : since nearly all the breeders i 
troubles are the outcome of climatic 
or dietetic conditions, which the doc- 
tor cannot cure, but follows the now 
universal practice of preventive medi- 
cine, in pressing upon clients the de- 
sirability in avoiding first causes, or 
anticipating the consequences of ad- 
verse conditions, wW«*h I»tt»r mav be 
unavoidable. The diseases of sheep 
are not mysterious : they are all 
pretty well understood— their means of 
communication, their orotrresB, dura- 
tion, and senuelae : but the nature of 
the animal, the conditions under which 
he must live to be worth keening, are 
such as do not lend themselves to 
individual doctoring, such as the 
horse or dog. The maladies of the 
sheep, whether in Australia, in the 
Argentine, or in the homeland, are 
much the same, except that in this 
matter, as in so many others, Austra- 
lia suffers less. 

— Parasitic Host. — 

A considerable armv of scientists are 
engaged in all civilised countries in 
investigating' the diseases of animals, 
and from the Bureau of Agriculture 
of the United States, and from the 
New Zealand experts employed by the 
Government, we continue to receive 
valuable reports, all pointing in the 
direction of good management as a 
means of prevention of disease, and 



with lint little in the way of recom- 
mendations for the treatment of ll 
when established. It is only when 
some specially favourable season de- 
velops immense numbers of parasite? 
that the sheep owners can he prevail- 
ed upon to ware a war which should 
be perpetual. If the parasitic diseases 
were eliminated t he sheep would know 
but little trouble. If united and de- 
termined, unrelent iny effort were 
made, we could reduce them almost 
to nil. Tt is too often forgotten that 
the determining causes of parasitism 
are not simply environmental, but 
constitutional, and more or less inter- 
dependent. Tt is not to be sunp ised 
llvit because a lamb is weakly in con- 
stitution he will actually develop, 
«ay. bronchial worms without th" 
seed. Tt is an old theory, long since 
exploded, that dirt and poverty 
"breed" certain maladies-- they do so 

in a broad sense, Irit there must be 
the seed, or nothing in the animal or 
vegetable creation can be reproduced, 
unless it vield " seed after his kind, 
whose seed is in itself upon the earth." 
After •muddling about for centuries, 
and thinking ourselves too clever to 
accent the above simple declaration, 
we have had to come to it after all, 
and our scientific leaders are now 
aereed that it was so." Before a 
sheep can become the host of a para- 
site it must in some form have been 
present in the water or pasture, which 
latter includes the air as a medium 
for winged creatures Butchers, and 
all who have had to do with the 
dressing of carcases, will testify to the 
constant or nearly constant presence 
of some form of parasitic life in 

'leen. and because the majority "die 
well" and appear to have suffered no 
ill effects, a familiarity breeds con- 
tempt for this danger, as for other 
risks. It is doubtless a part of 
nature's economy that sheep should 
carry certain guests, and that no 
great harm results, so long as fair 
balance is maintained, but for reasons 
at on° time regarded as inscrutable, 
but now pretty well known, there is 
a veritable invasion at irregularly re- 



curring intervals, and the breeder 

scores a loss where hi' should have 
made profit. It is not enough tliat 
we should strive against these pests 
when by their numbers we see serious 
damage in front of us ; we should en- 
deavour to get rid of th-> seed. The 
few mature worms of this year are 
capable of spreading disaster next 
year, since " the vilest things do 
fastest propagate." 

Favourable Conditions for Certain 
Worms. — 
The most favourable condition for 
ce/tain classes of worms is the stag- 
nant pool, with low forms of vege- 
table life in it. It circumstances per- 
mit, then, we shall not water the 
flock from such sources. One of the 
chief reasons for the greater losses 
sustained by Australian sheepbreeders 
is due to the necessity of drinking 
from water holes polluted during the 
long droughts — polluted by the sheep 
themselves, as well as other crea- 
tures. 

Constitutional vigor on the part of 
the animal seems to confer more or 
less immunity from attack, and the 
power of resistance when attacked. 
On swamps, for instance, where we- 
thers will live fairly well, lambs or 
hoggets will fade away, the victims 
of parasites which they cannot throw 
off. Older animals will succumb when 
poor. There is what is known as 
physiologica 1 degeneration, and such 
condition invites invasion. In the 
healthy and vigorous the blood con- 
tains more iron and salt, both of 
which are inimical to many forms of 
parasites. Our fore-fathers discover- 
ed the utility of these two substances 
before they had analysed the blood, 
and they are recommended in the old- 
est works extant as a "cure" for this 
that, and the other, having its origin 
in parasitism. 

The long-woolled and heavy breeds 
suffer most from parasitic invasion, 
not alone because they are yea red 
upon lowlands which suit the genera- 
tion of worms, but because they have 
to grow wool as well as make growth 
at the same time. This has been 
noted in New Zealand especially by 
that eminent veterinary adviser to 
the Government. Mr. .7. A. Gilruth, 
M.R.C.V.S. 

With regard to drugs, recent experi- 
ments performed by Mr. Gilruth in 
New Zealand would seriously shake 
our faith in their vermicide action, 
were it not that experience at home 
has shown that a course of medicine, 
of which even large s'no'le doses pro- 
duce no appreciable effect, have, after 
a time, a marked influence upon the 
subjects to which they are adminis- 
tered. Going away from sheep for 
illustration of my meaning, I would 
point to the use of so-called " alter- 
natives " for horses and cattle. Not 
Finlay Dunn, with his lifelong studv 
of veterinary therapeutics, could tell 
us how they act, but agrees -with 
other observers that " they alter for 
the better the condition of the sys- 
tem," and that they " counteract or 
annihilate disease, though their mo- 
dus operandi is not yet definitely 



FISH and GRILL ROOMS 

CRENFELL STREET. 

(Next door to Register Office). 
A. C. SPICER, Proprietor. Under new management. 



THEATRE SUPPERS A SPECIALITY. 
ALL DESCRIPTIONS OF FISH SENT TO ANY PART OF THE 

STATE. 

MR A. T. D. McGRATH, 

SURGEON DENTIST, 

(Registered by Examination). 

Consultation and Advice Free. Hours: !( to 5 (Saturdays included). 'Phone 365C. 

Painless Extractions by the latest Freezing process. Special arrangements for country 

patients. 

Commercial Chambers, Cilbert Place, ( 0u »f..st.) Adelaide. 

Raar of Bowman Arsade, King William Street. 



June, 1912 



tHE GARDEN AND FIELD. 



21 



settled." So it is with worm reme- 
dies, or at least some of them, with 
sheep. Although living worms taken 
from the sheep and immersed in these 
substances in about the same amount 
of fluid as would be found in the liv- 
ing subject do not quickly die or 
seem much to mind their position, it 
is known by experience that a course 
of such substances as iron and salt 
has the effect of renderintr the host 
undesirable as a dwelling, while the 
absorption of the drugs into the sys- 
tem of the sheep provides the hlood 
with materials in which it was defici- 
ent, and so adds to the vigor of the 
animal, and enables it to overcome 
the debilitating influence of parasites. 

The proportion of , powdered sul- 
phate of iron to dried salt should be 
that of one of the former in a hun- 
dred of the latter, more concentrated 
doses inducing constipation in ordin- 
ary seasons, but permissible in wet 
weather, and on scouring pastures. 



Celebrated Danish Butter. 



" 1 found in visiting the cream- 
eries of Denmark that they all fol- 
lowed practically the same me- 
thod of making. They skim a 
very thin cream, containing 18 to 
2o per cent, fat, which is imme- 
diately pasteurised by heating to 
a temperature of 190 to 194 de- 
grees Fahrenheit. It is then 
quicklv cooled to a temperature of 
50, where it is held for about two 
hours. The cream is then raised 
to a temperature of 60 to 65 de- 
grees, when about 5 or Io percent, 
starter is added. There is noth- 
ing peculiar about this part of the 
work. They do not develop a 
hrery high per cent, of acid, which 
'accounts for their mild-flavored 
butter. 

" The temperature at churning 
at most of the places visited was 
" 58 to 60 degrees. This high tem- 
perature has a tendency to make 
the butter a trifle soft. As soon 
as it was churned into very fine 
grains, as fine as clover seed, a 
lot of ice-cold water was run into 
the churn, about one-third of the 
[bulk of the cream. Then the churn- 
ing was continued a short time 
and the granules became larger. 
BTbe sudden chilling of the fat at 
this stage undoubtedly gives the 
.dry, meally appearance so charac- 
teristic of the Danish butter. 

" As soon as churning is com- 
ted the butter is removed with 
neve to a wooden box, where it 
)lunged into water at a tem- 
rature of 60 degrees. It is then 
aced on a table worked and s;ilt- 
*d at the rate of one-half ounce to 
every pound of butter, when the 
worker is put in motion and the 



butter is worked about three- 
quarters of a minute, or just 
enough to incorporate the salt. 

" The object of placing the but- 
ter in water is to hold it at a 
uniform temperature until the salt 
is practically dissolved. It is then 
placed on the worker again and 
worked about one-half minute or 
until the loose moisture is pressed 
out and the butter assumes a 
waxy condition. 

" The little working butter re- 
ceives enables it to hold a high 
per cent, of water. It has been 
demonstrated at our school that 
every revolution of a combined 
churn will expel moisture at the 
rate of about 3 per cent, with but- 
ter at a mean temperature. 

" The average water content of 
the Danish butter in 1892 was 
14.54, or about 2% per cent, higher 
than the butter made in Canada 
and the United States. . In other 
words, the Dane makes two and 
a half pounds more butter from 
every 100 pounds of butter-fat 
than we do. This little country, 
which has an area of something 
like 15,000 sqiiare miles and a 
population of about 2,000,000, ex- 
ported 175,000,000 pounds of but- 
ter to the English market, and 
their soil is no better than 
yours. In fact, when I first en- 
tered Denmark with its somewhat 
undulated surface and its beech 
forests, I was reminded very much 
of the province of Ontario. 

" One factor that enables Den- 
mark to produce a uniform pro- 
duct is that the creamery business 
Ss practically run on the whole- 
milk-system. Their method of 
scoring butter every fourteen days 
has been a great aid to them in 
meeting the requirements of the 
English market. 

" They have no set time for a 
maker to exhibit butter. They 
have what might be termed a call 



ALSTONS 1903 PATENT 

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Beyond dlsput* tM 
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strains tbat ii com 
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Paeki la mail rpaoa. 
Bend (or Catalog a*. 



JAMES ALSTON, 

Patentee and Manufacturer, 
QO (CRN'S BRIDGE SOUTH MRLBOURNB- 

•olo Agoata (or South Aattralia— 

H. C. RICHARDS 

6 m«1 t, Blyth Street, Adolaida. 
..*•** Ooaaomo ojad Oo. 



system. They wire a creamery to 
send a keg of butter to Copen- 
hagen or some other point the 
day of shipment. This butter is 
held at about the same tempera- 
ture that it will meet in transit 
to the F/nglish market, and scored 
about the same time, the rest of 
the butter arrives in England, so 
if there is any fault to be found 
with the butter on arrival their 
experts will know the reason by 
examining the butter left at home, 
and they will be able to point out 
the defects at home and suggest 
remedies. The result is a uniform 
quality which is so much desired 
by the English merchant. — Profes- 
or McKay. 



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22 

The Breeding, Selection and 
Care of the Dairy Cow. 

Methods of breeding domesticat 
ed cattle for the purposes to which 
they are especially adapted , have 
been practised from t?be earliei 
times. The oldest writers on 
cattle breeding give directions for 
the breeding and improvement of 
the dairy cow, and their precepts 
are often repeated by modern 
authorities as being incapable of 
improvement at the present day. 
— Acquired Characteristics from 

Parents. — 

It has long been known that the 
characteristics of the parents are 
transmitted to their offspring, and 
the expression " Like produces 
like " is often used. There are, 
however, many apparent excep- 
tions to this law ; but a close ex- 
amination into all the facts re- 
lating to hereditary transmission 
will prove that it is not only con- 
stant in its action, but extends 
to every feature of the organiza- 
tion. The uniformity observed in 
the various breeds of cattle 1 is 
the result of the inheritance of the 
characters that adapt them to 
the conditions under which they 
were originated and developed. 
Some of the most striking illustra- 
tions of this form of heredity are 
to be found in the development 
of the improved breeds of dairy 
cattle. 



THE GARDEN AND FIELD. 



Every farmer, in attempting to 
breed for the improvement of his 
herd, ought to bear in mind that 
hereditary power of the animal, 
that is, the power of transmitting 
its qualities to its offspring, is 
constantly cumnlative ; provided 
the animal has been bred on 
correct lines. For example, the 
general law that " Like produces 
like," is Undoubtedly correct upon 
general principles ; the difficulty is 
in a want of knowledge as to the 
inherited qualities and character^ 
istics of the two animals which 
.ire brought together. They may 
appear to the naked eye 1 to be 
alike, and yet there may be, and 
often are, very marked differences 
in yielding capacity and other 
such-like qualities. If they in turn 
have been bred from parents with 
" like " qualities and are alike in 
all their peculiarities, the offspring 
will not only be like the parents, 
but will have their characteristics 
more strongly marked ; that is, 
the essential characteristics in 
which the parents are alike will 
be intensified in the offspring — the 
power of transmitting its peculiar 
qualities will become stronger and 
stronger. But, on the other hand, 
if the parents are not alike, and 
there are any essential differences 
between the male and females, 
instead of the power of heredity 
becoming stronger and stronger 
with every successive generation, 
it will become weaker anVil very 
greatly reducing what is wanted. 



June, 1912 



Dairy farmers are frequently 
heard to say that they care noth- 
ing about pedigree ; they desire to 
see the bull, and then they can 
tell whether they want to breed 
from him or not. There can be 
no greater mistake made, for the 
reason that this hereditary power 
is latent— is hidden in the system. 
It Cannot be detected by the eye, 
it cannot be detected by any known 
law, except that of hereditary i in- 
fluence, in other words, pedigree. 
If the farmer knows positively the 
peculiar characteristics of all the 
ancestors of the animalsj he is 
about to breed from, then he can 
tell with some degree of certainty 
what the result is likely to be. 
A pedigree in itself may not be 
worth the paper it is written 
upon, unless you know the char- 
acters of the ancestry recorded in 
it ; that is, unless you know that 
in each case the male and female 
in each successive generation have 
been alike in their good qualities. 

In breeding, special regard 
should be paid to the outline 
structure, or good points of the 
bull to be used in the herd. He 
should have a small, well set 
head, large docile eye, rounded 
ribs, straight legs, small bones, 
and sound internal organs. The 
breeder should bear in mind that 
the hereditary power already re- 
ferred to, which is so valuable and 
important and on which the whole 
improvement must depend, is 
hidden, and cannot be detected by 
the eye. That shows the value oi 
a good pedigree ought to be 
studied on both sides, and in that 
way and in that way alone, can 
we breed with any degree of cer- 
tainty in regard to the result. 
There is no doubt, in my judg- 
ment, that the male parent, whe- 
ther stallion, boar, ram, or bull, 
exercises a greater influence on the 
offspring than the mother does. 
It is well known to the breeders oi 
Aryshire cattle that the sire has 
an important influence upon the 
form and functional activity of 
the udder, and the position and 
false teats or nipples of the bull 
are believed to furnish an indica- 
tion of the milkling qualities lie 
will be likely to transmit. It is 
of the utmost importance that 
well bred, well formed sires, be 
employed on our dairy herds. 

Amongst dairymen, one often 
hears the expression, " The bull is 
half the herd." This is literally 
tine and it is a great pity that 
it is not more fully recognised, 
of the qualities transmitted to the 
call the bull furnishes half. The 
cow influences the character of but 
one calf a year, the bull passes 




June, 1912. 



THE GARDEN AND FIELD. 



23 



on his characteristics to manv 
calves, to all calves of an ordinary 
sized herd. When he is selected, half 
the character of all the calves is 
determined. In a herd of 30 cows 
his influence is as much as that of 
the whole number of cows put to- 
gether. If the bull selected is 
descended from parents possessed 
with a pure pedigree and heavy 
milking capabilities, he will natural- 
ly be superior to the cows he is 
mated with in the ordinary grade 
dairv herd of cows, and the char- 
acteristics he transmits to the 
calves will be of more value and 
higher quality than those that 
come from the dam's side ; in this 
sense also the bull will be more 
than half the herd. If the bull is 
kept with the same eows several 
years, each year he starts out a 
generation of calves, more than 
half oi whose qualities were trans- 
mitted by him. But his successor 
of similar type and quality, mated 
to those improved heifer calves, 
carries the improvement of the 
herd still further, and eliminates 
defects that have been derived 
from the dam's side. From genera- 
tion to generation the succession 
of improved sires introduced into 
dairv herds goes on increasing and 
intensifving the improvement of 
the cows. It is therefore onlv 
reasonable to expect that the bull 
used, may thus, within a few 
years and at slight expense, com- 
pletely transform a dairy herd of 
cows and more than double its 
profit. 

I have heard farmers ascribe the 
principal inlluence to the bull, 
whilst, others consider it is chiellv 
due to the female, and there are 
not wanting illustrations that 
appear to support this theory. 
[The freaks of nature in these 
respects are certainly very curious 
and farmers are often more struck 
by a remarkable exception than by 
the rule, and are disposed to 
found their theories accordingly. 
Facts, however, appear rather to 
support an opposite doctrine. For 
example, the offspring of the male 
ass and the mare resembles the 
iformer more than the latter. The 
long ears, spare muscular develop- 
ment, narrow feet, and sluggish 
[[action, are almost equal peculi- 
arities of the mule and the ass, 
anrl strongly attest the former's 
origin. Incidentally, it is also 
■urprising, too, what large colts 
small mares will breed when be- 
gotten by horses of great size. 
Pony mares will thus rear stout 
cobs and galloways, and well bred 
pares, about 15 hands high, will 
throw / carriage horses of good 
size, if bred to a powerful stallion. 



The improvement that can be 
effected bv means of introducing 
a Shorthorn or Hereford bull in a 
herd of ordinary cows, is strik- 
ingly shown. in sheep, the in- 
fluence of the ram is, if possible, 
still more clearly illustrated ; the 
cross between the Lincoln or 
Leicester ram and the ordinary 
grade greatly resembles the ram 
in appearance, size, and fattening 
qualities. 

In animals we do not notice so 
accurately the features of the face, 
but are attracted far more bv the 
resemblance offered by the con- 
figuration of the body, and thus 
we are more impressed with 
the greater likeness the offspring 
bears to the sire. Stop the in- 
discriminate breeding oi all kinds 
and any kind of breeds of cattle 
in one herd. Select a breed best 
adapted to the conditions which 
exist, and get a sire of the best 
dairv breeding qualities to be ob- 
tained regardless of cost. Use 
him for at least three seasons and 
breed the heifer calves back to a 
sire of the same family blood and 
as far removed' from kinship as 
possible, thereby freshening the 
herd with new blood, without 
weakening it. There is no surer 
way to produce scrubbers than to 
mix beef and milk breeds and get 
antagonistic forces and purposes 
into close contact. While it is 
quite true that a common cow can 
be bred up and made far better, 
the continued improvement is only 
accomplished by keeping to one 
line of breeding — that of pure-bred 
sires of the same breed every 
time. Never waste time by first 
trying one breed and then another. 
This unsatisfactory method is verv 
noticeable in the dairy herds 
throughout the State. In a herd 
of cows, nine out of ten times, as 
herds go, one will find traces of 
nearly all the breeds in existence, 
and this majority of cows is the 
class that produces less than 300 
gallons of milk each a year, when 
by proper care and breeding they 
should produce between 500 aud 
600 gallons. 

A man will not pay high and 
fancy prices for mixed breeds of 
any kind of stock — it is the pure 
breeds that are wanted first. One 
often hears the argument used, 
that a cross makes the better 
animal. Is it so, or is the cross 
of two pure breeds a compromise ? 
Granted that the cross is better 
the first time ; what is it the 
next? If breeding is continued on 
these lines the result will be a 
repetition of the old story. Two 
breeds crossed with two distinct 
purposes — one beneficent, for ever 



giving ; the other miserly, for 
ever storing up, only to give back 
what is eaten in beef. The dual- 
purpose cow from a theoretical 
point of view sounds good. It is 
very well to say that we want to 
breed a cow that will give a large 
flow of milk, and at the same 
time produce a calf, which, if it 
happens to be a steer, Will turn 
out to be a fattener of as good a 
quality as though it had been 
dropped by a good beef cow. The 
trouble in most cases is that 
nearly all farmers like the look of 
a nice, fat cow better than they 
do one of a strong dairy type, 
which is usually not a model of 
beauty and symmetry. It is quite 
true that there are occasionally; 
individuals in these breeds that are 
fair milkers ; sometimes even ex- 
cellent milkers are found. But 
after all they are few in number, 
and the worst of it all is that even 
though you do get a bull from a 
good milk strain, that bull is most 
likely to produce calves totally 
unsuited for the dairy. What else 
can one expect when breeding on 
these lines ? Have not these cows 
and bulls been bred for beef, genera- 
tion after generation ? Are they 
not valued because of their sqjuare, 
beefy type ? The great trouble 
with most dairymen is that they 
do not know what their cows 
yield. If they would keep a record 
of the yeilds of their cows and 
test the same, thev would soon 
learn that dairy blood counts. If 
you were to ask even the strong- 
est advocate of the general purpose 
cow what constitutes the standard, 
or ask him to minutely- describe 
•to you what to look for when 
buying such an animal, it is safe 
to say be could not do so, for he 
does not know himself. There is 
no standard to go by and the 
whole thing resolves itself into 
luck. 

(To be continued). 



A. R. CRESWICK, 

DENTIST 

(Late with Eskell & Tattersall). 

VICTORIA SQUARE W., ADELAIDE. 
(Near Post Office). 



ALL WORK GUARANTEED. 

Artificial Teeth made and misfitting 
Teeth remodelled. Teeth Scaled, stop- 
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Consultation and Advice Free. 
Country districts visited regularly. 
See dailies for dates. 



24 



THE GARDEN AND FIELD. 



June, 1912 



Order and Neatness on the 
Farm. 



The Smallest Horses in 
World. 



the 



A good many farmers do not 
regard neatness, order and regu- 
larity as factors in the produc- 
tion of their annual 1 incomes. They 
regard the work and money ex- 
pended in maintaining a present- 
able appearance unnecessary, and 
conseauentlv the farm home and 
surroundings are disorderly and 
often dirty. We have Carefully 
noted in our travels through Aus- 
tralia and other parts of the 
world that it is a rare tiling for 
the ne.it and orderly fanner to be 
unsuccessful. A lady writer says: 
" To be neat and orderly about 
the house shows an economical, 
saving mind in the housekeeper." 
The same thing applies to the 
farm. The man who has .1 place 
for everything and keeps things in 
their place sax es time and money. 
His farm is a great contrast to 
that of the man with his old wag- 
gons and machines hint; about 
without cover, doors oil their 
hinges, rubbish in the front yard, 
fences broken down, and a general 
unkempt appearance about every- 
thing. If you speak to such a 
man lie generally has a mournful 
Story to tell of cattle, or sheep, or 
crops, that do not thrive, and it 
is easy to see that he is making 
the great mistake, " It don't pay 
to keep things up." Such a man 
often farms a large area, but does 
it in such a slovenly fashion that 
the results arc not corresponding- 
lv large. The other kind of man 
is observant and systematic, and 
the work he undertakes he does in 
the best ' possible style, rather than 
doing a large amount indifferently 
— a policy that pays the best. 
Dairy farming especially calls for 
constant care, good order, and ir- 
reproachable cleanliness in all 
thinp-s appertaining to it. Such 
habits add to the health of him- 
self, his family, and herd, and up- 
lift his standing in the community. 
— " Exchange." 



Mr. David BulTurn, in the Ameri- 
can " Country Gentleman " of 27th 
January (says " The Live Stock 
Journal "), gives ah interesting 
account of the breeding of the 
Lliaui ponies, the smallest horses 
in the world. In iyoi, after 
spending sonic time in the West 
Indies, he returned to the United 
States, bringing seven of the tiny 
animals from Lliaui, a little island 
lying off the west coast of llayti, 
intending to breed thein on his 
farm at Narrangansett Bay. The 
ponies attracted much attention 
in the United Staties, and an offi- 
cial report of the Rhode Island 
State Board of Agriculture gives 
the following account of heights 
and weights, the former being 
from the ground to the top of 
the withers : — Toussaint, black . 
stallion, iy in., 48 lbs. ; Dessalines, 
cream-coloured stallion, iy in., 
4y)i lbs. ; Grisette, cream-coloured 
inare, 18 in., 46 lbs. ; Josephine, 
black inare, iy% in., 50. lbs. ; Marie, 
bay mare, 18/i in., 47 lbs. ; Faus- 
tin, bay stallion, iy in., 3y lbs. ; 
Fifi, chestnut mare, 15/s in., 48 lb. 
In the same rear Mr. Buffurn and 
his partner (Captain W. Jones) 
purchased the island from the 
Government of Hay-ti: They gave 
up the idea .of breeding the ponies 
in the United States, and confined 
their operations to Lliatii. They 
found it possible to diminish the 
very small size of the ponies. Hip- 
polyte, a six-year-old stallion, 
was a fraction under 17 in. in 
height last spring, and ■ weighed 
only 36 lbs. He was stolen, and 
the way in which a hunt was 
made for him with success makes 
an amusing story. He was found 
in New York being conveyed 
through a street by a negro, who 
was carrying the little animal 
with one hand in a perforated 
wooden box, to which a handle 

had been affixed. Several other 




A. II. BRUCE 

Engineer, General Machinist, Lc. 
Corner of 

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ADELAIDE 

Manufacturer of Centrifugal and 
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classes Steam, Oil and Gasoline 
Engines 1 Speciality. 



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Land Brokers, 

(Opp. Savings Bank), 
CURRIE STREET, ADELAIDE. 

attempts, some successful, were 
made bv .gangs of thieves, laaiding 
in the island, to steal the ponies. 
In one case a man was detected 
making off for the shore with a 
mare under one arm and her foal 
in a portmanteau. Speculations 
as to the origin of the ponies, Mr. 
Buffurn states, were discussed in 
American papers when he brought 
his first lot of them into the 
United States. — Queensland Agri- 
cultural Journal. 



THE DIFFERENCE IS JUST THIS : WHEN YOU USE 

Burford's Prize INo. 1 Soap, 

Burford's INo. Starch, 
Burford's Extract of Soap, 

YOU SAVE YOUR MONEY. 

WHEN YOU USE A SUBSTITUTE THE OTHER MAN SAVES YOUR MONEY. 

DON'T LET HIM HAVE IT. 



June, 1912 



THE GARDEN AND FIELD. 



25 



Salt for Sheep. 

There exists in most farmers' 
minds a dimly conceived idea that 
salt is good for sheep, and so at 
irregular intervals tuev supply it 
to them in varying quantities ; but 
probably few of them really under- 
stand the effect this condiment has 
upon the digestion nor the actual 
need that exists for it. 

It is not an accidental craving 
that causes sheep to so eagerly 
devour salt, but rather is it a 
real, physical want that demands 
satisfaction. Hvdrochloric acid is 
one of the chief constituents of the 
gastric juices of the stomach that 
play so active a part in digestion, 
and it is to help supply the 
chlorine of this acid that salt is 
necessary. It will be noticed that 
when sheep have not had salt for 
a long time, they eat it in simply 
enormous quantities. This is be- 
cause the supply of chlorine has 
become depleted, and requires re- 
plenishing. So , it is not simplv 
to lend variety or improve the 
flavour of food that salt should be 
given, but rather to supply chlorine 
for the gastric juices. 

Another reason why salt is use- 
ful to sheep is because it increases 
their thirst, and causes them to 
drink water in sufficient quantities 
to carry on the normal functions 
of the body. If foods are eaten, 
and only a small amount of water 
drunk, compaction often occurs in 
the digestive tract, and trouble or 
loss ensues. Moreover, when the 
water supply is small, the assimi- 
lated food is not so readily carried 
to different parts of the body and 
distributed to the tissues. 

'< Particularly when sheep are on 
grass and crops do they need salt, 
because these crops- contain 
potassium salts. Potassium has 
a greater affinity for chlorine than 
hydrogen. Hence, unless plenty 
of chlorine is supplied to the body, 
the potassium takes a portion of 
that which otherwise would com- 
bine to form hvdrochloric acid. 

I Either coarse ground or rock 
■alt may be used for feeding, as 
preferred. There is probably more 
Waste in connection with the 
fjround salt, but licking the rock 
•alt sometimes makes the sheeps' 
months and tongues sore. If 
Coarse salt is used, a tight trough, 
Covered with a little roof as a 
protection from the rain, should 
be provided. 

The average ewe requires from 
three to five pounds of salt a 
year, the variation depending 



largely upon the amount of 
natural salts contained in the feed 
given. This would mean that she 
should have from two to three 
pounds during the summer. It 
would be well to weigh out the 
amount that the whole flock 
should have during the summer 
upon this basis, then there will be 
no danger of giving too little. 

It is a mistake to give sheep 
salt only occasionally, and in 
large quantities, for under these 
conditions their appetites are so 
sharpened for it that they eat too 
much. If is is kept constantly be- 
fore them when they can eat it 
at will, tbev will eat what is 
necessary for the carrying on of 
bodilv functions, and will not take 
too much at once. 

S> 

Timber Planting for 
Shelter. 

The provision of warmth by the 
planting of shelter belts of timber 
is one of the most profitable im- 
provements of a property on which 
stock is carried. No class of land 
improvement exceeds in value that 
of tree planting, and its value for 



T. W. INGHAM, 

Manufacturer of Planter and Cement 
Ornaments, Fibrous Ceilings, Cornices 
and Arches a Specialty. 



flis Workmanship in the principal 
Villas around Adelaide and in the 
Country Townships, has given him a 
reputatior for the most up-to-date 
Artistic Work or Fibrous Ceilings. 

They are non-conductors of heat, 
cold, sound, dust, and fireproof, and 
give deep relief and under-cut, there- 
fore stand out well with straight and 
sharp harresses. 50 designs to select 
from. Estimates Given. 



WORKSHOP AND SHOWROOMS- 
VICTORIA PLACE, at Back of Govt. 
Offices, Adelaide. 



shelter in winter, and shade in 
summer is best appreciated by 
those who have taken practical 
steps to secure its advantages, 
also supplies of timber for fencing 
and firewood are provided by the 
thinning-s, while the additional 
value of the property from an or- 
namental point of view is a fur- 
ther aspect. 



Everybody Expects a 
Fair Deal 

And you will get it by paying a. 
Visit to 

C. H. LEHMANN S 

Establishment for 

Saddlery, Collars, 
Harness, etc. 



A Oa.ll Respectfully Solicited. 
It will pay You. 

C. H. LEHMANN, GRENFELL STREET. 



'26 



THE GARDEN AND FIELD. 



Jcne, 1912 



Choosing a Farm. 

— Area. — 

This must be in accordance with 
our means, but there is no need to 
be anxious for a large block if the 
land be good, for a little good 
land intelligently worked will give 
better returns for less labor than 
when one's efforts are spread over 
a large holding. One acre of 
good land will require no more 
labor to produce a crop than will 
poor land, while the return may 
be up to three times as great. 

— Situation. — 

Not too far from the railway sta- 
tion, with good roads, or at any 
rate situated so that the roajds 
when properly attended to will be 
good. It would be an advantage to 
choose land not absolutely llat and 
level, thus ensuring drainage, but 
at the same time with not too 
much slope, else too large a por- 
tion of the rainfall is lost by run- 
ning off, and all haulage opera- 
tions, even ploughing, etc., are 
considerably increased. 

— Aspect. — 

The land should slope east or 
north-east, with hills on the south 
and west if possible to offer pro- 
tection from heavy winds, which 
do far more harm than heavy 
frosts. Frequently we complain of 
the biting cold, when it is due al- 
most entirely to the severity of 
the wind, as may be proved 
bv seeking shelter from its fury. 
This matter of shelter is more 
overlooked than most things that 
conduce to profitable management 
of a farm. 

— Trees as Shelter. — 

If patches of timber are present 
to offer generous shade from the 



summer sun so much the better, 
as they pay for standing room 
many times over. 

Water is a necessity. Creeks are 
good, but ascertain if there is un- 
derground water at reasonable 
depths. I like springs and wells, 
though I must confess only too 
often springs are converted into 
puddle holes by neglect to keep 
stock from them and conveying 
the water to a trough for drink- 
ing purposes. Water ! Water ! 
water ! Always look out for 
water. In a favored locality a 
plentiful supply costs nothing and 
means much. 

— Improvements. — 

Now, as to the improvements. 
I would not give a straw for these 
as usually found. II good and 
where wanted, well and good ; if 
not, why, a man can effect these 
in time just to suit his own no- 
tions. Make the most ol what 
there is, and plan to have every- 
thing fit in harmoniously after- 
wards — always build so that one 
part will dovetail with another to 
give the most suitable and eco- 
nomical arrangement of buildings, 
ect. As for the state of the land 
as regards undergrowth, , etc. — well, 
if somewhat in the rough we will 
get it more than correspondingly 
cheap, lor a pound spent on clear- 
ing usually means -ti io/- or more 
of a rise in the market value. 

— Weeds. — 

As for weeds (so that they are 
not " noxious " ones) one need 
hardly trouble — if a good heavy- 
growth of weeds can be produced 
the land is in good heart to pro- 
duce good crops. My old dad used 
to tell a story of an old-country 
farmer who advised his son, when 



ELDER'S TRUSTEE 

AND EXECUTOR CO., LIMITED. 



Office of ELDER. SMITH & Co., Ltd 
Currie St., Adelaide, pro tem. 



AUTHORISED CAPITAL ... £500,000 
SUBSCRIBED CAPITAL ... £100,000 



Directors— T. E. BARR SMITH, T. L. 
BROWNE, G. H. PROSSER, A. J. 
MURRAY, and PETER WAITE. 



The Company, having been duly 
registered, is prepared to act as 
Trustees, Administrators, and Execu- 
tors. 

A. E. FRYER, Acting Sec. 



seeking a farm, not to make a 
deal unless he could find weeds 
strong enough to tie his horse to, 
and there was a good deal of wis- 
dom in the advice, as such a farm 
must necessarily be in good heart, 
while the neglect shown by tire 
growth of such weeds would prob- 
ably reduce the market value of 
the farm — make a good farm a 
cheap one. 

— The Homestead. 

Having secured a good farm, I 
think the most important point to 
be considered is the position of the 
homestead and the arranging of . 
the necessary paddocks and build- 
ings. First and foremost, I say, 
let the homestead be as nearly 
as possible in the centre of the 
paddock, granting a suitable site 
as regards drainage, water supply, 
etc., can be obtained ; indeed, I 
would keep this question of the 
homestead in my mind before 
choosing the farm. It is quite a 
common thing to see farm houses 
situated on the roadside or on one 
corner of the paddock, and the 
stock are never to be found near 
there when wanted — they are al- 
ways at the back end, and a great 
deal of a man's lifetime is w asted 
going to the back-end of the pad- 
dock. With a homestead in the 
centre of a farm the back-end is 
only half-wav at furthest. 

In the early pioneering da3'S (I 
remember them well), when we saw 
only one human being beside the 
boundary rider in the space of 
three months, settling by a road- 
side, was reasonable enough, but 
not'' now. With all classes of 
stock change of paddock is a great I 
advantage — a necessity, indeed; tol 
successful management. This can 
be most economically managed 



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and Licensed Land Brokers. 

Managing Directors — George W. Bagot, John Lewis. 
Wool Managers — George Dowling. George Jeffery. 

Land Manager — Alfred C. Catt. 
Inspector of Branches — James Wilkinson. 

Sales of fat and store stock, land, and farm clearing sales conducted in 
any part of the State. 

All station and farm requisites supplied ; large estates disposed of for 
Closer Settlement ; advice given as to best means of realisation ; plans pre- 
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Splendid estates in New South Wales and Queensland for Sale. 

Head Office: 18 King William Street, Adelaide. 



June, 1912. 



THE GAB-DEN AND FIELD. 



27 



when a homestead is in the %centre 
of a farm. 

A lire-acre square surrounds the 
homestead. When the time can be 
spared for sub-division fencing, 
fences radiate in four directions 
and at the smallest expense the 
farm is subdivided into four pad- 
docks all convenient to the back 
door, so that no time is lost hav- 
ing to go away down to shut the 
No. 2 gate. 

Choosing a farm means choosing 
a home, which is as important as 
choosing a wife. Unlortunately, 
only too often both are chosen 
without the careful consideration 
that should be given to such an 
important matter as the choosing 
a helpmate, companion, and co- 
worker for life, or of a home that 
may be one's almost from the 
cradle to the grave. A suitable 
wife, properly appreciated, makes 
a man, a suitable home makes a 
man, his wife and the bairns. 



When Milk Was Unknown. 

Milk is supposed to be indispens- 
able in sustaining human life, es- 
peciallv in the inlant stage. But- 
ter, notwithstanding its present 
abnormal price, is found on almost 
every table three times a day ; yet 
one could make shift to do with- 
out it, however much it might be 
missed. There are substitutes, lit- 
tle known, possibly, in this coun- 
try, but many and varied in Great 
Britain. So much so that a very 
stringent Act of Parliament was 
called into existence to deal with 
these numerous substitutes. To 
mention onlv one, oleomargarine, 
which served a useful pur- 
pose in the absence of the real 
article ; and doubtless where ig- 
norance was bliss met with due 
appreciation. Even without this, 
however, the human race could 
Jfcet along very well. Youngsters 
could make healthv progress on 
.beef and bacon dripping, while Die 
old folks could rest content with 
"Various things along the same 
lines. But milk, and fresh milk at 
that, is a real need ; and milk 
means cows. The concentrated and 
Condensed substitutes, unsweetened 
and sweetened, desiccated, and ad- 
ministered in a powde/red form, 
are onlv useful in that they supplv 
temporary needs. The best of 
each soon palls and is pronounced 
•icklv or insipid. From a revenue 
point of view the individual pro- 
ducer would suffer immensely if 
milk and butter were suddenly 
abolished. A gre ; it gap would 



also appear in the agricultural re- 
turns of the State, and every 
household would raise a plaintive 
cry. 

Yet there was a time, only a few 
centuries ago, when milk and 
butter were wholly unknown to 
the vast population of the two 
Americas, North and South. In 
1 one of these, at least, farmers 
pride themselves at the present 
time in knowing how to turn out 
both products better than any- 
body else. This degree i of pride 
may be a national failing ; but 
whether it is so or not it is ever 
excusable. From north to south, 
and from east to west, not a cow 
was to be found on either contin- 
ent some years ago. Neither was 
there any other milk-producing 
animal in the domestic state. 
There were no mares, no she 
camels, no nanny-goats, nor even 
a femaje elephant , to be relied upon 
to produce the lacteal fluid. From 
the times of the earliest mound- 
builders, during all the thousands 
of years that preceded the dis- 
covery of these new worlds, the 
population knew not milk, neither 
had it knowledge of an}- form of 
butter. It was a milkless age. 
When the baby of that period 
cried, its milk must come from the 
mother. Doubtless it would be as 
well if the modern infants could 
draw substance from that fount 
alone. Medical men hint at such 
tilings occasionally. There was no 
resort to the bottle and no con- 
densed milk in the days of the 
ancient Aztec. 

Pizarro and his piratical crew 
fared no better in the land of the 
Incas. They found plenty ol people 
there, and an abundance of food, 
but no horses, no camels, and no 
cows. There were wild sheep in 
abundance, but they were encour- 
aged only for the sa'ke of their 
wool and flesh, and not for the 
purpose of milking. Even the 
llama, the only beast of burden 
found anywhere on the American 
Continents, while useful as a car- 
rier, does not appear to have been 
used for dairy purposes. It is pos- 
sible that the conquerors, who 
came from a cow country, would 
have given a lot of the gold that 
they stole in exchange for some 
milk and butter ; but these articles 
were not to be had. In lieu of 
them the rascally Pizarro and his 
gang of desperadoes contented 
themselves with " milking " the 
poor Peruvians of all their other 
pronertv. When they had com- 
pleted the process, the "cow" was 
so well stripped that starvation 
set in, and destroyed half the 
population. In the course of time 
the invaders brought over a lot of 



their long-horned cattle, from 
which they obtained milk and but- 
ter, in the language of the ancient 
historian and of the modern poli- 
tician, " just like mother used to 
make." 

The nomadic tribes that roamed 
over North America were as badly 
off as the people farther south. 
The buffalo cow certainly gave 
milk ; but the Indians never mas- 
tered the art of milking ; in other 
words, they never domesticated 
any animal except the dog, aiid 
consequently knew nothing of milk 
and butter. The Indian babies 
were suckled at the beast, varied 
with intervals of sucking their 
thumbs, but grew to man's estate 
without any help from female 
quadrupeds. Nevertheless, they 
produced sane, powerful men, phy- 
sically perfect, capable of all kinds 
of endurance, strong, agile, and 
athletic. The obvious lesson from 
all this is that milk, while a 
mighty good thing, is not as in- 
dispensable as many would have 
one believe. One sees that a large 
part of the world's population did 
without it for centuries, and yet, 
so far as the animal man is con- 
cerned, turned out some of the 
finest specimens ever seen on the 
earth. 

Many of man's supposedly neces- 
sary possessions are purely artifi- 
cial. He could get along without 
them. Vegetarians are proving to 
us that man can live and thrive 
without any animal food at all. 
Immense numbers of people in 
Asia live almost altogether on 
rice ; and hordes of savages in 
the South Seas for generations 
throve on fruits, such as the ban- 
ana and the cocoanut. If, prior 
to the introduction of the domes- 
tie pig, the Polynesian varied his 
diet, it was on the special occa- 
sion of a banquet where " long 
pig," or a human being was 
served up. Unless scientists are 
;it fault our remote ancestors had 
nothing but nuts and the fruits 
of the earth to live on, and had 
not at that early stage developed 
the right kind of teeth to tear 
meat. Notwithstanding all this, 
few of our readers will find it 
easy to realize how they could get 
along without milk and its pro- 
ducts, or without the cow and all 
that the cow stands for. — Elder's 
Review. 



PooHorc I Can you writeus 

IlCdUCl a . 80mat hing about 
your method* of breeding, rearing, 
and managing Live Stock? Let 
us have it if it will only fill the 
back of a Peat card. 



2s 



Tflft GARDEN AND l-'IKLD. 



June, 1912 



Some Principles of Stock 
Breeding. 

Though the breeding of animals 
as one of the chief items in agri- 
cultural pursuits lias occupied the 
attention of no inconsiderable por- 
tion of mankind for many thou- 
sands of years, history is usually 
silent on the methods adopted by 
our far distant forefathers for the 
improvement of their docks and 
herds. 

— Jacob as a Stock Breeder. — 

We have, of course, the story of 
Laban's work for his own good, and 
as it is one of the earliest circum- 
stantial accounts, it is worth re- 
calling. It should be remembered, 
however, that the subject is one 
which is still hotlv debated among 
those most qualified to form 
opinions. 

The story is to be found in 
Genesis 30, and is a fine example 
of trickery matched with trickery, 



or, shall we say, of the biter be- 
ing bit. Laban having, in the 
dark, palmed off bleary eyed Leah 
on Jacob in place of the comely 
Raechel, for whom he had served 
seven years, gave the latter for 
another seven years work. When 
it came to adjusting wages Jacob 
proposed that he should have for 
his hire all the speckled and 
spotted progenv of the llocks and 
herds in his charge after all the 
existing speckled and spotted ones 
had been separated out. 

The narrative then says : " And 
Jacob took him rods of fresh pop- 
lar and of the almond and of the 
plane tree, peeled white strakes in 
them and made the white appear 
in the rods. And he set the rods 
which he had peeled over against 
the flocks in the gutters in the 
watering trough where the llocks. 
came to drink ; and they conceived 
when they came to drink. And 
the llocks conceived before the rods, 
and the llocks brought forth ring- 
straked, speckled and spotted. 



And Jacob separated the lambs 
and set the faces of the llocks 
towards the ringstraked and all 
the black in the flock of Laban ; 
and he put his own droves apart 
and put them not unto Laban's 
flock. And it came to pass that 
whensoever the stronger of the 
flock did conceive, that Jacob laid 
the rods before the eyes of the 
flock in the gutters, that they 
might conceive among the rods ; 
but when the flock were feeble, he 
put them not in, so the feeble 
were Laban's and the stronger 
Jacob's. And the man increased 
exceedingly, etc." 

— Robert Bakewell. — 

To England and an Englishman, 
Robert Bakewell, belongs the credit 
of having first reduced, or, had I 
not better say, elevated animal 
breeding to a science. He it was 
who first deduced, and then by 
systematic experiment and re- 
search, confirmed the existence of 
many of the great principles which 
since his day have to an ever 
increasing extent governed the 
practice of workers in this most 
fascinating and most profitable 
side of agricultural work. 

Not only may it be claimed 
with justice that the correct breed- 
ing of animals is a science, but it 
may, I think, with equal truth, be 
called an art. Thus, it is a 
science because its fundamental 
principles are exact, based on fixed 
laws, and operating within defi- 
nite limits. It is an art because 
within those limits the trained 
skill, instinctive knowledge, and 
preceptive faculties of man oper- 
ate. First in bowing where ne- 
cessary to Nature's laws, again 
meeting and over-coming the dif- 
ficulties she is ever ready to place 
in the way of too rapid or un- 
wise development (for be it known 
Dame Nature is essentially con-' 
servative) by artificially bringing 
into operation other laws. Finally 
by directing her forces and mould- 
ing them to his will he ensures 
that the finished product will 
stand out a monument to Nature's 
progress and man's genius. 

One of the great charms of the 
animal breeding is that it is not 
of necessity confined to any one 
class or set of conditions, for the 
workman who breeds a winning 
strain of terriers or bantams may 
know as much in his own line, ahdi 
enjov as keenly the possession of 
his knowledge, as typified in the < 
animals he has produced, as any 
Angas in his Shorthorns or a] 
Murrav in his Merinos. The facta 
that the monetary gain is vastly 



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CROWN «fc ANCHOR HOTEL, 

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wishes to intimate that he is now in possession of the above hotel, and 
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2 For the sum of £2 Cash we will deliver to the Adelaide Railway Station the following goods \|/ 

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9 1-lb. tin The Celebrated "Crown" Baking Powder ... ... ... ... 0 O 3 

9 201b. tin, gross weight, Our 2/- Tea, reduced to buyers of this parcel for ... 1 10 O >g 



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fJk £1 parcel may be arranged by taking halt quantities of the larger items, other? will be added ip 
to make up the amount. Customers desiring may have goods of equal value not mentioned in <V 

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9 Special Lines— Wines, Choice Vintages, a dozen varieties to choose from, 1/3 bottle ; Ale and 

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m Seasonable Fresh Fruits and Vegetables supplied. 

| HENDERSON BROS., 286 and 288 Rundle Street, Adelaide, 

T Return this Advertisement with Order. 



June, 1912 



THE GARDEN AND FIELD. 



2$ 



lifferent does not affect the prin- 
sple or the pleasure one whit. 

— Much yet to be Learned. — 

Animal breeding is a broad and 
:omprehensive question, and one 
in which there is still much to be 
earned in the always operating 
irinciple of cause and effect. On 
he one hand many causes are 
till obscure. On the other it is 
iften difficult to trace back a 
iven result to its original source, 
mt there are, nevertheless, many 
efinite principles which the ani- 
aal breeder may take hold of with 
he assurance that their applica- 
ion will not lead him astray, 
'here will be difficulties and dis- 
ppointments, no doubt, and 
/holly unexpected set-backs, but 
hrough and above it all those 
rho persevere will come to recog- 
ise the inexorable working of na- 
ural law, and he will see that to 
acceed he must fall in line. He 
rill find, too, that he cannot 
urrv Nature too much, for she is 
>r ever, he only for to-day. She 

infinite, he is strictly limited, 
ut she is kind to those who trust 
er and crowns the work of those 
r ho follow her teachings with as- 
iired success. 

— Some Principles. — 

In applying these teachings to 
ly subject of animal breeding, the 
rst great truth we learn is that 
ike produces Like. Not each 
me, certainly not every time or 
Q the time, so far as our limited 
aowledge can tell, but there is a 
trsistent recurrence of likeness of 
Ispring to parent or ancestor. 

This tendency is affected by so 
lanv and so different natural 
luses, though often apparently or 
:tuallv artificial, that the abso- 
te importance of recognising the 
orking of this law is sometimes 
Ferlooked. Yet were it not for 
lis great underlying principle of 
•production the work of the 
seeder would be absolute chance, 
* it is the one sure foundation 
Inch his future success must de- 
9id. 

— A Breeder Must have a 
Standard. — 

Following this as a rule which 
r erv breeder must follow, is the 
ding for himself some standard 
perfection, either real or ima- 
ged, to the reaching of which his 
hole energies must be devoted, 
or instance, not only must he 
low exactly what sort of a cow 
t is aiming at. His standard mnv 
ant to breed a cow, but he must 



be right or it may lw; wrong, but 
he must keep it always before 
him, and each step must be one 
nearer his ideal. If this is not 
done, though he may always keep 
cows, he will never become a cow 
breeder. 

— Selection. — 

Another rule from which there 
must be no departure is that of 
selection and breeding onlv from 
the best — that is, the one which 
most nearlv approaches his ideal. 
It mav be rather a poor cow, 
but let it be the best he has, re- 
membering that he who starts 
even with poor stock, but with 
knowledge and aptitude for the 
work, will soon pass another who 
begins with greater advantages 
but lacks knowledge, for know- 
ledge acquired or instinctive wins 
in the cow bvre just as surely as 
at the Universities. 

— The Individual the Kev to 
Breed. — 

Yet another great rule in breed- 
ing, seemingly a little contradic- 
tory to the previous one, though 
not reallv so, and particularly ap- 
plicable to the man who starts 
with' a long purse. It is this, 
Breed onlv from individuals which" 
closely approach the ideal type. 
This is a short cut to victory. 



The man who can practise it will 
I grant, get there sooner ; but will 
he learn as much on the jour- 
ney ? 

— A Principle of Mating. — 

Again a rule which the breeder 
must always keep before him is 
that of mating two animals so 
that the faults of the one may be 
counteracted by the other. Thus 
both may, indeed, surely will, have 
defects, but see to it that they 
are not the same on each side. 
Let the male be strong where the 
female is weak. To mate other- 
wise would be to exaggerate the 
trouble in the offspring. 

— Puritv of Blood. — 
A point often overlooked by 
manv who do devote some thought 
to the mating of the animals on 
the farm is the importance of 
puritv of blood in the male used. 
It is, I think, a curious fact — at 
least I know I have frequently ob- 
served — that it is most often those 
who do exercise care in other 
points who neglect this, yet in 
their case it would be the finish- 
ing touch. The coping stone, in 
fact, of the work they have done. 
On the other hand, many a care- 
less and utterly indifferent breeder 

(Continued on page 32). 



Rubberised Leather Belting. 

outlasts all other kinds and is not affected by water or heat. 
RUBBERISED LEATHER for Harness, boots, etc., is second to none. 
Read what Mr. Chris. Venning, of " Pearlah," Port Lincoln, says : 
"The RUBBERISED LEATHER Harness that I purchased three years ago 
has been pretty well in constant use, and is none the worse for wear now. 
Belt Laces, bought same time, I used for two seasons for lacing Harvester 
belts and now I am using same laces on a Chaffcutter Belt ; toughest I 
ever used. Braces bought the same time are as good as new, and will last 
me a lifetime. Boot laces and Soles carry same reputation, and now the 
boots, just received, hierhly satisfactory. I shall have much pleasure in 
recommending RUBBERISED LEATHER to all my friends." 

From all storekeepers. For further particulars, 
HELMSLEY JONRS, Basement, Victoria Buildings, 31 Grenfell Street, 

Adelaide. 

Sole agent for South Australia and Broken Hill. 



T. J. RICHARDS & SONS, 



CARRIAGE, BUGGY 
SULKY BUILDER 



THE LARGEST PEIZE TAKER IN SOUTH AUSTRALIA. 

Two years' guarantee with all new Vehicles. Tyreing included. All ma- 
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Prices. 

INSPECTION INVITED TO MY SHOW-ROOM AND FACTORY. 
Established in 1886. 

Hindmarsh Square, Adelaide. 



June, 19 IS. 



A u e of Animals. 

Scientist tell us that the dur- 
ation of the lives of the lower ani- 
mals differs from that of man's 
lives in being far more uniform. 

While human beings die at all 
ages between infancy and senility, 
among the lower animals, on the 
eontrarv, all individuals of the 
same species live to verv nearly 
the same age, unless killed bv 
violence. 

A bear rarely exceeds twenty 
years ; a dog lives twenty vears ; 
a fox fourteen or sixteen ; lions 
are long lived, one is known to 
have lived to the age of seventy. 
The average age of cats is fifteen 
years : a squirrel and hare seven 
or eight vears ; rabbits live to be 
about seven. Elephants have been 
known to live to the great age of 
400 vears. 

Pigs have been known to live to 
the age of thirty years ; the 
rhinoceros to twenty. A horse h is 
been known to live to the age of 
sixtv-two, but averages twentv-five 
or thirty ; camels sometimes live 
to the age of 100 ■ stags are long 
lived ; sheep seldom exceed the age 
of ten ; cows live about fifteen 
vears. 

The dolphin and porpoise attain 
the age of thirty. It is said that 
whales live 1,000 vears. An eagle 
died at Vienna at the age of 104 
vears : ravens frequently reach the 
age of 100 years ; swans live 300 
vears ; a tortoise has been known 
to live 107 years.— Exchange. 



Paints and Painting. 



Of the various classes of paints 
— as 'tar, varnish or resin, and oil 
paints — the last are the most ex- 
tensively used, and in the majori- 
ty of cases afford the best protec- 
tion. 

The wearing quality of a paint, 
•and its protecting power, are due 
more to the pigment than to the 
oil. With a pigment ground in 
oil, the finer the pigment the 
longer it will wear ; but it will 
dry more slowly. A layer of paint 
is about three times as thick as 
a layer of linseed oil ; hence, for 
this and other reasons a paint af- 
fords better protection than oil. 

Paint should be applied only to 
a clean and dry surface. Moisture 
under a paint causes it to blister 
when exposed to the sun ; also 
moisture between coats has the 
same effect. On old painted sur- 
faces the paint should be removed 
or rubbed down smooth before 
applying new paint. In some cases 
.1 capeful removal of blisters is suf- 
ficient, but the surface should lye 
free from dust and dirt. In case 
•of the removal of paint by a solu- 
tion of caustic alkali, the surface 
must be thoroughly washed to re- 
move traces of alkali, and care- 
fully dried, before painting. 

Iron or steel surfaces, should be 
carefully cleaned, by means of a 
steel wire brush and emery paper, 
to insure the removal of all rust 
before painting. 



Paint generally should be applied 
with a good round brush and well ■ 
rubbed out. The rubbing out 1 
serves to remove any bubbles of I 
air, also the film of air found on j 
all surfaces and it insures a tho- 
rough incorporation of ! the paint 
with the surface, thus affording 
better protection. The rusting of 
farm machinery is no doubt large- 
ly due to the fact that it is j 
" painted " by the dipping process. > 
Air bubbles causing openings in 
the Paint film, moisture enters I 
and rusting begins ; also, the paint ' 
not being well brushed out, is J 
easily removed mechanically. 

In the case of ready-mixed - 
paints, it is generally found that 
the pigment has largely settled to 
the bottom of the can. In pre- 
paring the paint for use, the liquid 
portion — oil and dryer — is poured 
off a clean can, the pigment and ] 
the small amount of the oil re-* 
maining in the bottom are tho- : 
roughly worked up and mixed bv I 
means of a strong, short stick. 
When the pigment is thoroughly 
Loosened from bottom and sides of 1 
the can, the fluid portion removed 
is added from time to time until 
the paint is uniformly mixed. 
Paint should be kept in cans 
having air-tight covers. After 1 
using, brushes should be cleaned 
with benzine or turpentine, and; 
should not be left in the paint. 

# 

Milk from Beans. 

The Japanese do not rely entire- 
ly upon the animal kingdom as a 
source of milk supply, but manu- 
facture milk from soya beans in 
large quantities. The process of 
making this milk, which is said to 
be very nutritious, is described as 
follows : — " The beans are first of 
all softened bv soaking, and are 
then pressed and boiled in water. 
The resultant liquid is exactly 
similar to cow's milk in appear- 
attce, but is entirely different in 
composition. The soya bean milk 
contains 92. s per cent, of water, 
3.02 per cent, albuminoid, 2.13 per 
cent, fat, 0.03 per cent, fibre, i.ljH 
per cent. non-nitrogenous sub- 
stances, and 0.41 per cent. ash. 
Some sugar and a little phosphate 
of potassium are added in order to 
prevent the elimination of albu-; 
men, and then the moisture is 
boiled down till a substance like 
condenlsed milk is obtained. This 
condensed vegetable milk is of a ' 
yellowish colour, and has a very 
pleasant taste hardly to be dis- 
tinguished from real cow's milk." 




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Makers also of Sheep, Cattle and Pig 
Troughing, Tanks, Field Gates, Wheel 

and W»t«r Barrows, etc. 



June, 1912 THE GARDEN AND FIELD. 31 



The Life of Seeds. 

A seed is really a bud natur- 
allv detachable from its parent 
plant, a bud in which the germ or 
erabrvo of a voung plant is stored 
in the smallest possible dimen- 
sions. It really represents a rest, 
ing stage on life's journey, a 
period at which our garden and 
Farm crops generally are reduced 
to their smallest bulk, and in the 
most convenient form for transit 
or storage until harvest again 
comes round. Seeds by the mil- 
lion, of kinds tnanv and varied, 
exist or lie dormant below the 
jarth's surface, latent if deep 
buried, but capable of germination 
whenever excavations of anv kind 
bring- them within the genial in- 
fluence of sun heat and light and 
air and moisture. When shafts of 
mines, or deep artesian or other 
wells, or railwav tunnels and cut- 
tings are made, the earth brought 
to the surface and there exposed 
often produces crops of weeds or 
other plants not known to exist 
in the localitv before, and the in- 
ference is that these seeds have 
become buried and inert in the 
deep bosom of the great earth 
mother, and live there silentlv 
awaiting a resurrection to sunlight 
and warmth once more. This, 
apart from the nossibilitv of light 
jeeds being wind-blown on to the 
new soil from the immediate 
ricinitv. That manv seeds will 
and reallv do lie dormant for 
manv years in the earth deep 
enough to be insensible to sunlight 
and heat is prettv well known, 
and that manv seeds will with- 
stand all the climatic vagaries of 
climate both in the tropical and 
arctic zones is, of course, appar- 
ent, but that thev were capable, 
moreover, of withstanding- artifici- 
al v-nrodnced temperatures much 
lower than those of the arctic re- 
rnons. «nd much higher than those 
of the drv and desert regions ly- 
ing around the "Red Sea, is a mat- 
ter of more recent research and 
experiment. 

Professor Dewar subjected vari- 
ous seeds to the excessively low 
temperature of liciuid hvdrogen. 
and these seeds, after beinc tested 
In the Roval Oardens at TCew bv 
Sir W. T. Thiselton-Dver, were 
found in manv cases to have their 
nrotfonlasmic vitalitv almost un- 
impaired, and this after Passing 
through temperatures much colder 
than anv that are possible under 
the worst natural climatic condi- 
tions at the present time. This 
inherent Power of withstanding ex- 
treme cold mav have enabled so 



many plants to exist all through 
the great glacial epoch; their seeds 
slept on, deep buried, but latent 
life was there. Atropos, even, 
had not the power of cutting that 
life line of extreme tenacity, as it 
existed in the tiny seeds ripened 
and buried ere the ice age began, 
and which were again to spring 
into life and' freshness and beauty 
as the ice caps and glaciers melt- 
ed slowlv awav from above them. 
It is the same when we come to 
consider the other extreme of heat 
instead of cold, for one has only 
to look at the crop of seedlings 
that come up, as it were, spon- 
staneously after a forest, or a 
prairie, or a heath fire, to see 
that an enormous number of the 
seeds buried more or less deeply 
in the earth have escaped, and 
rapidlv avail themselves of the 
light and moisture and free space 
that succeed the fires. Everyone 
nmst have noted how speedily the 
new growth of grass, gorse, or 
furze, broom and heather, etc., re- 
occupies the old areas of recent 
fires. No doubt millions of seeds 
ire actually consumed and abso- 
lutely destroved in forest and 
jungle or in heath fires, but quite 
a sufficient proportion escapes an- 
nihilation, and continues the pre- 
valent tree and shrub growth or 
native flora. In Singapore, as 
also in Borneo, we have seen even 
plants reputed delicate and diffi- 
cult to grow in British hothouses, 
such as Nepenthes (pitcher plant) 
and some terrestrial and other 
orchids and palms, spring up 
amongst the lallang or other 
"Tasses that succeed forest and 
iungle fires. It mav be thought 
that the nepenthes and orchid 
seeds, being light and readilv wind 
borne, mav have blown on to the 
burnt areas after the surface earth 
cooled down, but this argument 
could scarcely anr>K- to the heavv 
seeds of palms and Teguminose and 
other plants that also are 
.imonret the first new vegetation 
to appear. So that even under 
natural conditions we mav assume 
that seeds of manv plants, both of 
the tropical and temperate zones, 
are now and then, and under cer- 
tain conditions, able to withstland 
the action of fire. Darwin lon<r 
ago pointed out that the earth 
had a curious nower of closing 
over anything- deposited on its 
surface area, this, being in a great 
measure due to the burving or 
upheaval pn"-T of earth worms in 
temnerat" 'ands, and also of the 
mould- 1 lildina ants or termites in 
warm countries, and it mav be 
that the tendency of heat being 
to' rise upwards, the effect of 



iungle fires, etc., may not pene- 
trate verv deeply into the ground, 
and that the buried seeds for ages 
lie dormant and Safe below the 
fire line, so ; as to be ready to 
" replenish the earth " whenever 
it is left bare. 

Dr. Henrv H. Dixon, a dis- 
tinguished physicist of Trinity Col- 
lege, Dublin, has recently taken up 
the question of seed vitalitv from 
heated and dry end of the scale of 
extremes, and his experiments are 
alluded to in Nature of July II, 
where he describes the results ob- 
tained from seeds carefully dried 
in a chamber exposed to the fumes 
of sulphuric acid, or desiccated in 
an oven or thermostat. From his 
actual trials Dr. Dixon concludes 
that, in most oases, the dried seeds 
can resist very high temperatures, 
inst as Professor Dewar and Sir 
W. Thiselton-Dver found that thev 
could resist very low ones. Seeds 
of Medicago, for example, after 
an hour's exposure in a tempera- 
ture of no C, and another hour 
of I2T C, showed a germinating 
power of 10 per cent. Seeds thus 
dried and; heated, however, are not 
only slow of germination (retard- 
ed), but the growth after germin- 
ation is extremely slow, so that 
life is considerably weakened bv 
extremes of drought and heat, al- 
though not altogether destroved, 
as one would have a priori, ima- 
nined would have been the case. 
Apart from the power of resist- 
ing extremes of heat and of cold, 
dry seeds in manv cases also pos. 
sess a wonderful power of resist- 
ing poisonous vapours, but in this 
thev would appear to owe their 
immunity not so much to the in- 
herent vitality of the living pro. 
toplasm of the embrvo as to the 
impervious density of their seed 
coats or testae, this being proved 
by the fact that if the seed coats 
are ruptured or perforated 1 previ- 
ously to their being treated by 
poison otis vapours or liquids the 
seeds lose the power of germina- 
tion. The who,e question of seed 
vitality is an important one, and 
especially to seedsmen and all who 
cultivate farm, field, , and garden 
crops, and it is verv encouraging 
to find that seeds are so hard to 
destroy bv either heat or by cold. 
A cool and equal dry temperature 
is best for preserving the vitalitv 
of seeds generally, any alterna- 
tions of heat, moisture and 
drought frequently proving fatal, 
as tinder such conditions germina- 
tion is started and then drought 
soon kills the embrvo plants, as 
in the " malting " of grain for 
brewing purposes. — Field. 



Jane, 1912 



(Continued from page 29). 

is a stickler for a pure bull ; 
probably he then thinks he has 
done all that is necessary, and his 
interest ends there. But for the 
benefit oL the man who does much, 
yet neglects this, let us look a lit- 
tle closely into what this purity 
of blood really means. 

Puritv of blood is only of value 
when it goes with individual excel- 
lence (one should qualify this a 
little, perhaps, but let it stand for 
the present), and I Sttbuld be the 
last to advocate the blind use of 
an animal only because it was 
purely bred. Tt is what goes 
with pure breeding which makes 
its value in the head of a herd. 
Purity of race is secured by a 
more or less lengthy descent from 
animals of similar type, shape, and 
characteristics. In the course of 
time this particular type becomes 
fixed. Tn other words, puritv of 
blood of the same strain when 
mated will throw offspring in the 
exact image of themselves. They 
are, in fact, prepotent. Now, when 
that type and shape and those 
characteristics are what is want- 
ed, we see what an immense 
power for good is this inherited 
tendency in an animal to beget off- 
spring like himself, especially when 
mated with one not so prepotent. 
Thus a pure bull in whose blood 
the correct type, shape, and char- 
acteristics are concentrated will, 
when mated with a herd of cows 
of no fixed blood lines, impress his 
own individuality on every calf 
dropped. For in each case we 
have on the one hand a fixed ten- 
dency in one direction, whilst in 
the other partner in the union 
there are no oredominatincf but 
often antagonistic influences. 



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To Get a Pig Into a 

Waggon. 

It is not the easiest thing in the 
world to get a pig into a waggon. 
A loading " rack " attached to 
the conveyance will save a lot of 
trouble (says the Farmer and 
Grazier). Such a* "rack" can 
easily be made. Let the bed- 
piece consist of two pine boards 
nin. wide bv 9ft. long. These are 
fastened together bv three cross- 
pieces of the same material of pro- 
per length, so that the " bed " 
will just fit in between the sides 
of the wagon box. A floor is laid 
on these cross-pieces on which 
short strips of lath are nailed to 
prevent the pics from slipping. At 
one end the sides are notched to 
fit on the bottom of the waggon 
box. There are two stakes on 
each side, bv which the sides are 
fastened on. The " rack " is more 
like an ordinary top box, with the 
execution that each side is com- 
posed of three narrow boards 
about .tin. apart, and nailed to 
three cleats (the two end cleats 
to be on the inside and the mid- 
dle one on the outside of the 
rack), and projecting down the 
side of the waggon box. For un- 
loading the pi<rs nothing but the 
bed-niece need be used, which, be- 
ing lioht, may be easily thrown 
on and taken with the waggon. 

— Pig Styes. — 
Light should be admitted into 
all pig sties. Sunlight is needed 
to d'rv out the interiors of the 
houses when thev become damp. 
Tt is a disease-killer, and the pig 
needs the presence of a disease- 
killer about as badly as any other 
animal. It is an easy matter to 
put in a few panes of glass, even 
in a house that is of small di- 
mensions. In the large houses it 
is absolutpb- n^essarv, and more 
so in winter, i The hef t that comes 1 
from the sun is the best kind of 
heat, because it has in \it electrical 
ravs, which are not usualb- taken 
into consideration. 

$ 

Farmers' Experiments. 



Field experiments made bv far- 
mers in their own fields are not 
intended to solve problems con- 
nected with the general practioe* of 
aiJ-ricultuVe, but. to afford informa- 
tion as to the snecial needs of the 
farmer's own fields, and to show 
in how far he can increase his 
nrofit or economise bv the addi- 
tion or omission of certain fer- 
tilising ingredients. 

It is the province of scientific 
institutions to investigate general 



principles. It is the province oil 
the individual farmer to ascertain! 
by trials on his own fields torn 
what extent the results obtained I 
bv thr institutions are applicable j 
to his farm. 

Every farmer should make such 
experiments, because the results 
will afford guidance to be obtained 
so accurately in no other way. 
It is bv such means that he can 
find out what kinds and quanti- 
ties if the different fertilising in- 
gredients will yield the best re- 
sults ; in what constituents he can 
economise ; and in what he should 
be more liberal. 

Before the introduction of arti- 
ficial manures the treatment of the 
soil was a simple matter ; but, 
now that the farmer has at his 
disposal a variety of artificials, 
and is recommended to expend 
considerable sums of monev on! 
them, it is essential that he 3 
should ascertain bv actual experi-| 
ment and calculation how far the' 
expenditure will result in an in-I 
creased profit. He should exam-I 
ine this question just as carefully 
as anv other manufacturer before 
incurring outlay for increased ma- 
chinery and plant calculates how 
far the expenditure will be remu- 
nerative. 

It may be thought that an ■ 
analysis of the soil, or the results • 
obtained at an agricultural scien- 
tific institution, afford scientific 
guidance, but it is not so. Chemi- 
cal analysis, useful as it may be, 
will not show conclusively the 
quantity of available plant food 
in the soil : the results obtained 
at the institution : also useful in 
a general way and admirable as 
signposts showing the direction, 
do not indicate with precision the 
special requirements of the far- 
mer's land ; nothing can reveal 
this need but a trial on the spot. 
— Mark Lane Express. » 



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LADY TN ATTENDANCE 



THE GARDEN AND FIELD. 



33 



Cultivating Lucerne. 



" The foremost method of culti- 
vating alfalfa is with the disk 
harrow, one of the most excellent 
iarm implements ever invented. 
Alfalfa sown in the fall is almost 
invariablv helped bv disking the 
iollowing spring, with the disks 
set quite straight, so as not to 
:nt the crowns but to split them, 
ft is usuallv well to follow this 
iisking with a tooth harrow, with 
its teeth set straight. Occasion- 
al^ in a dry summer the disk mav 
be used to great advantage after 
:he second, and possibly the third, 
nittine also. Many disk their al- 
alfa fields every s iring, and some 
ifter each cutting ; others do so 



only once in every two or three 
vears, owing to weather condi- 
tions and the conditions of the 
alfalfa. In some instances the 
common harrow is used instead of 
a disk. 

" The disking has several bene- 
ficial effects. It splits and spreads 
the crowns, causing more and con- 
sequently finer stems to spring 
up, affording hay of the most de- 
lightful quality easily cured ; it 
loosens the soil about the crowns, 
conserves moisture and destroys 
the weeds. There need be no fear 
of killing the plants if the dicks 
and the harrow teeth are set 
straight and weighed or other- 
wise adjusted to give direct and 
steady forward movement. As an 



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implement [or the cultivation and 
invijroration of an alfalfa field the 
disk harrow has no equal, and its 
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37 WAYMOUTH ST., ADELAIDE 



34 



THE GARDEN AND FIELD. 



June. 1912 



Prevention of Disease. 



By S. S. Cameron, M.R..C.V.S. in 
Victorian Journal of Agriculture. 



Just us there are certain circum- 
stances and conditions pi body and of 
environment which tend to the acquire 
ment of disease, so there are certain 
factors which make for healthfulness, 
and which, when exerted to the full, 
have powerful influence in warding oil' 
attacks of disease or 'n mitigating 
their severity. By the general and 
continuous practice of hygienic prin- 
ciples and the adoption of methods 
of adequate sanitary efficiency both 
the avoidynce of predisposing causes 
and the mitigation of the more mark- 
ed 'effects of exciting causes may 
be compassed. 

For the prevention of outbreaks of 
specific disease, and of their spread 
means special to the disease are 
adopted. The character of these means 
will depend largely on an understand- 
ing of the nature of the disease, its 
incubative period, its mode of spread, 
and other like special features, and 
will moreover be conditioned in some 
cases by local circumstances and 
commercial considerations. They will 
also depend on the existence of 
special legislative enactments, and 
machinery and facilities for adminis- 
tering such. To some extent preven- 
tive measures will be indicated in 
later chapters, when the diseases to 
which they apply are being dealt with. 
In this place it will suffice to give 
short consideration to some of the 
more important of the many factors 
which make for general good health 
and for lessened susceptibility to 
diseasa. 

— Breeding. — 

Care in the selection and mating of 
breeding stock is necessary for the 
prevention of those diseases which are 
generally regarded as hereditary. The 
breeding from tuberculous cows may, 
under circumstances specially arrang- 
ed, be so conditioned that little, if 
any. risk of the disease being trans- 
mitted is run ; but under ordinary 
circumstances the risk of transmission 
in breeding from tuberculous sires 
and dams is a large one, and should 
be unhesitatingly avoided. 



Horses affected with any of the 
following diseases or unsoundnesses 
should not Ix* used for breeding pur- 
poses :— Nasal disease (osteoporosis), 
rheumatism, ricketts, roaring, whistl- 
ing, broken-wind, grease, navicular 
disease, ringbono, bone spavin, bog 
spavin, thoroughpin, curb, and cata- 
ract. It would be well, too, if breed- 
ing from stock possessing radical de- 
fects of conformation was avoided — 
such as, particularly, those with calf- 
knees, bent legs, round gummy joints, 
flat feet with weak " corny " heels, 
narrow contracted heels and muley 
feet, sickle hocks, knuckled fetlocks 
and long weak pasterns ; those " tied 
in " below the knee and hock, and 
those which " brush " or " speedy 
cut." 

The supineness of Austlalian horse 
breeders generally, and particularly 
those who have the management of 
stock shows and stallion parades, in 
regard to the question of transmissible 
unsoundness in breeding stack, is re- 
markable. It is "apparent Iv I egotten 
of that carelessness in the selection 
of sires and dams which was engend- 
ered in the days when horse flesh was 
a drug in the market. But in these 
present days, when ordinary sizeable 
three or four-year-old draught colts 
Commonly fetch £40 to £50, and har- 
ness horses are proportionately valn- 
able, it is surely little short of a 
scandal that prizes are commonly 
awarded at agricultural shows, which 
are supposed to exist for the imorove- 
ment of agriculture and stock, to 
sound and unsound breeding stock in- 
discriminately. Instances are not 
wanting, even at the show of the lead- 
ing agricultural society in this State, 
in which the blue ribbon has been 
carried off by an obviously un- 
sound animal, and at some of the 
provincial shows the awarding of 
prizes to veritable " crocks " is an 
occurrence so common as to excite 
little or no comment. For the judges 
seem to be guided by make and 
shape and suitability only, in the 
case of breeding stock, the existence 
of, say, a spavin or roaring- claims 
consideration under the heading of 
suitability for the purpose for which 
the exhibit is intended — viz., the be- 
getting of sound and saleable progeny. 



At any rate, when, as hapeni-d at a 

leading provincial show in Victoria a 
short time back, of six horse awarded 
prizes in two breeding classes, four of 
them were palpably unsound, the 
spavin of the first prize thoroughbred 
and the curb of the first prize draught 
bfeing distinctly discernible from the 
ring side, the judges cannot reasonably 
be acquitted of the charge of abetting 
in the deception of the breeders of 
the dist licts in i 'which ' the) ticketed 
champions are to be used. Equally 
culpable was the judge at a recent 
" National " show, who awarded first 
to a pronounced roarer, whose 
"music" could lie distinctly heard 
while he was undergoing the not-foo- 
wind -distressing ordeal of being judg. 
ed. Such happenings are almost in- 
credible, and are calculatid to excite 
amongst thoughful mi n grave aonre- 
hension for the future of the horse 
industry. Ask Indian buyers of ex- 
tensive experience, or thos° who were 
intrusted with the buying of horses for 
South Africa dr.iring the war, as to the 
numbers of otherwise useful horses 
that are rejected on account of trans- 
mitted unsoundness, and say: Is it! 
not time that prizes, ly the n-aininT 
of which the average small breeder 
judges of the merits of the animal, 
should be awarded only to animals 
worthy of (he distinction in all re- 
spects ? 

— Feeding. — 

The most essential attribute of food, 
in so far as it may be a factor in the 
maintenance of health, is that it 
should be sound. Sour milk in the 
production of diarrhoea in calves, 
musty hay inducing broken wind in 
horses, and fermented grams civin" 
rise to indigestion and hoven in 
cattle, are familiar imistances of the 
ill effects of unsound or decomposing 
food. 

Next to soundness comes the 
necessity for regularity in feed n" 
and that the food should ^e in proner 
proportion, both as regards quantity 
and quality. By th» observance of 
regular hours for feeding nnimfls. end 
regular and not too prolonged inter-' 
vals between feeding, a rhythmical 
action of the digestive organs is en- 
gendered, which induces more perfect 
digestion and makes for disease- re- 
siting strength. 

As a general rule, for nil herbivorous 
animals, the advice to feed little and 



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June, 1912 



THE GARDEN AND FIELD. 



35 



often is good, in that it is in accord 
with the method of feeding in. a state 
of nature. When such practice is 
adopted with stabled animals, there 
is less likelihood of any food being 
left over, and consequently the tendency 
to stomach and lowel troubles re- 
sult ing from the ingestion at next 
feeding time of soured or fermented 
food is minimized. Soiled food should 
always be removed after feeding, and 
should never be miked with fresh feed. 
Complete mast cation of the food is 
necessary to perfect digestion, and in 
the case of animals with the habit of 
" bolting " their food it is advan- 
tageous to let it be coarser than usual 
so that chewing and grinding may be 
assured. 

— Watering. — 
Very diverse views are held as to 
the proper time at which animals 
should be allowed to drink — whether 
before or after feeding. The most 
natural plan is to always have water 
accessible to the animal when in tho 
stable. If this is done, as much water 
will be taken as is required, and 
no more, and it will be taken when 
required, and at no other time. The 
opinion that water should be given 
in limited quantities — limited, too, 
according to the judgment of man — is 
an error. Animals in health seldom 
or never take more than they require. 
It is conceivable that, after long, 
enforced abstinence, or after profuse 
perspiration, they require — and take 
— more than is good for them to take 
at one drinking 1 — a quantity, indeed 
which will, by it3 volume of coolness 
produce stomach or intestinal spasm 
(colic). In such circumstances it is 
advisable to interrupt the drinking 
for a time, or to take the " chill off 
the water by warming it slightly, 01 
by adding a little warm water to it 
It is well that water should be with- 
held for some time prior to the im- 
posine of violent exercise or work 
Racehorses, for example, should not be 
to allow a long drink, if it is desired 
lis not during the three or four 
hours nrecedin? a rac>. Perhaps the 
only other time when it is advisable 
to allow a long dring, if it is desired 
,by the animal, is immediately aftei 
feeding, when the fluid, passing 
rapidly theough the stomach towards 
its natural receptacle — (the caecum, or 
blind gait, or water gut) — is likely to 
carry with it into the small intes- 
tines some of the stomach contents 
which are still cwjde and harsh and 
Slot in a sufficiently degested state 
to pass on, and which, therefore 
pet up colic, or even inflammation of 
[the bowels (enteritis). For similar 
reasons, if water is not kept con- 
tinuously within reach, in which case, 
M previously stated, as much as will 
do harm, will never be taken, the 
watering should always be done before 
feeding. 

The obviousness' of the necessity that 
drinking water for animals should be 
pure and wholesome has been pre- 
viously indicate*!, when the part it 
plays in the causation of disease was 
dealt with. To insure this, it is often 
desirable that purification by filtering 
through natural or artificiallyt-con- 



structed filter-beds, or by precipitat- 
ing, or some other method of purify- 
ing should be resorted to ; and the 
expense and trouble of establishing 
such precautions will be amply repaid 
by the assurance which they afford of 
the continued health and vigour of 
the stock. On farms where the water- 
supply consists only of water-holes, 
which become foul and fo?tid from 
pollution by animal discharges, water 
troughs supplied by windmills should 
be provided. The objection is some- 
times raised that, where water-holes 
and swampy patches are numerous, it 
is of no use providing drinking 
troughs, as stock will not make use 
of them ; i but it will be found on trial 
that stock will always go naturally 
to clean water. In point of fact, 
cattle may be frequently observed to 
refuse, or drink but sparingly of, con- 
taminated water. Thty may be seen 
to go to a foul and slimy water-hole, 
stir the water by wading, then smell 
it, and drink a little, or wade out 
without drinking at all. That their 
thirst is not assuaged is evidenced by 
the fact that they may be seen to re- 
turn and repeat the performance time 
and again. Tn any case, the fencing 
off of the water-holes or swamps 
would be a distinctly profitable under 
taking if only as a safeguard against 
fluke and other such parasites. 

— Management. — 

So far as the prevention of disease 
concerned, good management includes 
the continuous provision for housed 
animals of comfortable quarters and 
bedding, an adenylate supply and 
interchange of fresh, wholesome air 
without th» occurrence of draughts, 
suitable clothing, efficient grooming 
and cleaning, and regular exercise or 
work in moderation ; and for animals 
in the paddock, in addition to an 
adequate supply of food and water, 
shelter, or protection by rugs from 
wind, rain, and insects and shade from 
the sun. It will be fortnd, by careful 
observations over a longer or shorter 
period of time, that the measure of 
health or freedom from disease of any 
stud of animals is in ratio to the 
amount of care exercised in regard to 
these items of management. 

There are certain times at which 
extra oare in the management of stock 
is necessary and profitable. Youn^ 
stock, particularly foals and calves, 
should be kept growing during their 
first winter. It is the worst possible 
policy to let them get low in condi- 
tion, either from shortness of food or 
lack of protection from the weather 
An ideal winter paddock for young 
stock should contain a straw stack, 
whereby both shelter and a oicking of 
dry food is afforded. A check received 
during the first year is seldom made 
up for, and it will go hard with under 
eonditioned youngsters if anything in 
the nature of contagious disease gets 
amongst them. Weaning time is also 
a critical period. Foals should be 
gradually accustomed to take a little 
good, hard feed for some time before 
they are removed from their daros, 
otherwise the sudden loss of milk will 
be severely felt. 



— Cleaniness. — 

Although, perhaps strictly, this 
should have been included along with 
management, cleanliness is s G much n 
thing apart in importance from all 
other factors in the prevention of 
disease that the strong emphasis of 
separate consideration is incumbent. 

Cleanliness means, simply and 
essentially, the absence of germs and 
the lack of means for their multiplica- 
tion and development . Disease caused 
by germs make little headway where 
cleanliness in all things prevails. 
Take swine fever, essentially a germ 
disease, and mark the general ex- 
perience that, amongst filthily-kept 
pig-s, with rotten food to eat, foul 
fluids to drink, reeking air to breathe 
and a stinking stye with a filthy 
flo'or to lie in, the disease spreads like 
wildfire, and is proportionately fatal; 
whilst amongst paddocked pigs, or 
those attended to wholesomely, and 
fed on uncontaminated food, in fre- 
quently flushed styes, it appears to be 
almost non-contagious. Similarly 
abortion in cattle:, strangles in horses, 
and distemper in dogs, the associated 
fatalities and " catchingness " are 
always decreasingly proportionate to 
the cleanliness of the surroundings. 

There is not much more to be said — 
in fact, nothing more need be said, 
if the fact has been impressed that 
cleanliness in all things connected with 
animals — in their surroundings, their 
feeding and watering, their housing 
and paddocking, when working and 
when at rest — is above and beyond all 
things the most important factor in 
the preservation of health and the 
vigorous resistance of disease, and 
that it is the essential feature in the 
subj ligation of the spread of infectious 
and contagious diseases, and of the 
germs which cause them. 

(To be continued). 




H. DENNIS 

IMPLEMENT MAKER. 
(Late of MORGAN). 

YOUNG STREET 

(Old Methodist Hall) between 
FRANKLIN & WAYMOUTH STS. 

DENNIS' PATENT 
STEEL BUCKSCRAPER AND SILT 
SCOOPS, GATES, ETC. 

Write for Illustrated Catalogue and 
Priee Lie*. 



36 



THE GARDEN AND FIELD. 



Rugging Cows' 



Year after year writers in the 
agricultural press advocate the 
rugging of cows, not, it must be 
confessed, with a very large mea- 
sure of success, ati least as for the 
smaller dairy man and private 
owners are concerned. It should, 
however, be remembered, that 
these worthy scribes do not offer 
the advice merely because they 
consider that a rugged cow is 
more ornamental than an un- 
rugged animal. No ! There is a 
sound scientific reason at the li.uk 
of it. Broadly shaking, food con- 
sumed by the "cow serves two pur- 
poses. It maintains its vital 
forces, and the surplus goes to 
milk. Obviously then if more 
than is necessary is used for the 
the former purpose the less there 
will be available for the latter 
Now the greatest drain there is 
upon the energy of a healthy cow 
comes from cold and wet weather, 
and if the animal can to some ex- 
tent be protected it will be readily 
shown in her'outout. Commodious 
and artificially heated stables are 
unnecessarv with us, but the pro- 
vision Of a rug during inclement 
weather has been proved to be 
a commercially profitable invest- 
ment. We do not, of course, refer 
to the traversity of rugging, ex- 
amples of which we sometimes see 
in our park lands, when torn and 
rain soaked bran bags may be 
noticed hanging from the more 
prominent points of or trailing be- 
hind some unhappy beast. No 
doubt the owners mean well ; 
their execution is, unfortunately, 
disastrous, for such rugging is in- 
jurious rather than helpful. No ! 
the rug we mean is light, water- 
proof, warm, but easily handled, 
durable, vet not costly. Such a 
rug, in ' fact, as supplied by 
'Messrs. Holden & Frost, Grenfell 
Street. We have spoken of scientific 
reasons as backiny up the theory 
of rugging, but to the average 
dairyman, however, the fact that 
the owners of some of the largest 
milkinir herds of the Conymon- 
ing the adoption of this practice 
will be more convincing. Many 
interesting records of profit follow- 
wealth have adopted the practice 
have, from time to time been pub- 
lished, and no doubt any maker 
or seller would be. able to show 
highly satisfactory testimonials 
from users who they have sup- 
plied. Two and two make four, 
not once, but for a ll time ; simi- 
larly and with equal surety a 
comfortable cow will be a pro- 
fitable cow, not once, but every 
time, and in cold weather rugging 
goes a long way towards comfort. 



In anv case the matter is one 
which merits the attention of 
everv owner whether he milks 
one, ten, or a hundred cows. 

® . 

Farm Notes. 



Dairving is profitable, if you do 
the right kind of dairying. 

Of all branches of live stock 
husbandry, dairying gives thi 
largest return for feed consumed. 

Do not work a young horse long 
before having shoes put on him ; 



the wearing away of too much of 
the horn of the foot is to be 

avoided. 

Drainage is one of the prime ne- 
cessities of the piggery ; the lloor 
should slope to a drain. 

Heavy feeding will not make a 
good milker of one not naturally 
of the milking breed. 

Don't keep too many sheep on 
the farm, and do not keep any if 
you cannot have the best. After 
you have a real flock keep on weed- 
ing out. 




June. 1912 



TRB GARDEN AND FIXXO 



37 



Pottltry Notes. 



Club for Plymouth Rocks. 



Some weeks ago Mr. A. J. 
lodd, of Franklin, suggested in the 
press that a club to further the 
interest of the Plymouth Rock 
was desirable,, and expressed his 
wish to hear from anyone in- 
terested in the subject. Matters 
have moved ahead a little, and 
this month a meeting of a few 
breeders interested in the breed 
took place with the result that 
Messrs. Fox, Chandler, Hayward, 
and Fitch, have bqen appointed 
to further the movement. It is 
hoped that a larger meeting, one, 
in fact, attended by all interested in 
the breed, will be held at the forth- 
:oming show. Thefre can be no 
doubt that Specialist Clubs run on 
:ommon sense lines have, in the 
past done, and are still doing, 
much, to maintain the breeds tbc\y 
represent in popular favor. As an 
instance one need only mention 
Hie S.A. Malay Club, which in- 
cludes practically all breeckars of 
this variety. The more recently 
Formed Wyandotte Club, is doing 
;ood work, and the increase in the 
number of Bantams bred and ex- 
hibited, is more or less due to the 
somewhat spasmodic efforts of the 
Bantam Club. 

With regard to the Plymouth 
Rock enterprise, it occurs to us, 
that the number of breeders speci- 
ally interested, is so small as to 
be a serious handicap to the 
foundation of a successful society. 
We believe that more success 
Could ba attained if thev asked the 
Orpin«ton men to join them. It 
will be remembered that a sug- 
gestion for forming an Orpington 
Club has been more than once 
mooted, but, so far,' without re- 
sult. If the " Plymouths " and 
the " Orpingtons," however, were 
E> join forces, we have no doubt 



-EL. C5-. TOYNE 

Practical Saddle, Harness and 
Collar Maker and Repairer . . . 

wishes to notif y tlie public that he haft removed 
from 20 Franklin Street to 

Corner PuHeney and Flinders Streets 

•or! respectfully solicits the continna e*> of 
your patronuve. All kinds of New and 
Second-hand SADDLERY. Ha met* and 
Stable Requisites stocked. 

All Orders promptly attended to. Repairs 
» 8peci.il i v. Old Harness taken as pirt 
payment for New, and full Viilue allowed. 
All work guaranteed and thf most reasonable 
priees charged. Price-list free on application 
buy direct from the Maker. 



that a live club representative of 
the breeds could be formed. The 
matter is in the hands of breeders 
themselves, and it will depend on 
the interest they take in the mat- 
ter, whether Mr. Todd's sugges- 
tion results in something definite- 
ly progressive, or another failure 
being added to the list of well 
meant endeavours. 

<§> 

Poultry and Kennel Club 
Show. 

Fanciers are reminded that this 
show will be held on the 28th and 
29th of this month. The schedule 
to hand reminds us of one altera- 
tion which has taken place since 
last vear, for Mr. Joseph Hill, 
who has for so many vears been 
in charge of the arrangements, 
has found that the pressure of 
other work does not permit his 
continuing to occupy the position 
of secretary. Whilst exhibitors 
will regret losing him, for the 
genial Joseph had come to be 
looked upon as a permanent insti- 
tution, they may be assured that 
in the hands of Mr. Winchester 
the running of the show and other 
arrangements connected therewith, 
will leave nothing to be desired. 
It is to be hoped that this vear 
will see a satisfactory addition to 
the entry list, and that visitors 
make their numbers a little more 
conspicuously apparent, than has 
been the case of late years. The 
secretary and committee are, we 
know, endeavouring to add to the 
list of attractions. 

Messrs. Hobbs, W. A. 1'',. Smith, 
George Duncan and Pitman, will 
do the bulk of the judging, 
and in their capable hands exhibi- 
tors will have every confidence. 
We hear reports of unusually good 
stock in many breeders' yards, and 
the cream of it, which will be 
penned at this show, will certainly 
be worth a visit. Mum poultry 
keepers who would, we know, derive 
pleasure and profit from getting in 
touch with what is being done on 
the fancy side, religiously keep 
;iway from our shows. Why this 
is so, is difficult to determine, for 
if one is keeping and breeding poul- 
try at all, it is surely worth while 
to go for the best possible and to 
visit such a show, with its 1,000 
entries, must be helpful. The 
classification is, as usual, liberal, 
and requests for added classes 



have been met wherever possible. 
Fanciers can best express their ap- 
preciation of the work of the com- 
mittee by attending the show and 
bringing their friends with them. 

<$> 

A Deputation. 

When the poultry expert had a 
little difference of opinion with the 
committee of the Poultry and Ken- 
nell Club some time, ago, a rude 
person remarked that the latter 
would probably be sorry for it. 
Possibly such a person would 
connect the incident with the re- 
cent refusal of the Government to 
continue their usual subsidy to 
the Society. Far be it from us, 
however, to be so unpleasant ! In 
consequence of this refusal, a de- 
putation, consisting of the com- 
mittee and a few friends, waited 
on the Minister of Agriculture to 
ask him to reconsider his decision. 
It was speedily apparent that Mr. 
Pascoe knew very little about the 
matter, but he apologized so 
charmingly for his greater mis- 
takes, and minor inaccuracies, that 
one could not help wishing that 
his knowledge of the subject were 
eqiial to the excellence of his in- 
tention. The facts of the case, 
having been placed before the Min- 
ister, who promised to consider 
the matter, in the light of his 
added knowledge, the deputation 
hopefully departed. As the ori- 
ginal subsidy, already once re- 
duced, was only £15, one is a 
little surprised that any attempt 
should be made to further handi- 
cap the Club. As a matter of 
fact, as the deputation pointed out, 
they were asking for rather less 
than nothing, because the Society 
pav £5 10/- rent to the Govern- 
ment, and fares and freight amount 
to more than the balance, so that 
the Government put out £15 with 
one hand and rake in anything 
<>vcr that amount with the other. 
Considering that over £3,000 was 
placed on the estimates last year 
for the utility side, it does seem 
a little bit rough that the fanciers' 
club should be docked of a beggar, 
lv appropriation. As for, the rea- 
sons, alleged or actual, we don't 
know of any, and what, is of more 
importance, neither did Mr. 
Pascoe. Somebody suggested that 
the Minister wanted to build up 
a little pile to set against the 
share of the £10,000 ICgg Circle 
money, squandered, during his last 
term of office. If this is the case, 
one can sympathize with so land- 
able an intention, whilst recognis- 
ing its futility. 



TftE GARDEN AND FIELD. 



Instructions to Beginners 



In reprinting the following arti- 
cle from the pen of Airs. Mackev 
in the " American Poultry Jour- 
nal," we desire to record an 
opinion, viz., that most poultry 
men can learn something Erom 
all poultry women : — 

" It is to he presumed that 
every amateur fancier and breeder 
is ambitious to attain ,1 promin- 
ent reputation with the public and 
establish a paying business. I place 
ambition at the very foundation oi 
all success ; without proper am- 
bition no one can succeed in any 
line of business 

Let the ambition be to stand on 
t|he very to]) rung of the ladder of 
success. Notwithstanding there is 
not anv more space on the pinn- 
acle of success than at the base, 
still it is true there ' is always 
room at the top, 1 because only a 
few reach the sublimest height, 
nor is failure to succeed as often 
attributable to a lack of capaluli 
tv as is generally supposed. Fail- 
ure is more often the result ol 
lack of adaptability and persever- 
ance than from any other causes. 
If one in this century expects to 
get to the top, he must make up 
his mind that he ' must patiently 
persevere in his undertaking — not 
that he must slowly plod along, 
for he or she must hustle or some 
one else will get in, front of them. 

Be sure there is no royal road to 
success. In order to succeed as a 
poultry-breeder one must either 
haye a natural or acquired love 
for the business — no man or wo- 
man will ever succeed who simply 
throws the feed to the ' chicks 
three times a dav and shuts the 
coops at ni<rht, opening them in 
the morning. To be a successful 
fancier he must love the beautiful 



and anything short of the best 
must be an eyesore to him. 

There are many successful poul- 
try raisers who can never be 
fanciers. Taking for granted that 
you are a lover of poultry, have 
a taste for the work and an eye 
for tlie beautiful, you can with 
proper knowledge become success- 
ful in the culture of poultry. I 
have not space in tins paper to 
enter into . all the details of suc- 
cess. The first thing to do is to 
take as many lirst-class practical 
poultry journals as possible. De- 
cide just what breed you wish to 
take up and be sure that you do 
not take more 1 than one of 
fowls, and if able to do so, one 
of turkeys. Visit a good poultry 
show, study the book of success 
by listening to the experience oi 
others. When you have made 
vmir decision, buy either birds or 
eggs, or both, from some reliable 
fancier, and there are many. 
Don't make the mistake <>[ buying 
a few from one and a few more 
from another. Mixing strains is 
\er- unsatisfactory. 

Get a good incubator ; if you 
get only a one-hundred-egg one, 
(ret an incubator. Keep your hens 
laving by feeding them a well 
balanced ration. I can only give 
a few rules of success in rearing, 
as there are other rules to cover. 
Don't overfeed, keep free from lice, 
don't crowd, keep clean, plenty of 
water, sunshine and shade. • The 
sunshine is as necessary early as 
the shade is in summer. Get your 
chicks out as early as possible, 
keep them comfortably warm, but 
not over-heated. Feed some 'one 
of the many -rood chick foods. 
Grit is a necessity. A sand pile 
is verv beneficial to the digestion 
of voung chicks. Crushed oyster 
shells must not be omitted if chicks 
are lelt in confinement. 



Fine houses are not necessary, 
hut inexpensive ones with good 
ventilation are essentials. They 
must be warm in winter and cool 
in summer. I prefer several small 
houses in different localities to one 
large one. I have houses from 8 
to 12 feet long by 4 to 6 feet wide. 
Have portable roosts in order to 
clean easily. For vounir chicks 
use brooders and coops. The coops 
or hovers I use are made of dry 
goods boxes. Have -a tight-fitting 
bottom and put a roof slanting 
from the front six to ten inches. 
II vou have plenty of money you 
can have expensive houses and 
but they are not necessary to suc- 
cess. 

At the end of the season, when 
vou find all your labor repaid by 
beautiful llocks of young birds you 
will be anxious to dispose of the 
surplus. If vou have not already 
purchased a standard of perfec- 
tion, do not delay it longer. Vou 
will also need the assistance of an 
expert judge to teach you how to 
anplv the standard. Do not be 
discouraged when he disqualifies 
many birds you consider faultless. 
When vou have culled closely, sell 
the culls on the market. Now you 
are prepared to sell as breeders to 
whomever wishes to purchase. Do 
not make the mistake of selling 
your best birds. 

Keep them to breed from. Now 
you are prepared to advertise 
your stock. Select as many of the 
best journals as vou think your 
surplus will justify you in using. 
I would advise that you take one 
vearlv advertisement in preference 
to many short-time ones. 

Make your advertisement one 
that will attract the attention of 
the reader. There will be no 
trouble about not receiving en- 
quiries. There will be plenty of 
replies to your advertisement. It 



K00N00WARRA POULTRY YARDS. 



Barred Plymouth Rocks : 



Ckl, 1st and Sp. at Victoria P. & K. C. 
Show ; 1ft and Medal Essendon Show, 
Vic; 1st and Sp. Adelaide P. & K. Club Show, 1911 ; Hens and Pullets, 
all winners, P. * K. C. Show, Adelaide, 1911 : 1st, 2nd, and 3rd Pullet, 
March Royal Show. Good Utility, £1 Is 



Buff Orpingtons 



White Plymouth Rocks : 



White Orpingtons 



Birds 1st and 2nd Ckl., lit and 2nd Pullet, March 
Royal Show. Good sound color and healthy stock ; 
also good winter layers and splendid birds for Export trade. £1 Is. setting. 

s$T ■ 

Rhode Island RedS ' America's leading utility birds, lately imported 
" into Australia by me. 

I am now booking orders for breeding pent>. I mate my breeding pens in June and will supply eggi for setting. Could notsupply all orders last season. 

Book early avoid dissapointment 

Eit^ securely packed and delivered on Rail or Coach (buyer pays carriage). Eggs All Stamped Koonoowarra. My Stodk won 23 prizes at Royal Show, March 2921- 
Terms: Cash with Order. I keep nothing but Al Stock. I cull heavily and breed only from the Best. 



Snow-white birds, easy to breed and rear, 
typical Farmer's fowl, good Winter Layers 
and excellent Table Birds. 1st and 2nd Ckl., 1st and 2nd Pullet, March 
Royal fchow. £1 Is. 

Imported and ptize-winnine stock. Won 1st Ckl, 
1st Pullet Royal Show, Adelaide, September, 1910. 
1st, 2nd, and 3rd Ckl., 1st and 2nd Pullet, March Royal Show. Great 
Winter Layers and good Table Birds. £1 Is. setting. 

Dak in flnrkc " Never beaten in show pen. Four Firsts, 1 Second, 2 Sp, 
reivm wubivo -. at P & K C i uh ghow Adelaide, 1911, out of five entries. 
Two Firsts, 1 Socond and Special at Royal A. & H. Show, Adeleide, Sept. 
1910, out of three entries. A limited number of Settings at £2 2s. 



P. O. MANUEL, Bitfield, S.A. 



m 



Telephone : Central 273. 



June, 1912 



THE GARDEN AND FIELD. 



39 



s left with you to make the sales. 
A'hen re^i . to enquiries don't 
;av too much ; be business-like ; 
lon't insist on a sale ; don't over- 
istimate vour stock ; above all, 
lever tell how much better it is 
:han some other fancier's. Attend 
rtxictlv to your own business, 
klake a friend of every customer, 
[ possible, bv doing a little better 
;han vou offer. Treat all com- 
>laints, however unreasonable, 
vith consideration. Nine times 
>ut of ten vou can win the corn- 
gainer to vour wav of thinking, 
ie patient even with those who 
ire not courteous ; at the same 
irmlv maintain vour position and 
lefend vour ligiits. Command "'the 
esnect of vour customers and you 
rill have their friendship. Be 
andid enough to acknowledge a 
aistake and honorable enough to 
orrect an error when vou are con- 
inced one has been committeed, 
jid vou will find that your repu- 
ation will grow faster than you 
ad hoped. 

While I would advise every ama- 
eur to think well of his reputa- 
ion, I would advise him to care 
ir less for that than for the prin- 
iple of ritfht. Never send out a 
ird you would not be willing to 
eceive were relations reversed, 
km't make haste to be rich ; if 
ou do, vou will fall into a snare 
nd fail. You will make monev 



slower at first by being very care- 
ful that vou send out nothing 
that vou are not perfectly sure 
will please, but you are laying a 
foundation for future success. I 
have spent hours in the selection 
of one pen of birds. Sometimes 
1 have been days making up my 
mind whether I dare risk a certain 
bird in an order. Assistants have 
loSjt all patience with me for 
changing birds several times be- 
fore shipping. After eighteen years' 
experience I tremble when I open 
a letter from a new customer in 
acknowledgment of stock and 
eggs. Not because of the amount 
involved in the transaction, but 
because I do not want anybody's 
money unless the}' feel they have 
value received. 

Do not go into the poultry busi- 
ness unless you have perseverance 
and stick-to-it-iveness, for it will 
not, like a mushroom, spring up 
in a night. You can realise a 
profit from the first, but if you 
expect that all will be profit and 
no loss, you will be mistaken. 
By the natural course of events 
you will meet with disappoint- 
ments, discouragements, and re- 
verses of various kinds. Do not 
let any of these deter you from 
keeping right on, remembering that 
success will crow T n the efforts of 
those who strive. One of the best 
helps to success in getting before 



the public is to write up in a 
plain, straight-forward manner 
your experiences for some good 
poultry journal. 

Do not blow your business up, 
making your article disgusting, 
but tell how you manage your 
poultrv, what methods have given 
you the most satisfactory results. 
Don't be afraid to speak, of \ your 
failures. Persons reading your 
article can easily discern whether 
you are writing facts or only ad- 
vertising your stock. If the for- 
mer, you will receive letters of en- 
quiry, congratulation, and sym- 
pathy. If the latter, only a few 
unwary ones will be caught in your 
net. Have a speciality, stick to 
it, learn it, let people be convinced 
that vou know what you say, and 
without even expecting it you will 
be quoted as good authority on 
that subject. 

Never sit down and conclude 
that your stock is the best in the 
world, for if this were true, when 
you took your seat, before you 
could get to your poultry yard to 
enjoy the sight of that best llock, 
some one would excel you by his 
perseverance. There is no best 
until perfection has been reached, 
and perfection is not found on 
earth ; hence let improvement be 
your watchword in breeding. Be 
as anxious to see the faults in 
your own birds as you are to dis- 
cern them in your brother and sis- 
ter fanciers, and more anxious to 
see the faults than the virtues. 
Do not pay any attention to the 
man who says it is dishonest 
to sell a bird for one dollar. Re- 
member you are a beginner, and, 
no matter what your price, the 
noted fanciers will not buy from 
you — vou must establish yourself. 
You will depend on farmers and 
possibly other amateurs for your 
patronage until you have made 
some reputation as a fancier. You 
cm ii get this quicker in the show 
room than anywhere else. When 
you get an enquiry find out as 
nearly as possible what your pros- 
pective customer wants ; if you 
have it, make the price an induce- 
ment. II he is a fancier he will 
not buy a low-priced bird, but if 
he is a farmer or market poultry-; 
man he will not in all probability 
]>av a fancy price. You had bet- 
ter sell a bird for less than it is 
worth than to keep it in your 
yards where only a very small 
circle will sec it. You want to 
put vour stock where it can be 
seen. Kverv satisfied customer 
will send vou others and as even 
the farmer sees the superiority ol 
rout stock he will lie willing to 
pav better prices." 




South Australian poultry owners have 
found that the very best remedy 
for the TICK CURSE i» 

Faulding's 
Phenytas. 

'eriodically dip the infested birds and spray infested houses and runs with 
Faulding's Phenytas and there will be no further fear of tick. 

'R V LOING'S PHENYTAS la Aba*lut« OEATH TO THE TICK 



rhe " Comet " is the Incubator 



You should buy. 




for you can rely on getting a good hatch. Why wait 
for broody hens, when lyou can get eggs hatched so 
cheaply and without trouble. 

Call and inspect or write us — 

NORMAN & CO., 

BANK STREET, ADELAIDE. 



40 THE GARDEN AND FIELD. 

© Egg Production @ 



How to gel it ami what lnllumces it. 
By Rev. Edar Warren, in American 
Poultry Journal. 

It is n )l difficult to get a satisfactory 
egg record whore one noes about it 
the right way. Last year my hens 
laid lftti egos apiece. 1 was so situat- 
ed that I could not give them the 
careful and constant attention I had 
given them in years past. Still I 
think they did pretty well, and al- 
though 1 have made better records, 
yet I have made none that I am more 
proud of. 

Doubtless heredity has an influence 
upon egg production. \Vc have it on 
high authority that men do not 
gather grapes front) thorns nor figs 
from thistles. And yd I am inclined 
to think that heredity is not the nil 
important factor we sometimes make 
it out to be. It is a common ex- 
perience that pullets from hens that 
have a prodigious egg record make 
disappointing layers. The reason is 
the egg-laying habit is not sullicient- 
lv established to be handed down, ft 
is a fundamental principle of Lereditj 
that artificial traits cannot be trans- 
mitted. Inigorance of this fact some- 
times costs a man dear. It is folly 
to expect in a tew years by breeding 
from hens that have been pushed to 
their untmost limit, to build up a 
strain of phenomenal layers. The 
most we can do is to eliminate the 
poorest layers, and from those that 
are left by intelligent care and feed- 
ing gradually build up a strain that 
will give a good account of them- 
selves. 

Give me strong, hardly birds, hatch 
ed from e£f£js that came from hens 
that were good layers but were not 
forced or stimulated in any way, and 
1 will bet that I can tret plenty of 
eggs all the year round. 

— Siriall Breeds for Ko-crs. — 
Size undoubtedly has an influence 
upon egg production. As a general 
rule the smaller breeds are the better 



layers. It takes the big kind longer 
to come to maturity, and a large 
proportion of what she eats must go 
10 repair the waste of her great 
franle. The small birds are specialists, 
and their specialty is eggs. If a man 
wants eggs, and plenty of them — eggs 
and nothing but eggs — he would best 
stick to the small breeds. 

.Many think that the day is coming 
when cogs w ill l«> sold by weight and 
not by count — by the pound and and 
not by the dozen. I am not one of 
those who share this belief. There is 
an instinct of conservatism about the 
Anglo-Saxon that makes him cling to 
ways to which he' is accustomed rather 
than change to unknown ways that 
are theoretically l>etter. Could any- 
thing be more illogical and absurd 
than the spelling of many English 
words ? And yet spelling reform 
makes discouragingly slow progress. 
The metric system is undoubtedly 
much more logical and scientific than 
the common system of measurement ; 
and yet it will be years and years, 
if ever, before the meter is substituted 
for the yard and the kilometer for the 
mile. Eggs have been sold by the 
dozen in this country ever since 
Captain Cook landed, and they will 
lie so'ld by the dozen to the end of 
time. 

It would not be difficult to make a 
good argument, if argument were 
needed, for the present practice of 
selling egos by the dozen and not 
by the pound — the argument from 
economy and convenience. Eggs are 
fragile things, and even where they 
sold by. count the breakage is con- 
siderable. But it is nothing to what 
it would be were eggs sold by weight, 
for it would then lie necessary to 
handle them much more than it is 
now. And how would an exact pound 
of eggs be weighed out ? Imagine a 
grocer with a particular customer, 
trying to weigh just a pound of eggs. 
Tie has seven eggs in the scales, weigh- 
ing, let us say, fourteen ounces and 



June, 1912 

a half. How will he get the other 
ounce and a half — that and nothing 
more '.' The law of permutation will 
tell us that with seven eggs in the 
scales and a tub oi eggs on the count- 
er, the merchant's chances of weigh- 
ing out just an •even pound would be 
one to a total that would require the 
unit, and a l'ne of zeros long enough 
to frighten one. 

Maturity is an important thing. 
The bird that is to be pushed for 
eggs must be thoroughly mature or 
she cannot stand the pace. When I 
l>egan t o keep hens I was pleased 
down to the ground whenever a little 
misguided pullet began to lay at the 
age of four or five months, and 1 
would send an item about it to the 
local paper. But I have learned better 
now. A precocious bird never makes 
a phenomenal layer. She lays one 
litter of eggs in September or October 
and then shuts up shop until. February 
or March. I want a bird that has 
got her growth, a bird that is 
thoroughly mature ; and I will keep 
her busy from the time she lays her 
first egg, about Thanksgiving, until 
she goes into moult the following fall. 

— Old Hens and Pullets. — 
In this connection the question, 
comes up, How long does it pay to 
keep a hen after she begins to lay — 
one or two years ? 'I am more and 
more inclined to say two years rather 
than one. It is true, the 'big egg 
records are always made by pullets. 
But in order to get a pullet where she 
can lay right along it is necessary to 
keep her six or eight months. But a 
year-old hen, rightly treated, will 
finish her moult and go to laying, 
again in as many weeks. Let us do 
a little figuring. Suppose a pullet, 
with good care will lay 150 eggs a 
year, and a hen 125 ; and suppose 
these eggs are worth 2 cents apiece. 
It would sepm on the face of it that 
the pullet will lay 50 cents worth 
more of eggs than the hen, and is 
accordingly a more profitable pro- 
position. But in the case of the 
pullet there are behind the 150 eggs 
from six to eight unproductive months 
and in the case of the hen only two. 



♦♦♦♦♦♦♦»♦♦ 



99 



BLACK ORPINGTONS. 

OUR SPECIAL ENGLISH STRAIN. 

Y Our Special English Strain. Have won dozens 

T of First and Special prizes, also Cups and 

J Trophies In all leading shows- 

♦ Pen 1 :— A Champion Cock, Son of the famous 

♦ " Bargenfri King," a great prize winner mated 

♦ to selected, low Set hlocky hens of rich green sheen, 

♦ also prize takers. Eggs 42/- dozen. 

T Pen 2 :— Headed by "Bargenfri Prince," an 
X other splendid cock of " Sargenfri King " line, 
mated to a few choice hens and pullets of massive 

size of type. Eggs. 42/- dozen. 
Pen 3:— Headed by a vigorous joung Cockerel of 



I 



great size and broad back, very low set, with good 
females. Eggs. 21/- dozen. 

AMERICAN BARRED PLYMOUTH 

ROCKS. 

The Ringlet Strain. 

They are barred to the skin : fine feather, fine 
layers. 

Pen 1 :— Imported American Strain, headed by a 
grand shaped, dark cock, mated to a pen of fe- 
males that won " Garden & Field " Challenge 
Cup, Maroh ttoyal, 1911 Eggs. 42/- dozen. 
Pen 2: — Specially mated to produce good layers 
combined with show qualities. Eggs. 21,- dozen. 



SARGENFRI WHITE LEGHORNS. 

Heavy-Laving strain, have b cn distributed all 
over Australia, N.Z., India, Malay States. This 
strain has been line bred for 12 years, and built up 
from te-ted hens laying from 280 to 298 eggs per 
year. Eggs. 21/- ihd 10/6. 

THE INVINCIBLE SARGENFRI 
RUNNER DUCKS 

are veritable egg machines — won every 1st audi 
Special Prize in Adelaide Shows during 1911— also! 
won all prizes at March Royal 1912. 

Eggs, 21/- and 19 6. 



C CHANDLiER 



Nc.-ir Clvncle 
Hotci. 



♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦< 



East Payneham. 



June, 1912 



THE GARDEN AND FIELD. 



41 



In other words, while it has taken 
the pullet twenty months to lay 150 
effes, U has taken the hen twelve to 
lay 125. The balance, therefore, is 
on the side of the hen. 

The comfort of the laying hen must 
he looked after. Old persons tell me 
that when they weie children, hens 
were never expected to lay in the 
winter. I do not wonder. The hens 
were given no care whatever. They 
were allowed to roost on the great 
beams in the barn, to brealt the ice 
in the horse trough when they wanted 
a flrink, and to pick up their living 
as best they could. Occasionally a 
few handfnls of whole corn were 
thrown down to them. Time has 
changed all this. Hens are now ex- 
pected to lay in winter as well as in 
summer. But they will not do so 
without summer conditions. They 
must have a warm. comfortable 
house, plenty of sunshine and pure 
air, a chance to take a dust bath 
every day, and must \ie kept clean 
and free from lice. They will show 
their appreciation of such care by a 
liberal output of eggs. 

In order to get eggs out of a hen 
we must out eggs into the hen — in 
other words, we must feed right. It 
does not require a college education 
to do this. There are any quantity 
of old women in the land who feed 
their hens just as they mix up their 
bread, by guess, who get results that 
the scientific feeder might envy. And 
yet I believe in a scientific knowledge 
of food values, and in feeding accord- 
ing to rule. 

— The Golden Rule for Feeding. — 

Give the hen a sufficient variety and 
quantity to meet all the needs of her 
system and leave a margin for egg 
production. A warm mash in the 
morning, all she will eat with good 
relish in ten or fifteen minutes. 
Enough grain during the day so that 
she will go to roost w ith a crop 
moderately full— neither distended on 
the one hand nor nearly empty on the 
other. Green food, either in mash or 
separately. More heating food in 
winter and more of it than in summer. 
In general it may be said that one 
ounce food a day for each pound she 
, weighs is about right for the average 
hen. 

— Culling the Flocks. — 

Culling the flock in order to main- 
tain, as much as possible, thai dif- 
ference between income and outgo that 
( constitutes profit, is fl somewhat dii- 
iferent matter with the strictly utility 
* poultry k.-eper than it is with the ex- 
; elusive fancier. Between these two 
} classes there is evidently some dif- 
ference of opinion as to w hat H "good 
||layer'' must be. The word "good" 
■•is easily spoken and easily written. 
1 " Good layers " are none too com- 
: mon, nevertheless. 

From a market-egg standpoint a 
hen is not a good layer— not a pro- 
fitable layer- unless she prr/duces eggs 
j"enongh, during the time that she is 



kept, to pay for her food and care 
and leave a margin of profit. 

Leaving out of the question at this 
time the difference in the size and 
color of the eggs as laid by different 
individuals in the flock, and by the 
same individuals at different timesi — 
a matter of much importance with 
some poultry keepers, of none to 
others — leaving this out, and using 
the first general proposition as a 
standard for measuring a hen's value 
as an egg producer, it will be seen 
that it is greatly to our advantage to 
retain in our flocks oidy good layers 
and to market the poor layers as 
soon as their true colors are shown. 
Incidentally let me say that a JO per 
cent or a 70 per cent egg yield is no 
indication that the healthy indi- 
viduals composing the flock are each 
contributing evenly or profitably to 
the supply, or that the profitable 
layers of one period are the same 
individuals that lay profitably at 
another period. 

\\ e all know the general character - 
istics that m,ark the vigorous^, healthy 
active hen to the observing eye of the 
caretaker. They are by no means a 
guarantee of profitable egg produc- 
tion. 

We all know the natural causes that 
may interrupt laying at certain 
periods in a hen's life. Broodiness 
and molting have always been 
recognized as valid excuses for a hen 
that ceases to lay. There is no way, 
however, to determine that a hen has 
been a good layer except by the 
record, in black and white, of what 
she has actually done in the nest. 

There is no way known to determine 
that a hen is a good layer except by 
ascertaining, sufficiently well ". o make 
it a subjpet of record, just what she 
is doing in the nest. 

There is no way to determine that 
a healthy, well developed hen is or is 
not likely to be a profitable layer of 
market eggs, reckoning forward from 
any period in her adult life, except 
through a knowledge of her laying 
habit as revealed in the records of 
her past work. It is not my, purpose 
to combat the claims of experts in 
feeding, but simply to state, in plain 
unequivocal language, facts that ha^'e 
developed in the handling of a con- 



siderable number of hens, for several 
years, under conditions of feeding and 
care that, if not scientifically correct, 
permitted of good egg yields from 
many individuals. Had the feeding 
and care been better the egg yield 
would have doubtless been larger, 
but the points that I am making 
would, I beleve, be the same. Pro- 
fitable egg production is due to an 
individual trait first — becoming a 
family characteristic only by selection 
and breeding — and made still more 
profitable by judicious feeding and 
suitable environment. 

Here is where tha' trap nest comes 
in as a valuable aid to our poultry 
work. 

By its use we can record the nest 
history of the hen. The most retentive 
memory would be powerless to retain 
such a history even if the caretaker 
could determine the necessary facts, 
as they transpired, by painstaking ob- 
servation. Even this he cannot do, 
except very imperfectly, in a small 
flock given almost constant attention. 
The writer has hens that have laid 
from 100 to 150 eggs in the past six 
months. No man can distinguish them 
from their less prolific mates, and the 
writer, although he has handled them 
each day that they have laid, cannot 
pick their, out except by their leg- 
band numbers that are on record. I 
spend but little time in their com- 
pany. 

In J uly thirty-five birds were market- 
ed (many of thejm. last season's 
pullets). With the excention of five 
none of them could be selected by ob- 
servation as being unprofitable stock 
to retain. Many of them were laying 
when sold, but not profitably and they 
would have soon stopped. Their past 
record disclosed a type of hen that I 
have never been able >to get a pro- 
fitable yearly egg yield from. They 
were taken from every pen on the 
place. With my flock reduced 25 per 
cent the remainder are keeping sip the 
egg supply. We have less hens, but 
are getting as many eggs as before. 

In February I marketed such pullets 
as had shown me that they could not 
be retained profitably. In July I 
marketed those that I believed had 
paid me all the profit of which they 

(Continued on page 42). 



"THE KELLY " 

DUPLEX GRINDING MILL. 

We receive many enquiries for a mill to be operated by 
hand power, and we are pleased to say that this mill is the 
most practical Mill for hand power we have ever seen. One 
man can easily grind (iOlbs. per hour. 
Cracks grain for Poultry. No end thrust on shaft. 
Call and inspect, or write us for further particulars. 

NORMAN & CO., 

BANK STREET, ADELAIDE. 




4 2 



THE GARDEN AND FIELD. 



Jane, 1912 



What to do Now. 



Please note the emphasis on the 
Now. I want that to be the key- 
note of the article which will ap- 
pear on this page from month to 
month. 

I do not intend my heading to 
refer to the many small duties 
which, like the poor, are always 
with us. These may, 1 think, be 
summed up thus :— Be clean, feed 
wisely, be prompt in doing the 
many little tilings which crop up 
from day to day. These are the 
A. B.C. of the poultry man's work. 
The successful man begins with 
them and keeps them in mind to 
the end of his career. 

There are, however, many duties 
and pleasures which, though not 
so constant are in a different way 
of equal importance, but the fact 
that they are not part of the re- 
gular work sometimes leads to 
their being overlooked. 

We are now in the month oi 
June, probably the most interest- 
ing of all from a poultry man's 
point of view. The successful 
breeder, whether fancier or farmer, 



Eqqs! Eqqs! 

Sittings from Heavy Laying 

White Leghorns 
Black Leghorns 
Black Orpingtons 
Silver Wyandottes 

15 Eggs to each setting. Guaranteed 
fertile or replaced. 1 0/6 per setting. 



T. E. YELLAND, 
S.A. Farmsri' Co-Op. Union, Ltd 

12 Poultry Papers for Is. 



THE AUSTRALIAN HEN 

AND FANCIERS' FRIEND 

is the generally acknowledged 
best Poultry & Fanciers' Paper 
in the Commonwealth. It is published 
twice a month and costs 5s a year, p<<gt 
free. But to prove its value, we shall tend 
you 12 back numbers — a liberal poultry 
•ducal ion — post free, for Is Money back 
if you are not satisfied. Write to-day before 
they hare all gone. 




The Australian Hen 

AND FANCIERS' FRIEND. 
756 GEOROE ST., SYDNEY, N.S.W. 



will have his stock weeded down 
to bedrock, most of his surplus 
good ones sold, the poor ones 
eaten, his picked birds looking at 
their best, and all his plans made 
for the season's work without 
there having been time for the 
inevitable disappointments to hap- 
pen along;. 

That is how the successful man 
is fixed, but poultry papers or 
articles are not written for him. 
He buvs them for the sake ol 
Auld I,ang Syne, and for any 
items of news and information 
which may crop up, and for busi- 
ness. He occasionally no doubt 
gets a hint or an idea which he 
hrst tests and sometimes uses. 
This he generally regards as an 
incidental, or not altogether ex- 
pected blessing. 

The individual who really wants 
a poultrv paper is the man or wo- 
man who is still at the trying to 
succeed stage. I do not wish to 
argue that he or she will find the 
whole way made plain to him in 
auv book or paper ever published, 
and certainly not in this article, 
for I recognise fully that the 
great teacher is experience ; never- 
theless, a printed page may be 
helpful to some readers in the 
" What to do Now " and u What 
not to do at all " of poultry 
breeding. 

To my mind the surest method 
of helping such a reader will be 
to look back to the time when the 
now successful man was just 
emerging from the " trying " stage 
an/H find out just what he was 
doing a few or, perhaps, many 
Junes ago. I think there is little 
doubt that this happened just 
when he recognised that the 
beginning, : middle, and most of the 
end of sucsessful poultry breading 
was in the breeding pen. We 
should find, too, that his first step 
upward came when he began to 
learn the secret of the proper mat- 
ing of his birds, and this after a 
rather round-about journey brings 
me to the first of the things to do 
now, which is 

— Mate, and Mate Properly. — 

Having arrived at my subject I 
must confess to finding it so big 
that I am tempted to compress it 
into the tabloid form. 

Mate. 

Mate now. 

Mate intelligently. 

Mate for best results. 

Mate to correct defects. 

Mate to fix good points. 



This in substance is what our 
successful man did when he began 
to go ahead. He saw, too, that 
quality, not quantity, must be his 
aim. This bv the way is a very 
marked dividing line betwieen the 
beginner and the older breeder. 
The former hatches many chicks 
and hopes that some will be good. 
Sometimes he even expects that 
all will be so. The other man 
hatches few, but knows that many 
will be good. 

In making up his best breeding 
pen there are a few simple rules 
which we may be sure our man 
followed when he began his suc- 
cessful career. Here they are, and 
the reasons why he acted on them. 

He mated only a few, perhaps 
only a pair or two, because he 
could more easily keep track of 
the parentage and breeding of his 
stock, and because he, like every 
one else, had only one or two 
'" bests," and that was the sort 
he wanted to see produced. 

He used only healthy birds be- 
cause he knew that the growth, 
form, feather, and development of 
his chicks must to a great ex- 
tent depend on the health and 
vigor of the parents. 

Whenever possible he bred only 
from second season birds which 
had been tried because, as a 
fancier, he knew tnat a proved 
breeder of good stock is a solid 
foundation. 

He tested his birds as breeiders 
before selling eggs from them, be- 
cause lie knew that by so doing 
he might save those who bought 
from him much disappointment 
and himself from much angry cor- 
respondence. 

He was content to go slowly 
till he got a grip of his stock, be- 
cause he knew that even the most 
brilliant cockerel of the year might 
upset his little apple-cart. 

He did not keep many varieties, 
and only tried to breed fon« seri- 
ously because he found that in 
even one there is much to learn. 
Besides, he thought that' to beat 
the top in one is better than to 
be lower down in many, and found 
that to get there takes all the 
time, money, and knowledge most 
young breeders have to spare. 

He never sold his best birds, 
and bred from the second-raters or 
from what he chanced to buy, be- 
cause — well, principally bdcause he 
wasn't an ass. 

Flo would not pari with a bird 
which had bred him winners un- 
less he also had one which had 



June, 1912 



THE GARDEN AND FIELD. 



43 



one even better, because he knew 
hat such birds are rare. 

He knew there were many excep- 
ions to every rule, and when 
hese exceptions got up and hit 
im he just w T aited till thev had 
nished, because he knew he was 
n the right track. 

Now I think if I have been able 
o make clear to my readers 
ome of the ideas our friend the 
uccessful man had in his mind, 
dose few vears ago, some of them 
rho are trying for the best sort 
[ success in poultrv breeding may 
ave picked up a point or two to 
elp them on the journev, and 
hev should put them into practice 
row. 

There are manv other things 
diich our successful man would 
ave in mind at this time of the 
ear, for he would be one who 
)oked ahead and provided for the 
rture. I think, bv the way, it 
rill be best to kill this successful 
lan at all events for the present; 
e is, with all his good qualities, 
ecoming rather cumbersome. Hav- 
ig thus comfortablv disposed oi 
im, I will proceed. 

Amongst the thing which it be- 
oves the poultrv keeper to look 
head in is the provision of shade 
>r his birds ; but how often is 
his left till the summer heat is 
pith us. Then we rush in some 
nick. growing creeper or some 
aaize and wait whilst the poor 
owls pant through a hot Novem- 
er or December without a green 
Ad shadv spot to help them 
hrough the time. This is a mis- 
ake. The right time to provide 
or summer shade is right Now. 

Fruit trees and fowls are so na- 
ural a combination that it is a 
nrprise that poultry men do not 
nake more use of the quick-grow- 
ng peach, plum, apricot, and fijj 
H adding to the appearance ol 
heir vards and the comfort of the 
•irds. 

At first sight the idea oi grow 
llg luscious peaches and a batdh 
* ravenous cockerels on the same 
)iece of ground may appear to 
JTesent some difficulties, but in 
Wactice manv of these disappear, 
10 I must confess do some of the 
Caches, but more than enough rc- 
nain to make the double use ol 
:he pen very profitable. In advo- 
cating the planting of fruit trees 
n poultrv yards, I do not wish to 
rater on the larger question of 
'Poultry in the Orchard." In this 
:ase the fruitgrower adapts his me- 
thods to his purpose-. I refer ra- 
:her to town and suburban homes, 



where the owner likes fat fowls 
and fresh fruit of his own growing. 

I think the damage done by 
iowls to anv trees or shrubs is 
very much exaggerated, and in any 
case can be greatly minimised by 
adopting the plan of planting 
along the sides or dividing fences 
of the yard and growing them on 
a simple trellis, or, better still, 
along the wire netting of which 
poultrv pens are usuallv construct- 
ed. One does not need to be an 
expert with the secateurs to keep 
trees so grown within bounds. 
Bv following this plan there is no 
perch room in the trees for the 
birds, so that little or no damage 
to growing shoots, and what I be- 
lieve are called laterals, is likely 
to be done. A row of trees need, 
in fact, be no more than a live 
hedge not more than a foot in 
extreme thickness. A set of pens 
in which each dividing fence is so 
used w T ill make a wonderful im- 
provement on the bare little 
prison one too often sees and 
hears called a nice little pen. In 
spring the blossom will be beau- 
tiful enough to win the admira- 
tion of even the most hardened 
utilitarian, whilst in summer the 
wall of shady greenerv would be 
pleasant and healthful for the 
birds, and the fruit, with which 
each well-grown tree would be 
studded, would be profitable to 
their owner. 

The growing habit of most or 
rather manv fruits lends itself ad- 
mirablv to this system, but the 
quick growth and early fruiting of 
the peach, apricot, and plum make 
them specially good for the pur- 
pose. 

The almond is another of the 
trees which may be profitab.y 
planted in and around the poultry 
vards. The roughness of bark is 
sometimes spoken of as an objec- 
tion, because of the harbor it gives 
for vermin. This is a bogey which 
need frighten no one, for a little 
hot water with some phenvtas is 
a (j uick and sure solution of any 
possible trouble in this direction. 
The almond can be grown on the 
netting as well as a peach. 

The fig is another grand tree 
for the poultry man's use. The 
smooth trunk, fair growth, and 
dense shade it gives are advan- 
tages which place the fig quite at 
the head of the list of the trees 
for the poultrv yard, and, al- 
though at first the fig seems an 
obstinate stiff necked, or, rather, 
stiff wooded tree to train on a 
fence, it is not so in practice, for 
all that is needed is to suppress 
all bent wood, i.e., all growth 



which does not adapt itself to the 
plane of the fence. This is done 
when the shoots put out, and all 
the growth then goes into the 
shoots on the fence. The fowl 
man need not attempt the regu- 
larity of the grower of English 
espalier fruit, for all he wants 
is a productive shade-producing 
hedge. 

The olive, when already on the 
premises, is another boon to the 
poultry breeder, who happens to 
to have old trees ; but except in 
favorable conditions it is rather a 
slow 7 grower. The same may be 
said of the carob. 

My readers will have noticed 
that I have looked at the plant- 
ing question more as its affects the 
welfare of the birds, but it must 
be remembered that they pay this 
back with interest for they are 
earnest cultivators (if you doubt 
it, turn some loose on a freshly 
planted bed of peas), and the 
sweepings of a yard as dressing 
for fruit trees takes a power of 
beating ; it is, in fact, the secret 
of the wonderful growth of trees, 
shrubs, or creepers, planted in 
poultry yards which is so often 
commented on. Finally, I think 
that we can safely put down fruit 
trees for future shade as one of the 
things - to do Now, so choose your 
variety, plant them carefully, not 
just stick them in in such fashion 
that they have to lean up against 
the fence. for support, and in the 
season after next you may be 
sampling Selway's, Red May's, Sea 
Eagle's, Newcastle Early's, etc., 
of your own growing. The first 
crop will not be a big one, but 
there is one consolation, it will 
never be smaller afterwards. 

♦ 

Young chickens should not be 
pampered. An abundance of heal- 
thy food in good condition is all 
they require. 

As the youngsters grow they 
require more exercise in order to 
develop themselves and gain size 
and health. Freedom is best for 
them, or when complete freedom 
cannot be given other means 
must be resorted to in. order to 
obtain the best results. 



WANTED TO SELL 



INCUBATORS AND BROODERS, 
Simplex, awarded first price (silver 
medal) Adelaide Exhibition, 1910. 
Agent for Cort's Patent Cooler-safe, 
a boon in summer. Send for price 
list.— D. LANYON, Manufacturer, 46 
North Terrace, Kent Town. 6-12. 



44 



THE OA EDEN AND FIELD. 



June, 1912 



(font Mined from page 3it). 

were capable, and 1 beieive that hens 
may be so bred and maintained tha't 
they will pay profitably for more than 
two years. 1 have found that the 
profitable period of some is limited 
to a lew months, 

1 aim to cull constantly, everj 
month if necessary, and remove from 
the expense account all birds that are 
not somewhere near my standard as 
egg producers. It takes time and ex- 
perience to learn to read our charts 
(the egg records) correctly, but they 
are safe and sure guides when under- 
stood. 

The extent of the incubating tendency 
of individuals hens is clearly shown 
to the experienced trap nest user. 
This trait is, to a greater or less 
degree, opposed to prolificacy. I 
have found that a considerable i>ro 
portion of ' my most persistent 

broodies " were poor in flesh and 
that heavy feeding, even of carbonace 
ous foods, does not induce broodiness 
in my most persistent layers. The 
opposite course does not prevent it in 
lxirds of a strong incubating tendency. 
This has been a subject of experiment 
with me for several years. While feed- 
ing may have an effect in hastening 
©r delaying broodiness, and T am 
quite sure that it sometimes does, the 
natural trait or tendency of the indi- 
vidual has much more to do with it. 

A fancier friend of mine says that 
his Plymouth Rocks do not become 
broody because they are such heavy 
layers, but I tell him that they lay 
more steadily because they do not 
become broody. A distinction with a 
difference, as I believe. 

<$> 

Select the Best for Keeping 
Over. 

The laying hen, in almost every 
case, is one that is active and 
busy. The one that is never idle 
is, as a rule, a good layer for the 
reason that her active habits keep 
her in proper condition 'for produc- 
ing eggs. Therefore before sorting 
out the pullets to keep over, we 



TURNER, ROBERTSON & CO., 

Electrical Engineers, 
Contractors and Suppliers. 

126, GREN FELL STREET, ADELAIDE. 

(Basement of Robert Harper's). 

Estimates Given Free for all 
Electrical Work. 
NOTE.— SPECIAL QUOTATIONS for 

BUILDERS and ARCHITECTS. 
Ring up Telephone No. 996 (central). 
Mr. Turner, late Elevator and Motor 
Foreman, Messrs. Unbehaun & John- 
stone ; Chief Electrician Zinc Corpor- 
ation, Rroken Rill. 

126, G RENFELL ST., ADELAIDE 



should watch closely for the 
workers and retain them only, 
but first provide some way for 
them to busy themselves. A lot 
of pullets kept in a yard, even if 
there is plenty of grass, will not 
be able to scratch and work so 
that their owner can tell by their 
actions whether thev are the kind 
be wants lor eggs or not. Thev 
must lx- provided with a scratch 
ing shed, or room, and several 
inches of dry chafi or straw kept 
on the floor, then if all the grain 
given to them is scattered in this 
litter the drones can be much 
easier picked out. 

A bright, red comb and wattles 
and a happy disposition are indi- 
cations of a good layer ; bright 
and prominent eves and a clean, 
smooth plumage arc also points 
to notice, but then nearly all 
hens have this appearance about 
the time they are to commence 
laying and it is before this period 
that we want to make the selec- 
tion, so we must look after some 
other points. One verv good rule 
to go by, I think, is the si/.e and 
weight of a pullet. If she is in- 
clined to get fat and heavv, I 
would discard here. Generally 
speaking, if she is of the laying 
type, she will have fine bones. 
This is seen in the shank, which 
is slender and relatively short. 
A small feminine head and slender 
neck indicate that she is one of 
the kind we want for eggs. The 
bodyf of a good layer is usually 
rather long and wedge-shaped, 
smaller in front than back, and 
she is generally of the sort that 
prefer to get her food by working 
for it rather than come up to the 
trough and eat. Disposition, rest- 
less, and ready to pick a fight 
at all times with other hens. 

Now, if you are able to select 
from your flock a lot of pullets 
that appear to have these charac- 
teristics, the probabilities are that 
you may have a better lot of egg 
producers than you had last win- 
ter. Next, after you have made 



OLD WASH WAYS ARE GOOD 

but the 

CLEANSO WAY IS BETTER. 

The old washing ways had to be tho- 
roughly tested before they could really 
be called GOOD. If you do the same 
with COX' CLEANSO — give it a tho- 
rough test, use it according to the 
instructions on each bottle (n»t using 
too much) there is only one conclu- 
sion you can come to, and that is, 
that it is far better than the old way 
of rubbing with a lot of soap, for 

CLEANSO saves half your time, 

CLEANSO saves a good deal of soap 
CLRANSO dispenses with the need 
of a washboard. 

CLEANSO obviates all tiresome rub- 
bing and scrubbing ; and there- 
fore clothes last much longer. 

CLEANSO cleanses THOROUGHLY 

CLEANSO is non-injurious to even 
the most delicate fabrics and 
laces. 

EVERY GROCER SELLS CLEANSO. 



the choice, try some trap-nests, ,so 
as to be sure which £he profitable 
ones are. Then, after being abso- 
lutely certain which the best 
layers are, select the most pro- 
mising ones from this lot and 
mate them with a male from a 
good laying strain and the short- 
est road to success will, at once, 
be taken, which, if followed up, 
cannot help but bring sati.sfactorv 
returns to the owner. 

The importance of having a 
good male bird should not be 
overlooked. His influence on the 
future progeny is greater than 
any female in the flock ; he being 
sire of all instead of a few only ; 
hence a good deal of considera- 
tion should be given to his selec- 
tion. 

0 

Laying hens want plenty of 
water ; let it be fresh ; impure 
water will often taint the eggs. 



4jlll„lllllB.„lllll llll Il ill |l|ll„|lltl ill ill ill ill Ill llllll.lltllllnlllll lllll Ill', ■"llll ill llll ill Il All." l| H , %dllii«tl|fe 

j E. ANDERS & SOINS, j 

AGRICULTURAL ENGINEERS, &c, FREELING, S.A. 

j Manufacturers of High Quality STEEL CULTIVATOR SHARES. [ 

1 Perfectly Shaped to do eood work, cut outall weeds, are li^ht in draught, and give entire satisfaction f 

_J in wear. k 

j Anders' SHARES are absolutely the best and Cheapest you can Buy. 1 

I These Shares are made from special quality steel, carefully tempered, and will stand the severest £ 

-= tests. We make all sizes of Shares to tit all makes of Imported Spring Tooth Cultivators and Harrows e- 

J and for Colonial made Oultivators, either Stump Jump or plein Innd. With large squaie hole forloop | 

-5 fixture, or ordinaiy bolt hole. We can supply loops when required. Our Reversible Shares are =■ 

j Money Savers. 

FARMERS! It wlil vay \ou to use our Shares--Post your orders lo us. 

4 E. ANDERS & SONS, FREELING. f 

^|n»ii|||H"ii|||ii"ii||l ||| i||i i|i M|I"'"M|I I|l"'"l|l I|f I|l'"'"l|l»""l|l l|l I|l M|l"""l|l»'"'l|l»"«l|l I|r">l|l''"'i||l'" '"f"- «i|||»'"Hf/ r 



June, 1912 



Publications Received. 



THE GARDRN AtfD FIRM). 



45 



W FAT HER NOTES. 

At such times as this when the 
weather, is "the subject of ao much 
discussion, it is opportune to draw 
attention to the importance of secur- 
ing the fullest possible information on 
the. subject of local rain falls .jtc. The 
area covered by the work of the 
Federal Meteorological Bureau, is so 
( Vast that it is only .by the efforts of 
individual observers acting in con- 
juction with the authorities, that 
the greatest amount of data can be 
obtained, to this Mr. Hunt draws at- 
tention in the following- letter ! recently 
received for publication : — 
Dear Sir, 

A volume is being- prepared in the 
Central Weather Bureau, containing 
all available rainfkll information with 
respect to South Austra.ia. It is 
fdesired to make the work as complete 
as possible, and, knowing that mam- 
residents in your State have kept 
■continuous meteorological records for 
many years past, it is errtin/ently de- 
sirable that their valuable rainfall 
statist if*« should be embodied. A 
cordial request is therefore made 
[that anv resident of South Australia 
possessed of such matter, will kindly 



forward copies to the Commonwealth 
meteorogist , Central Weather Bureau, 
Melbourne, as early as possible. 

Any striking meteorological events, 
.\ith dates, in the nature cyclones, 
monsoons, floods, excessive rains, 
droughts, etc., during' the recollec- 
tion of any person, will also be high- 
ly appreciated. 

The contributors of accepted in- 
formation in the projected volume 
will, of course, receive a copy when 
published. 

Any correspondence re the above 
w ill not retqluire to be stamped. Yours 
faithfully, fJ. A. Hunt, Common- 
wealth Meteorologist. 

P S.— It might be mentioned that 
raingaugcs are issued free of charge 
to responsible applicants in districts 
not already represented, on condition 
that regular monthly returns are sent 
in. 



FIEDD TO DAIRY. 

We have recently received from the 
Author a coftv of the second edition of 
of tli is very handy little work. 
Whilst it makes no pretentions to be 
exhaustive study of the subject of 
which it treats, it never the less 
brings together within small compass 



UNLEY PARK PRESERVED 
FRUITS & JAMS 

(CHAS. TERRY, Manufacturer). 

Made from locally grown fruit ol 
best selected quality. 

Every tin guaranteed. Pure and 
unadulterated. 

Storekeepers supplied direct from the 
FACTORY, UNLEY PARK, or from 
R. P. DEANS, distributing Agent, 
Waymouth Street, Adelaide. 

M WILL PAY FRUIT GROWERS TO 
TRY UNLEY PARK WHEN 
SELLING. 



TO ADVERTISERS.— Alteration of ad- 
vertisements should be in our hands not 
later than the 15th of the month. 

SUBSCRIPTION.— Posted to any part 
of Australasia 6/- per year, in advance. 
Foreign, «/. 



ADDRESS— 86, 
Telephone, 1384. 



Carrie St., Adelaide. 



a very great deal of useful informa- 
tion. To those interested in the 
subject its purchase and perusal can 
be heartily recomimanded. It is ob- 
tainable from all book sellers. 



THE SOUTH AUSTRALIAN 



POULTRY AND KENNEL CLUB. 



38th GRAND SHOW 

Jubilee Exhibition Buildings, 

FRIDAY, June 28, 1 p.m. to 10 p.m. 
SATURDAY, June 29, 10 a.m. to 9 p.m. 



Poultry, Pigeons, Canaries, Dogs, Birds, Cats, &c. 
Entries Close June 8th. Admission Is., Children Half-price. 



CLAUDE WINCHESTER, Hon. Secretary, 
23 Waymouth Street. 



16 



THE GARDEN AND FIELD. 



June, 1912 



Home Notes. 



Ammonia and Its Uses. 



The use of ammonia as a source oif 
aitrogen for plant food belongs to tin- 
farm and garden pages, and its use 
in manufacture and chemistry are out- 
side the scope of the Garden and 
Fiels ;" but its uses in the home are 
so important that we think we can- 
not select a better subject for our 
domestic chat. It won't help anyone 
in the use of ammonia to know the 
origin of the nuniu or how it is made, 
but it will probably interest many. 

Ages ago in ancient Egypt as now. 
one of the chief articles of fuel in tihat 
almost treeless country was the dune 
of animals, especially of the camel. 
From the soot from the fires near the 
temple of the god Jupiter Ammon a 
substance was oBtainod which recieved 
its name, sal ammoniac, from the 
temple near by. 

Such is the origin of the name 
given bv the British I'harmacopaeia. 
Ammonia was afterwards manufactur- 
ed either from decomposing urine or 
the destructive distillation of animal 
substances. among which was the 
horns of deer, hence the name spirits 
of hartshorn of the old chemists. 

With sal ammoniac people are 
familiar either as a substance for 
charging electric bell batteries or as 
used by plumbers for cleansing the 
soldering irons. This is chloride of 
ammonia.. 

With carbonate of ammonia the 
ladies are all familiar, for it is the 
basis of the smelling salts bottle. It 
is also used occasionally in. cooking 
to cause bread or scones to rise. 

The present notes are, however, in- 
tended to deal with the liquid form 
of ammonia known as aqua ammonia, 
which is merely water in which 
ammonia gas is dissolved. This may be 
had as pure form such as Eoche's 
fragrant lavender ammonia, a'nd' there 
is no article more useful in the home 
than a bottle of fluid ammonia. For 
over twenty years the writer has 
never been without a supply and dur- 
ing that time he has shown scores of 
people some of its varied uses. 



Should you \ry accident get spots 
grease on your clothes, a little 
ammonia water applied with sponge 
or flannel will completely r-move 
them. 

Should your coat collar show signs 
of becoming soiled and greasy, a little 
ammonia and a sponge will ch-an it 
in a few moments. 

A little ammonia in tepid water will 
-often and cleanse the skin. 

Door-plates mav be cleansed by rub- 
bing with a cloth, dipped in ammonia 
and water. 

To brighten carpets sweep them well 
and wipe them with warm water, into 
which has been poured a few hrops of 
ammonia. • 

A tablespoonful of ammonia in a 
ballon of warm water will often re- 
tore colors in carpets, and will also 
remove whitewash from carpets. 

Yellow oil stains left bv the sewrar- 
machine mav lie removed b» mbl in 
the spot with a clothfiwe* with am- 
monia before washing with soap. 

Bv rulibing nickel and silver orna- 
ments with a wollen cloth, saturated 
with ammonia water, they mav be 
kept very bright With but little 
I rouble. 

Tf those who berspire freelv will use 
a little ammonia in the'r bath dn|- 
it would keep their flesh clean a'id 
sweet, doing away with all disoree- 
able odor. 

Srrii-its of ammonia will often 
remove severe headache, out the con- 
stant use of salts, of ammonia, and 
other strong scents injures and in- 
flames the nose. 

Equal paTts of ammonia and tur^n- 
tine will take the paint out of cloth- 
ing, even if it has become hard am' 
dry. Wet the spot as necessary, end 
wash out in soan suds. 

Eyeglasses, spectacles, and glass 
mirrors may he cleaned ^erfeetlv bv 
rubhing with a clean soft c"oth and 
a little ammonia water. 

A mixture of one part ammonia 
water and four or more parts of soft 
water can be used for almost anv 




That You can Have Your 

Worn and Discarded 

SILVERWARE RE-PLATEn 

and mad* to Look Lik« Now by Sending it to 

B. WALLIS, 

78, Flinders St., Adelaide. 

Coaobbuildori' and Bieyole I'.uildori' Niokol - Plating 
a Speciality 

Satwfaotiow G«u*ak?«#», 



purpose for which soap and water are 
used and for others Ijesides. A sponge 
or soft cloth moistened in it will 
cleanse paint or varnish better than 
anything else without any severe rub- • 
bitig. 

Ammonia and water is the handiest 
thing with which to cleanse furniture 
and picture frames, etc., and articles 
which would l>e injured by rubbing. 

There is no better way of cleansing 
and lightening watch chains and 
other articles of jewclltry than by 
washing them in warm water and 
ammonia. 

For cleansing hair brushes and 
combs there is nothing to equal a 
little ammonia in warm water. Gent- 
ly move the hair of the brush face 
downwards in the water keeping the 
back out. 

Liquid arrimion'a is useful to apply 
to the bites of insects, such as 
mosdiiitos, in order to allay the irrita- 
tion. 

Half a spoonful of ammonia water, 
esuecially one of the specially pre- 
pared forms, such as Rocke's lavender 
ammonia, added to baby's hath or to 
a basin of water is very refreshing 
and cleansing. It is surprising how 
it softens hard water etc. , 

In washing the hair, e<p-ei 11- the 
long tresses of women, a t a spoonful 
of Rocke's lavender arrimo'na will 
make the water soft, will remove 
dandruff, and will leave the hair soft 
a'nd pleasant. 

For washing glass and silverware 
there is nothing to beat a little am- 
monia water added " to soft warm 
water. It is also about the best 
thing to use for cleaning marble 
tables, mantels, and so. forth, especial- 
ly where there is any grease. 

Ammonia water added to the water 
in which clothes are put to soak will 
lesse'n by a good deal the toil of the 
weekly wash. 

Ammonia water added to the 
children's " Saturday night " hot 
bath has a splendid effect. For this 
purpose a prepated form such as 
Rocke's lavender ammonia is useful 
because it is not only cleansing, but 
imparts a sweet lavender perfume to 
the skin. 

<$> 

Domestic Uses of Glycerine. 

Nothing is better for chapped hands 
than a mixture of adycerine and olive 
oil in equal proportions. Wash thor- 
oughly in warm water with a little 
ammonia, rinse well in warm water, 
and rub in the mixture before the fire. 
The softness of the oil takes away 
the smarting property of the! glycerine 
and lemon juice is excellent used in 
the same way, but it smarts. 

To make glycerine jelly dissolve a 
one ounce packet of table gelatine in 
a little water ; then whisk it into a 
pint of glycerine previously warned. 
It can be lightly colored with cochi- 
nelal. Pour into pots. If too stiff 
add more glycerine. An ounce packet 
of gelatine stirred into four ounces of 



June, 1912 



THE GARDEN AND FIELD. 



47 



hot glycerine, the gelatine beinsr first 
softened with water, will form a 
mixture which sets hard. AYhile warm 
add the iuice ol a lemon. This, cut 
into squares, is excellent to use io 
throat troubles. 

A tin of condensed milk, four ounces 
of trlycerine. two ounces of honev. 
and a half pound of sn >ar make a 
honev-scotch nice to take, and very 
nutritious. 

Tf a laxative is reciuired, two tea- 
spoonfuls of glycerine swallowed warm 
at intervals of an hour are what is 
needed. 

As a remedy for indigestion a tea- 
SDoonful of glycerine aft°r me-ils is 
said to be a perfect cure for som° 
people. 

For pimples, flowers of sulphur mixed 
with glycerine is a splendid remedy. 

6 For earache, a few drops of warm 
elverine nonred into the far °oothes 
»nd heals, and eoual narts of bella- 
donna and glycerine mixed and rubbed 
round the ear will sootbe the pain if 
severe. 

The sold'er whose dead bodv forms 
a shelter for his surviving 1 eomrado 
M ermallv deserving of honor with 
him who carries the fortress. 



Household Hints. 



— Mildew on Leather. — 

Mildew or stiins of anv kind mav 
ts»f°lv be removed Irom l<'ath°r with 
'» Mttlo "nre vaseline till absorbed, a^rl 
th»n nolish with a chamois leather. 

— To Clean a Copper Kettle. — 

I Scour the kettle with a cut 1»mon 
Mn-vpd in bathbrick to remove the 
btains. and thon wash in warm, soan-» 
fwat^r. Polish with r'rv. powdered 
mathKrick and a soft Moth A nast« 
[made of DOwd«red bathbrick and oil 

mav be used instead of the lemon, if 

preferred. 

| — To Clean White Skin Rues. — 

f Rnonrrinf with n^nhth 1 * is s^id to 
M> tho b»st method, but nanh'ha is 
•o inn-immable tha f the enrpatet e^re 
is neceosary when it is used. Tn fact 
Ktless the cleanincr cin be done out o f 
door°. well out of th" wv of danger 
pom fire and artificial lights, it is 
■(otter to intrust it to a professional 



— To Remove Fgg Stains. — 

I Efg stains on linen, or on anv other 
Moth, should be soaked in cold water 
for hot water would set the stains 
and make them most difficult to 
temove. The same rule anplies to e?" 
•tains on dishes, etc. Tf the dis' <:.-» 
were placed at once in hot wat'-r the 
ege stains would be found to harden. 
Wit they readily come off in cold 
water. 



— Dish Cloths. — y 

Excellent dish cloths are made o. 
knitted cotton, for they are very 
strong, and can be washed and boiled 
again and again, and will come out 
like new. Every time a dish cloth is 
used it should be washed with soap 
and soda, and rung out to dry. A 
dirty dish cloth is a disgrace to its 
user. Children who are beginning to 
learn to knit are generally very will- 
ins: to make dish cloths, but when 
one is very busy, neatly hummed 
squares of coarse crash will answer the 
nnrpose verv well, and these are m.v - 
" in no time." 



Never use a metalled spoon for 
stirnno" stewed fruit or tomatoes. A 
wooden one is better, and those with 
short handles are preferable. 

"Meat mav be T-'eot in th n hottest 
weather Ky the following metn^d : — 
Make a large muslin bag. dip it in 
vinegar. wrin<r it out, an-1 then Innq 
the meat in it. Do this each dav. 
and be careful to hang it in a current 
of air. 

For large shoes which slip at the 
h^el o-lne a shaned pieeo of v^lv^t to 
♦he insid". bo+tom. and side of the 
heel, and it will cling to the cttoekihg. 

Suet puddings are most nourishing 
; f the suet is chonoed ns fine as poss 
5KI«. and the whole thoroughlv well 
bo'k'd. \n\- sn.pt. left over will keep 
food for weeks if m^-l'^d down in a 
saucepan, strained and stored in a 
covered pot. 

When baking a cake, if your oven 
is inclined to burn, fold a newspaper 
end nut it on the shelf under th° tin. 
A basin of water in the oven will al°o 
helo to prevent thino-s from burning, 
■md many oeoole think that the steam 
from the water helps to make cakes 
rise. 



What Children Should he 
Tausrht. 



Children should be taught the fol 
'owing things : — 

That teasing is positive crime. 

That they must eat bread before 
pastry. 

That bedtime is not a " movable " 
hour. 

That thev must speak politely to 
the servants. 

That weeping over bruises is Un- 
worthy of sturdy beings. 

That they should not appeal to one 
parent from the decision of the other. 

That punishment follows in the wake 
of prevarication and of deceit more 
swiftly than it follows actual mischief. 

That it is in bad taste for them to 
tell all that they learn of the neigh 
hours' domestic arrangements through 
playing with the neighbours' children. 



A MINER SAYS 



For Years He Worked in 
W et Ground, Kidney 'Pains 
and terrible {Backache. 



Clements Tonic Cured 



This letter was written from Tubbul 
Station, Via Young, N.S.W., Aug., 15/11 
Mr. Wise -.an, the writer, strongk- 
recommends all miuers to use this 
medicine, because it is such a powerful 
nerve and blood purifier that it 
counteracts the ill-effects ot underground 
confinement and bad air upou the 
system. After reading this letter, get 
Clements Tonic and keep healthy . — 

CLEMENTS TONIC LTD., 

"As a miner for years I worked in 
wet ground, and now it is telling on me, 
for I suffer with my kidneys and backache 
and loss of appetite. 

"Doctors in Young told me I bad 
hydatids, and said an operation might be 
necessary. The,. medi:i .e did me no 
good. I resolved agaiii.it it. I was so 
used np I could not walk far, without a 
spell. I tried all medicines, and pills, 
ay life has been a mysery to me, until I 
tried Clements Tonic. The first and 
second bottles had poor effect, but tbe 
third did. I was surprised at the great 
change that cam:. 1 felt as well as when 
I was 21. I can eat and sleep well, 
work is no trouble to me, and I think that 
CLEMENTS TONIC OUGHT TO BE 
WRITTEN IN GOLD. I always keep i! 
in the bouse. I HAVE JUST TAKEN 
23 BOTTLES, and I never intend being 
without it. To me it is past all under- 
standing, and I think it is ONE OF THE 
GREATEST NERVE CURES IN THE 
WORLD. I recommend it to anyone 
broken down in health. Do as you will 
with this letter, as I am here to prove 
what it has done for me. 

(Signed) J. WISEMAN." 



Business men should especially read *his 
testimony, and remember that Clements 
Tonic may renew their lease of lite. It 
will certainly give them new menial and 
physical strength. For Insomnia and 
Brain Fag, DebJity, Indigestion, Poor 
Appetite, Costiveness, Weak Nerves, 
Bad B:ood, Low Spirits. It is ever 
reliable. Mr. Wisema i speaks only as 
he finds concerning this great nerve and 
blood medicine. ALL CHEMlSTS 
AND ALL STORES SELL IT. 



A. F. TELFER. 

Produce and General 

House and Land Agent. 



SANTO BLEK3S., WAYMOUTH ST. 



•June, 1912 



<§> Pigeon 

S.A. Pigeon and Canary 
Society, 

Fanciers are reminded that the 
annual show of the above societv 
will be held on the ;th and Hth 
inst. at the Trades' Hall, Grcfce 
Street ; all interested are cordi- 
ally invited to be present. 

<$> 

Victorian Notes. 



By G. J. M. 
A week ago I had the treat of 
my life. I paid a visit to a loft 
wherein I saw the l>est conditioned 
lot of birds I ever had the Luck to 
clap eyes on. 

They were in the loft pi Air. Gus 
Shee, now well known throughout 
Australia for his Saddle-backs. 




O.K. LOFTS. 



Have some real beauties to sell 

in TURBITS, BLONDINETTES, AFRI- 
CAN OWLS, NUNS and S. F. TUMB- 
LERS. 

These lofts have won CHAMPIONS 
at Sydney Royal, also CUPS, and 
MEDALS at S.A. Canary and Pig-con 
Show and a hott of SPECIAL, FIRST 
and SECOND PRIZES. 

Prices from 5/- each. 
Apply— 

E. A. GROSSER, 
Hamilton, S.A. 



WOODWARD & MEAD 

PIGEON SPECIALISTS, 

Have now some 1911 youngsters ready 
in 

MAGPIES, JACOBINS, HOMERS, 
NUNS. 
Prices to suit all purses. 

G. J. MEAD, 
" Ohiltern," Sycamore Grove, 

BALACLAVA, Victoria. 



THE GARDEN AND FIELD. 

Notes. <f 



Bach bird was in the absolute 
nick ol condition, spruce and clean 
.Hid ready to go straight into the 
show pen. There was a sheen 
on the feathers which onlv health 
can give any creature. Besides 
peas the only food Mr. Shee 
gives his pets is a sprinkle of 
canary seed every morning ; of 
course they get grit and Candy's 
fluid from time to time. These 
birds are in a loft over a stable ; 
they never get the sunlight, and 
they do not fly at liberty, but of 
course the house is roomv, and 
they get plenty of exercise. 

The event of the month over 
here took place on last Satur- 
day iith, when Messrs. Wood- 
ward & Mead sold off most of 
their l>irds, including all their 
Jacobins, Nuns, Homers, and Fan- 
tails. The sale was held at 
Baker's Kxehange in the Eastern 
Market, and the room was so 
crowded that it was a matter of 
extreme difficulty to get even a 
glimpse ol the occupants of the 
I>ens. On the whole the prices 
realized were very satisfactory, al- 
though several buyers declared 
that they had secured absolute 
bargains. Mr. Woodward goes to 
England next year, and it is on 
the cards that the firm will be dis- 
solved. The dissipation abroad of 
so many good birds into several 
lofts should have the resu.lt of 
strengthening the Jack and the 
Magpie fancies over here. 

Again there is to be an unfor- 
tunate clashing of shows over this 
side this winter. In this ease it 
is the North Suburban and the 
bier Exhibition shows which fall 
within three days of one another. 
This sort of tiling is altogether 
deplorable, and should be easily 
preventable. I understand that 
the North Suburban Societv is not 
affiliated with the Victorian Poul- 
try and Kennel Club, but this is 
no reason that the big club (if it 
is to. blame in the matter, as I 
have been sjiven to understand) 
should endeavour to coerce the 
smaller one, or not take any no- 
tice of its fixtures when compiling 
its own dates. 



4R 



Diseases in Pigeons. 



In a healthy pigeon the feathers 
should be close-fitting and the 
ground-colour clear and clean. 

In self-coloured birds the bars 
should stand out clear and well. 
Any dulness of one colour against 
the other is an indication that all 
is not right. 

Pigeons' feet should be moderate- 
ly eool, and the colour of the legs 
and feet clear and bright. 

When the colour of the feet is 
pale and dull, combined with dull 
plumage, it is ai sure sign all is 
not well. 

The eve is an important factor 
from which health or condition 

can be judged. 

The experienced fancier can learn " 
much from the eves of his pigeons. 
Thev appear to speak to him and 
tell him just how the subject feels. 
Immediately the birds become sick 
the eye indicates the trouble 
sooner than anything. A clear 
bright eve is the surest indication 
of health, and as soon as a fancier 
can understand reading the health 
of his pigeons through the optic 
organs he has learnt much. 

Clear white wattles and hard 
clean cere are also good indications 
of health. 



ADELAIDE SEWING MACHINE EXCHANGE. 

All makes Sewing Machines Stocked. Singers, almost new, £3 10/ ; Drop 
Heads, £4 10/- ; Wertheim's, £2. Ot her makes less, all guaranteed tern 
years. Terms arranged. Machines Bought. Repairs guaranteed for five 
vears. 

MALONEY, 

23, Adelaide Arcade, and 1, Carria gton Street (Opp. King's Theatre). 



An . . 




Paint . . 



A G ilrmi/.ed-Iron Roof is the best 
conductor of heat, but the effect of the 
hot sun can so easily be overcome by 
the application of such a remarkable 
cooler at " KING'S COMPO." 

Easily applied. Cheat. Lasting. 
Large tins, 7/6. 

King & Co., Waymouth Street. 

And all Ironmongers and Colour Merchants. 



July, 1912 



THE GARDEN AND FIELD. 



49 



SEEDS ! COX'S SEEDS ! 

For Present Sowing, and at all times. 
The Best Procurable. 

We Supply Everything for trie Garden, Farm, Grsenhouse and Lawn. Agents for 
"Jilectro" Brand Arsenate o- Lead, 25 per cent, better than the best now on the 
market. International Stock Food Company's Preparation*, Paynter's Calf Food. 
Hearson'e Champion Incubators, Spratt's Dog Cakes, Bird, Poultry and Dog Medicint--. 



En f^fW QJ> C\ Seedsmen &c. Rundle St. East 
. D. UUA CT UU., _ ADELAIDE. 



Open Border Notes for July. 



Where borders are already dug, 
it is as well to go over them 
igain on a fine dav with a small 
border fork (a very handy tool) 
|ust turning the surface. It is well 
to remind readers again that in 
clearing the borders, they ought to 
kill everv snail, and slug, which is 
9een ; and to destroy all the eggs 
dug up. This precaution saves a 
lot of time and plants later on. 

Dahlias may be taken up and 
Stored under some shade tree 
away from frost. Shrubs out of 
pots may be still planted out. 
Grass lawns are dormant, but if a 
sprinkling of bone dust mixed with 
a little sandv soil were put on 
now, it would strengthen the 
roots for the hot season. 

July finishes our planting out of 
Stocks, candytuft, ranunculus, pan- 
ties or violas, and a nv other seed- 
lings. These will make a late 
•how in October. 

I Winter flowering carnations. 
These will be required to . be cov- 
ered from th« weather, if gaod 
flowers are wanted. Tie up the 
■hoots when needed, and anv that 
have flowered are to be cut down 
to a break. Give a light dressing 
of dry manure in the form of soot, 
cow manure, icthemic, bone dust, 
or Peruvian guano. Plant out 
new plants from pots or from the 
open box or bed. Have them pro- 
perly named and tie up anv tall 
plants ; but when well rooted it is 
better to cat back fairlv hard to 
make them stool out. 

i If carnations have been struck 
in heat thev should be carefully 
potted into three-inch pots and 
put into a close frame for a week 
or two, before the planting out. 
j Striking may still be done. 

Earlv (lowering sweet peas are 
in bloom, and these will continue 
for the next three months. The 
spring flowering kinds are stooling 
out nicelv, and as they begin to 
run, require stakes or wire netting. 



Keep the soil stirred about thy 
roots. 

Geraniums may be planted out 
under trees or in dry borders 
where little else will grow. As 
the weather warms up these 
plants will make a flue show. 
Plant out show and fancy kinds 
for spring flowering. 

Most kinds of climbers may be 
planted out, and the same can be 
said of fuchsias, calceolarias, pyre- 
thrums, lobelias, perennial poppies, 
campanula, and manv herbaceous 
plants. 

Carinas can be divided by putting 
in a fresh place some of the new 
shoots to be found attached to the 
old clump. Chrysanthemums should 
be struck for new plants, and the 
ground where a bed is intended 



should be well dressed with lime, 
soot, and bonedust before being 
dug deeply. 

Pot up seedling Delphiniums into 
three or four inch pots, and those 
done some time, ago can be plant- 
ed out. Divide old plants, giving 
them a shift into a new spot, 
which is good strong loam, as 
thev are gross feeders, as anyone 
who has grown them knows. It 
will not be too late to put out 
Cinerarias if a sheltered place and 
the earlier planted will be coming 
into bloom. Liquid manure is 
good for these at this stage if 
carefully given. Cuttings of coleus, 
salvias, plecthranus, Iresines, im- 
patiens may be taken from those 
already struck. This keeps the 
stock up for the summer planting. 
Tidy up oaths, from weeds, etc., 
and gravel same. Still turn over 
vour manure heaps, and also rub- 
bish heaps which are to be used 
for compost. 

<$> 

The Cineraria will do better if wa- 
tered with a fine rose can over their 
foliage with rain water. These seed- 
lings are sometimes attacked with 'he 
aphis, Gishurst's compound or tobac- 
co water will be found efficacious in 
removing them. 



ARTHUR BROWN & COMPANY, 

Corner KINC WILLIAM 
and HINDLEY STS., 

THE IDEAL CENTRE FOR MAN'S SHOPPING 

WE 

are specialists in Hats. FELTS direct from 
Makers 3/11, 4/11, 5/11, 6/6, 7/6, 8/6, 10/6 I2/6. 
Shirts, Collars, Ties. 

OVERCOATS, 21-, 27 6, 30 42/- 
45-, 50/-, 63/-. 

Ask for the Pegamoid Coat, the most wonderful 
invention for Rain Coats, will not crack, will not 
let water through, 35/- 



50 



THE GARDEN AND FIELD. 



The Rose Garden. 



Written for the American Hose Saciety. 

(•rand as are. musses of roses we 
have occasionally met with, we have 
not yet seen anything even approachillor 
our conception of (lie scenes of 
grandeur and beauty that might be 
worked out by the massing of roses 
either as a nart of, or as an a linnet 
to, every large and comprehensive 
garden. If in the ordinal plan of a 
garden it cannot foe convenient Iv 
worked in with the general lloral ar- 
rangement, then a separate ^iece of 
ground is set aside for the purpose). 
This T liave oft"n seen, and always 
found it a mast interesting spot. 
Hut apart from the immediate ques- 
tion, whether there is b senaratc rose 
garden or not, roses should he found 
plentifully in every genera,] e-arden 
on account of the varied forms thev 
are capable of assumincr. either 
naturally or by training. Thev are 
seldom out of place anywhere. What 
with dwarfs, standards and cliriibers, 
there exists amnle mat"r ; al to adorn 
the most, select nosition. or to 
obliterate the most awkward ^oots, 
hrinn'i' 1 "' them in*o harmony wi*h the 
"•eneral design. Bu< whit "h *" 1 ' th^ 
form of a rose garden he ? T will dive 
mv ideas as hrieflv as rossihle. 

— The "Form of the "Rose Harden — 

Tt shonld he for'v,ed, if r>norvKl*; on 
level nrronnd. with as m"nv keds as 
'he s^ace seleet^d w ; ll allow. f?uch 
Vieds should be four feet w ; de. nlante' 
with Sav two rows of nlants, two 
f"et aO&ri . and a crass border thren 
or four feet between beds will enable 
en->-one to reach each ol^>nt to eat *h~ 
roses without stennmcT into the 'eds. 
'■s'neh n-ra'ss borders are verv easih- 
Vent mowing them onee a week with 
t*>e lawn mower. At the same time 
this cress walk sets off the flowers to 
"Teat advantage Wi+h some fifteen or 
twentv beds with n double wn"Ti' of 
well selected, best flowering; varieties, 
say, forty plants in each bed. it will 



well make a very attractive collection 
These beds may he in the form of a 
square or oblong. The rose garden 
can be made very attractive a.nd artis- 
tic. All depends upon the pardoner 
who has charere. or upon the land- 
scape gardeners \vho have to make de- 
signs for a small bed or a regular rose 
garden. The rose garden should be 
surrounded with a border, three feet 
in width, which should enclose it, 
planted with dwarfs. A very light 
wire fence with a three-fourths inch 
post, with two or three wires a foot 
or eighteen inches annrt, and nlanteig 
with fYimsot) Itaml'fler roses will m-'ke 
an excellent appearance from the 
distance. 

— Pergolas anrl Terraces. — 

A still further imposing scene can 
he obtained by forming a nergola. 
which can be ensilv constructed with 
t^ree-fourths inch gas nine drivm into 
an eighteen inch cedar or locust no=t, 
eight feet bh'h with a cros= on th" 
ton from on" nost to the othr, with 
a grass Walk between. Such a perrro'a 
-■hould be planted with as manv varie- 
ties as there are nosts, or not more 
than two to a post, as with our pro-'- 
ress in hybridization of so manv valu- 
able climbing roses the choice is at 
everyone's command, and the most 
gorgeous sio-hfs can be obtained of 
most bewildering 1 en"t-- wif- d~n + " 
that brine forth their blossoms at the 
same periods as the Hybrid Perpetuals. 
Teas or Hybrid Teas. Again a rose 
garden mav be laid out on terrace, 
as ours is located. Ther° mav be a 
bank sodded or sown with crass s^ed. 
Rut snch a bank should be in full har- 
monv with the rest of the rose carden 
and should be planted with trailing 
r ot!p S ninned down, makinf it a "bet 
of roses." Tt will add freatlv +o t'-~ 
rose rrardea r-o^d taste and °r+ 
should be exemnlified in every detail 
of a rose carden. We ha'*e a Treat 
manv dwarf ro°"s. like the Baby Ram- 
blers and the Mido-et roses, that are 
Tsed to form borders, esoeciallv around 
Hybrid Pwr^tual beds, to hide the 
stems and the result is one that will 



meet with delightful approval from 

every lover of rose gardens. f» 

Soil and Manure. — 

Almost any soil will grow roses, as 

we see them in yards or ggrdens, pro- 
vklim-j- a proper selection of varieties 
is made, and attention is given to the 
application of suitable manure. Roses, 
of course, enioy a rich soil, but to keep 
adding cow, horse, and pig manure 
upon the naturally rich ground is not 
as beneficial as a change to nitrate of 
soda in the case of light soils, lorTime 
for those that are naturally ver<- close 
and stiff. This subiect is therefore 
more a question of judicious manuring 
than selection. The Oolden Ride is to 
add what, the ground is most deficient 
in, and never to anply close moisture- J 
retaining manure to a soil that is natu- 
rally stiff and moist. A verv dry and i 
sandv compost may easily he made 
suitable, bv adding a few loads of stiff 
fibrous loam and clav, also bv manur- 
ing with fairlv well-rotted cow ma- 
nure • while in many cases, bv adopt- 
ing the opposite nlan, a Bt» ff , noo- \ 
soil may lie worked into eirtiallv gocd 
condition. The ideal material is | 
fairlv stiff, not too wet. and not less 
than at le a st three feet in denth. with 
a good drainage, so that by heavv 
showers the roots are not left in 
water. W th such well-prepared rose 
beds thev can be enriched at will. 
Roses will thrive perfectly well for at 
least eight, to ten vears. After that 
time, if still in good condition, they 
should be graduallv transplanted in : 
late fall, the plants well pruned nn*.' 
suckers cleaned out, and thle soil dee;'- 
Iv dug and manured, and the roses re- 
planted, when they will thrive anew 
and will last for many ye/ars. But 
we should never lose sight of the 
newer varieties of.ros's, usin"- them 
to supplant such older varieties as 
have lost their usefulness. A wid"- 
awako n/ardener or lo^er of roses will 
naturally keep up with the times. 

— Pruning and Tying. — 
The pruning of everv class of roses 
is a very vital operation. All useless 
wood should be carefully cut out. 



KEMP'S champion ROSES. 

The Largest and Best Stock of Roses in the Commonwealth. 

Verified by the Leading Growers in tin's and other States. Come and Inspect. No others are grown in suet 
an exposed place as the Kingswood Nursery on the corner of Cross Roads and Unley Road. 

A large stock of all the BEST NEW VARIETIES. 

CARNATIONS : 5,000 plants of the best and most up-to-date sorts ready for immediate delivery. 

A Large Stock of SHRUBS, CLIMBERS, FRUIT TREES, FERNS, ZONALE PELARGONIUMS, 
COTTON PALMS, HEDGE PLANTS, COPROSMA, PITTOSPORUM, RHAMNUS, &c. 

SUGAR GUMS and SHADE TREES 
SEEDLING ANNUALS for present planting 2s. per 100, assorted; 2s. 6d., post free. 



■ H KEMP, Unley Park Nursery, ADELAIDE, S.A 

Telephone, 1282. 



July, 1912 



THE GARDEN AND FIELD. 



51 



retaining- only the good strong can~<- 
and Hybrid Perpetuals and Hybrid 
Teas are pruned alike, say, a foot 
from the ground alike, say, a foot 
tain the same height from vear to 
year, as they should always, every 
vear, be renewed with new canes aud 
the old ones cut out. As to climbing 
roses the pruning is very different, as 
you keep five or six long canes around 
each post, these should be young as 
long as they cover the intended arch, 
or pergola. The old wood is cut, but 
sometime we have not enough canes 
to fill the desired effect, and one or 
two of last vear's growth is retained, 
and the side shoots are cut back to 
two or three eyes. The canes are then 
very carefully tied up with fine wil- 
lows, as the European well-trained 
irardener uses, or with any other ma- 
terial as is commonly used, in such a 
clean way, so that stronc winds will 
not move them from th°ir hold : n^s. 
Thp saire operation is '-sed to decorate 
a wire fence. As for the trailing 
roses, th»v are pinned down so as to 
cover well the bank with the low 
canes, and top shoots are cut V-ack to 
two or three eves. The r irunin' T done, 
the soil is at on°e loosed nn earefullv 
with a spade fork. 

— Watering-. Mulchinc e.nd General 
Care. — 

One thing sfioald not be lost si~ht 
of. and that is, to have water close 
and conveniently at hand. As soon 
as the plants berrin to bring- uo the 
growth of leaves, thev need to .be 
syringed nearlv every day, to keep red 
snider, aphis, and oreen flies awa-v in 
the dry season. This method has been 
followed with snlendid success for 
manv vears. And when later the rose 
bug or chafer apoears, slugshot is used 
with snleudid effect, and havinrr the 
w«ter on hand, can eas ; lv be ^leaned 
off before visitors arrive. There is 
> nothing more invitino- than to see a 
i clean, well-kept rose e-arden with 
f clean leaves and u^ri r -"t flowers, but 
I careful watchfulness has to be ke>->t 
I constantly over it. Give a rood 
t mii'ch'no- with ?ho>-t stable manure of 
| two or three inches th-ck. as roses 
i like a cool footing, and this is ex- 
I ♦•r»rn"l-- "eneficial to pv-lb-nt culture. 
I prevVntipfr the soil cracking or drvincr 
I off. and it is the mean- also of re- 
I taininw good foliage and better per- 
I lection of bloom. And when the 



Telephone No. 850. 



Established 1880. 



blooms make their appearance great 
care should l)e taken of the common 
enemy, the rose burr, which is a very 
troublesome one in most localities ; 
they must be picked off and careful 
watch maintained. The withered 
flowers must also be carefully picked 
up, and no petals left on the ground. 
This is a strict rule among well-kent 
rose g-ardens. A watchful eye should 
be always kept on budded roses, as 
they often throw up suckers, which 
must be at once removed, or mischief 
will be the result. 



GEORGE LANDERS, 

Wholesale and Retail Saddlef, 
251 &253 RUNDLB STREET EHST. 

hDblaioe, s.n. 

N*w Market, opposite English and Scottish Bank 
and v No 11 Ohappel Street, Norwood. 



MANUFACTURER OF ALL KINDS OF LEATHER 
GOODS. 

Ham en. Saddlery, and Vehicle* of every description. 
"'U n and Fancv Leather Goods Stocked aod to Order. 
Seoond-hand Harness and Vehicles Bought, Sold, 

or Exchanged (or Now. 
All Orders and Repairs exe'-tited with dispatch. 
»ll our linos can bo hired by the day or by the week 
at lowest rates 
LARGE STOCK OF VEHICLES ALWAYS ON 
HAND. 

Horse* and Ponies for sale (with trials. 



Choosing Rose Plants. 



In the first place, have a list of 
the varieties you have decided on 
getting made out ready before you bo 
to the nursery, so that no time is 
wasted on that part of the business. 
There are soime buyers who semm t Q 
have an idpa that the nurseryman" his 
little else to do but attend to them 
and the dozen or so roses they buy : 
and in this connection it must be 
remembered that he is a very busy 
man at this time of year, and time 
is money. Therefore waste as little 
of his time as you can possibly heln. 
but he will not be two busy to help 
you in your selection. 

Don't choose high standards, un- 
less you want them for an especial 
purnose, such as to form the back 
row of a bed of standards. It will 
be found that 2 ft. is quite high 
enough for all ordinary purposes. This 
enves you all the advantages of a 
standard, but does not present so 
so much bare stem for the summer 
sur. to exercise his strength on. The 
rose should have two " buds," that 
i«. it should have been worked in two 
nlaees. The advantage of this is that 
wh»n worked in this way the-- f->rm 
a good head in much quicker time. 
The amateur is verv, verv often 
tenrnted to choose a rose with a birr 
bead, in utter disregard of evervthin ■ 
else, but T shou'd advise him to err 
rather on the other aide, and pet on- 
that has onlv made 5 or 6 in. of 
"Towth as long as that growth has 
ripened. And, lastly, if you know 
nothing about it. ret the nurseryman 
to prune your plants for vou before 
''<TTi take them • it won't '•ost hrn 
five minutes of his time, and will d - 
vou a lastinrr favor Th ; s 1-ist no'nt 
is on™ that »a almost invariaih 1 *- 
hissed bv gard-ninc ''ecrinrvrs who 
first seho* plants with the e-rea'est 
of fob'ae-e. an d then rv"f them 
<~"'t in fh"ir "-ard n ns. >i'«t r>s thev o-ot 
them fr^m the nursery. Tt does not 
matter how carefully a. ros" is dn — 
fV,r. rf . nrP Vinurid to be a. nil" 1 "" 
of broken and fractured roots, and -to 
enualisc matters the branches must 
be cut. 

All this seems a lot to do onlv- to 
choose a rose, and one is inclined to 
ask, if this is all locked for — How 
long - will it ta>ke to choose a dozen 
roses ' Ir> reality, with a 1**41*1 
practice it takes no time — a single 




? » t 

• • • 

HOUSES ! 

GARDENS ! 
FARMS ! 



If you want a House, Farm or 
Garden satisfaction will be guar- 
anteed if you consult 

H. M. CHARL/CK, 

LAND & ESTATE AGENT. 



glance along a row will show the 
verv thing you want. 

When buying climbing roses get the 
strong growing varieties on their 
own roots, or else dwarf budded, that 
is, worked on to a stock at the level 
of the ground. 

Rush roses are not hard to select, 
only take care they are fair-sized, 
healthy-looking plants. These, like 
the standards, require careful rirunrc 
before being planted. 

— Planting a Rockery. — 

Reference is often made to the im- 
portance of making pockets of earth 
before plant in? a rockery, and it is 
just possible that some readers are 
not qiuite clear as to their construc- 
tion and uses. Now, the pockets 
consist of small space between the 
rocks Idled with soil, thus forming a 
suitable medium for rootin<r. Refore 
planting there are, however, « few 
important details that must not be 
overlooked. To make a pocket success- 
fully the work must lie carried out 
much in the same wav as one would 
proceed to prepare either a not or a 
pan before putting in a plant. First 
of all. it is necessary that the bottom 
and sides of the pocket should be 
quite firm and solid, for, should there 
be any empty cavities, the soil would 
rapidly become dry, and there would 
also bo a risk of the soil sinking 
more or less suddenly. Wren the 
pocket is low down in the rock 
garden, a good layer of some open 
and rough material, such as crocks, 
clinkers, o-ravel or stones, should be 
placed in the bottom for the porpose 
of carry-in >• off the drainage water. 
Above this should be placed some 
rough loam, peat or leaf -soil to cover 
th«> drainage, and the top fi inches to 
10 inches may then be finished off 
loam. Tt is a common mistake to le a ve 
the soil too loose; it should be press© 1 
down with the hands or rammed with 
a pot ting-stick as the work of filling 
the pocket proceeds. 



A. P. TELFER. 

Produce and General 

House and Land Agent. 



SANTO BLDGS., WAYMOTJTH ST. 



THE OA EDEN AND FIELD. 



July, 1912 



Garden Notes. 



PLANT HOUSES. 

The ordinary greenhouse is not 
bright just now with bloom, but 
may be kept in a presentable con- 
dition bv the aid of colored foKage 
plants. Zonule Pelargoniums are 
well suited with liquid manure in 
moderate quantities, 

Cyclamen should be showing 
freely for bloom, Every one who 



has a greenhouse should possess at 
least a couple of do/.en of these, 
for thev are of great value in win- 
ter. The foliage is remarkably 
prettv, and their (lowers are 
Showy and fragrant. A good 
packet of seed, a little ordinary 
attention, and anv one could have 
the plants on the wav. It should 
also be remembered that age im- 
proves them, and the tubers will 
last main vears. 

Those who have a good collec- 
tion of Coleus and only a cool 



greenhouse should either resort to 
hot manure frames, or remove 
them into the window of a well- 
warmed and lighted room in the 
dwelling house. 

Keen the foliage of Palms and 
Aspidistras sponged to clean off 
scale insects or dust. 

Brin- Camellias in to expand 
their blooms. 



THE NURSERY. 

Put in cuttings, taking side 
shoots, about four inches long, 
cut off the leaves about two-thirds 
the warv up from the base, and 
insert them in the sand to that 
same depth, pressing the Sand 
closely and firmly against the 
bases' and sides of the cuttings. 

Remove Cinerarias or Chinese 
Primulas showing for bloom to 
the greenhouse. Pot any seed- 
lings or rooted cuttings. 

Pelargoniums of various sorts 
should be kept quite close to the 
glass, or thev will rapidlv draw 
iip into weakly shoots. 

Frames containing Show, Regal, 
or Fancy varieties must be care- 
fully attended, a nd at anv signs of 
rrreen aphides appearing on the 
under sides of the leaves, a srood 
fumigation with tobacco leaves or 
refuse should be given. Care must 
be taken that no hot smoke is 
forced among the plants or the ef- 
fects will be disastrous. 

Give liquid manure to all kinds 
of Pelargoniums if thev are 
healthy, always rememberine that 
sicklv plants are not capable of 
assimilating rich foods. 

Shake Hydrangeas out of the old 
pots, and repot them in moderate- 
ly rich compost. Do not wiater 
them much now that very little 
o-rowth is eoing- on. 

Tie up Freraia growths where 
tp ,p„ ore be"-inninr to bend over ; 
a small stake should be placed to 

each one. 

Hyacinths that have been potted 
some time aro will now be show- 
in- for bloom, and should, canse- 
nnentlv, be removed to the green- 
house. 



THE FERNERY AND SHADE- 
HOUSES. 

Any one possessing a ferneTv 

with erottoes should now have a 

o-ood look over the soil in the 

spaces between the rocks. It will 




July, 1912 



THE GARDEN AND FIELD. 



5.'5 



probablv require scraping out and 
refilling, and replanting the ferns 
afresh. 

Peat from some of th/e gullies in 
our hills makes pretty good filling, 
but it is better if not fresh, as it 
is then too sour and mudlike. 
Keep old fronds cut away, and 
ferns in pots should be moved 
from one position to another oc- 
casionally. 

Anv fronds infested badlv by 
scales or mealv bug should be 
promptly cut off and burnt. 

Keep the surfaces of beds, etc., 
stirred to prevent growths of liver- 
worts, mosses, etc. Unlv applv 
enoug-h water to keep the plants 
goine. Care should be taken that 
| no plants grow or stand in a drip 
from the rafters. 

Thin out evergreen climbers that 
| mav obstruct the light. And it 
[ is a good plan to remove some of 
f the battens or brush during the 
[ winter to admit more light. Do 
not pot up any ferns now. 



Shrubbery Culture. 

The outlines of ahrubberies should 
not be too straight or formal, but ir- 
regular and natural. A skilled florist 
or gardener should almost conceive 
these ideas without instruction, but 
definite knowledge of the habits of 
the different shrubs to be employed is 
essential to enable one to make a plant- 
ing which will develop consistently as 
they increase in age and size. That 
by observation and experience is evid- 
enced by the very large number of in- 
harmonious combinations that are 
seen in shrubberies all about the coun- 
try. Probably rhododendrons are 
treated injudiciously qnd are a source 
of dissappointment and of waste of 
money more than any other shrub, 
largely through misunderstanding. 
Rhododendrons are sociable individu- 
als, liking the companionship and pro- 
tection of other plants. Their fine 
fibrous roots delight in cool, moist soil, 
but do not want to go very deep in 
earth to find these conditions, and are 
particularly sensitive to excessive heat 
or drought in midsummer. A situa- 
tion where the shadows of large trees 
or building will shield from mid-day 
«un in summer and winter and from 



severe winds is an ideal position. A 
perpetual mulch of leaves renewed 
each autumn and with a light coat of 
stable manure on top of the leaves, to 
keep them from blowing away, is 
most congenial to them. Mulching and 
shelter from wind are the anost essen- 
tial conditions. — Horticulture. 



Elder's Trustee Company. 



Every year the excellent work ac- 
complished by Trustee and Executor 
Companies is becoming more widely 
recognised, and, as natural, under 
such circumstances, the feeling against 
appoint, n^» individual trustees is 
steadily growing. The advantage of 
entrusting the administration of af- 
fairs at death to a permanent com- 
pany, with its necessarily experienced 
staff, instead of to the individual, 
who even if a pattern of probity is 
often sadly inexperienced, is so 
obvious that it must appeal to all 
who give the subject careful thought. 
The wisdom of such a course is equal- 
ly true whether the estate be great or 
small — in either case the testator 
wishes the very best to be done as 
regards careful administration. It is 
an open secret that many of the 
wealthiest men in South Australia to- 
day have made arrangements for their 
estates to be administered by trustee 
companies, and some of them are 
amongst the foremost in commercial 
circles — men whose business acumen is 
well known and whose judgment can 
be relied upon. On the other hand 
the testator whose means are limited 
for that very reason is most anxious 
that the property he is able to leave 
for the benefit of his heirs should be 
most jealously safeguarded. On this 
point men of both large and small 
means are agreed, and apart from 
this aspect of the case they are rapid 1_ 
coming to the conclusion that it is 
not fair to thrust such responsibilities 
on the individual. The point of view 
of the latter is also worthy of con- 
sideration and it is undoubtedly a fact 
that if individual trustees only knew 
the penalties and responsibilities to 
which they subject themselves that 
they would decline to act in such a 
capacity. The subject is one that 
cannot be wisely ignored, and no man 
possessed of any property -at all 
should fail to make provision, in the 
most adequate fashion, for those near 
and dear to him and dependent on 
him. Any person unfamiliar with the 
workings of trustee companies Cannot 
do better than consult Elder's Trustee 
and Executor Co., Ltd., when the 



fullest particulars will be forthming. 
The company, which is associated 
with the well-known firm of Elder, 
Smith &) Co., Ltd., has an authorised 
capital of £500.000 and the names of 
the geotlemen comprising the directo- 
rate are in themselves a guarantee 
that the interest of those who entrust 
their affairs to the company will be 
thoroughly safeguarded. 



MISS NELLIE REDDTCK STATES 
THAT SHE CANNOT EXPRESS ALL 
SHE SUFFERED FOR 19 MONTHS 
FROM NERVOUS BREAKDOWN. 



Rut Clements Tonic worked Wonders. 

ATa,ny of the most serious nerve, 
stomach, liver, and kidney diseases 
arise from lack of care to keep the 
stomach in good working order, and a 
baidly-vvorking stomach is often the 
cause of intense neuralgic and sick head- 
aches. This testimony proves it. Writ- 
ten from 7 Evensdale-road, Hawthorn, 
Victoria, 7-7-'H. 

CLEMENTS TONIC, LTD. 

Mine was a case of nervous break- 
down and liver. I cannot express all 
I suffered for 19 months ; doctors' at- 
tendance and then medicines did me no 
good— in fact, I did not think I could 
live or it was possible for anything to 
do me good night or day. I could not 
sleep, and I scarcely walked from one 
room to another. I could not suffer 
to be left alone by my people for five 
minutes for fear I would die in their 
absence. I experienced the most dread- 
ful feelings ; my head was so dreadfully 
bad, which with all the other suffer- 
ings I underwent it was impossible to 
express. One day one of your books 
was thrown under the verandah and I 
lead it through, and by so reading was 
greatly convinced it would do me good. 
I sent and got a bottle straight away, > 
and I found so much benefit by it I 
continued and took 15 bottles, small 
size, and I can thankfully say it ■ has 
cured me. I cannot praise it enough, 
for it did wonderful work for me. 1 
have so much faith in it that it is able 
to cure anything, that is my belief. 
I would never be without it, and have 
told many to give it a trial. You can 
publish this if you wish, for I cannot 
praise it enough. 

(" Signed) NELLIE REDDICK." 



For ailments of the liver, Mdneys, 
stomnch, and nerves, no medicine has 
the permanent, rapid, and beneficial 
effect as Clements Tonic. Send for it ; 
it lengthens life. ALL CHEMISTS 
AND STORES SELL IT EVERY- 
WHERE. 

<$> 

A strip of flannel or a soft 
napkin folded lengthwise, dipped 
in hot water and wrung out, and 
then applied around the neck of a 
child that has the croup will sure- 
ly bring relief in a few minutes. 



THE NEW STAR RESTAURANT. 

29 MARLBOROUGH CHAMBERS, WAYMOUTH STREET (a few doors 
from "Advertiser" office). 

Three Courses for 9d., or Tickets 8/- per dozen. Everything new and 

up-to-date. First-class Chef direct from Paris. Special room for ladies 

T. GEORGE & CO., Proprietors. 



54 



THE GARDEN AND FIELD. 



Shade Trees, j 

There arc very few pi ople who have 
not had occasion, in one way or an- 
other, to feel au appreciation for 
shade trees. However, the most of us 
snouid have more tbau this casual 
appreciation. We should know more 
ol Us physical properties ; the adapta- 
bility of certain varieties for certain 
conditions and above all wider know- 
leclge of the species and varieties 
with which we oomie in contact from 
day to day. Some of us are con- 
lent to matte an appeal tor trees for 
no other motive' than that of the 
esthetic — the sentimental appeal. This 
does very well in some communities 
but it does not affect the business 
117111. The love of nature, of art and 
things beautiful cannot be fostered in 
every mind. Jt may be stored there 
somewhere but to bring it out the 
practical side of the thing proves its 
discovery. It is often the question a. 
dollars and cents to the individual or 
the city. If that cannot be shown the 
tree enthusiast generally get a shock. 
Before our cities, towns and villages 
pav the necessary attention to street 
trees other values than that of the 
beautiful will have to be felt. If 
those who now give little attention to 
trees could lind it practicable to visit 
towns and cities mede famous by 
their trees and parks a great pro- 
portion of the present indifference 
would be eliminated. 

When a man finds that his pro lerfrv 
is worth far mure today that it was 
a dozen vears ago owing to the 
growth of one or several beautiful 
trees on it, he appreciates the tree or 
trees, withour doubt. The owner may 
have never given his trees a thought 
until this cash value idea forced it- 
self upon him. How much greater 
would his appreciation have been for 
those trees is he had learned to feel 
j then a part of his home and an asset 
to his everyday happiness ? 



Trees, then, must have more than a 
few appealing features to arouse 
general interest and when these are 
enumerated it will ue plainly seen 
that they have. In passing along a 
cilj street during the hot summer 
months with the mercury at 95 de- 
rives in the shade haven t you often 
sought the spot shad.d oy a noule 
tree, where the direct rays of Old 
boi, either beating down direct, or 
reheated by reliection from buildings, 
are intercepted {lave you not lilted 
your " straw " from your sweltering 
brow and offered up a little iuward 
prayer tor this same tree 1 

Theil again we lind that trees prove 
to ue sanitary agents. J nrough uiu. 
leaves poisonous gttSdB, which are apt 
to prevail in congested districts, are 
absorbed. Where civic and village 
improvement societies have accomplish- 
ed results, this fact may not at once 
appear significant but in nuanv towns 
that the writer has visited where 
garhage, etc., has been allowed to 
remain in the streets until a kindly 
ram has washed it awav every 
agency which would tend to eliminate 
the foul, poisomous odors would 
certainly seem a blessing. Tree roots 
absorb superfluous water which would 
otherwise make o.ir basement and 
cellars damp and unlit for the stor- 
age of fruit and vegetables. Soil 
aeration is another factor to thank 
roots for. The opposition will say 
that tree roots often displace curb- 
ings and walks, yes and pavements. 
Why ? Because these same trees were 
not properly planted. No root can 
penetrate some of the hardpans found 
near the surface of many of our 
streets. Before putting in permanent 
walks where beautiful trees exist it 
would pav towns and cites to see that 
the tree roots are going to have 
ample room to develop in penetrable 
soil. 

The cities, towns, villages and 
districts famous for their trees. 



too little appreciate what nature has 
done aided by man. 'there is little 

done to preserve, and hand down 
to posterity, the blessings they are 
at present enjoying. The trees should 
Lie watched like children. Over in 
L' ranee the city of Paris spends 
thousands of dollars in supporting a 
Tree Hospital. Trees are sprayed, 
fertilized, pruned, replaced when be- 
yond their usefulness and protected in 
every way possible from injury. The 
whole city takes a living interest in 
its trees. They are proud of their 
well-shaded avenues. 

We cannot lay back and let Damp 
Nature, fake oare of our beautiful 
trees. They will not last forever un- 
aided and not even then, it is our 
duly not only to ourselves but to 
those who follow to protect the trees 
we already possess and provide others 
for coming generations, — living monu- 
ments of a thoughtful people. — P. J. 
Williams. Alabama Station in Horti- 
culture. 

<8> 

The Yucca Gloriosa. 

In the Yucca family we have several 
most usefkl plants for the shrubbery. 
Tbey are chielly native of Mexico, 
•Jamaica, and the southern United 
States; ol America, The plants resist 
drought and they are not fastidious 
regarding the soil they are in. There 
are but few species of ia'ceas, and 
they are generally called " Adam s 
needles." They are also sometimes 
known as the " Spanish dagger," and 
also as the " dagger-leaf plant, 
they are easily propagated oy sucKers 
by cuttings, and also by seeds. The 
plants bloom* at irregular intervals, 
and one cannot always predict when 
a plant will bloom. A dozen speci- 
mens may be in flower all at one time 
or upon another occasion the bloom- 
ing period may extend over, several 
months. Yuccas are excellent sea- 
side plants. TLey do very well also 
inland, and, except in very cold 
localities, are hardy in most narts of 
Australia. 

An American gentleman, writing in 
the " Journal of Horticulture " gives 
an interesting description of Yucca 
gloriosa. He saw a plant of it in 
bloom in England, and it put him in 
mind of the wilds of his native 
country, Florida. He says that the 
spike-needle of this plant is used to 
this day by the more dressy Red 
Indians in the stitching of tbeir fancy 
aprons. It is supposed this is the 
plant used by our first parents to 
stitch the first garments of our race 
in the Garden of Men. It is stated 
that this plant does not seed in 
Europe, and this is said to be through 
the absence of a certain moth, the 
Promoto yuccasella. If this moth did 
not exist the Yucca seed would not be 
fertilised, and if there were no Yucca 
plan Is (he larvae of the moth would 
die of hunger. These moths do not 
exist in Europe, and therefore the 
plants do not seed. The naturalist 
may say whether the moth was made 



ALBERT O. PIKE, 

(Late GAMEAU BROTHERS). 

Clairville Nursery, Hectorville* 



All kinds of fruit trees for sale, Citru s trees, Lemons and Oranges a special- 
ity. Send for illustrated catalogue. 

Telegraphic Address — Pike, Hectorville , Payneham. Telephone — Central 2768. 

HAMBURG HOTEL 

RUNDLE STREET, ADELAIDE. 

HAS SIXTEEN ADDITIONAL BEDROOMS, 

Electrie Light Throughout. 
Hot and Cold Baths. 'Phonfi 1130. 

J. FLANNAGAN . . . Proprietor. 



July, lUiz 

|T " • - 

ior the plant or the plant for the 
nio,.h, ana wmch prouiteed the otner. 

iLe writer in quest-ou raters to tne 
ui'if cregnry-wnne, beli-lii^e ulossonis, 
which are arraOJcU in panicles. 1'no 
[live wax-liKe petals unclose a wonOci- 
| iuI ov arj , wnich, in audition to !».-. 
ordinary iuucticn, is an ^aubator 
lor the moth ueposits its eggs here, 
and «nen ihcse nave reaped mo 
cocoon stage, alter having been 
uouristied by the ovules, tuey let 
themselves down froni tne nower oy 
fa gauzy thread, ana lie among the 
j lohage at the loot ol tne plant ior a 
[•year, at the end oi which period . 
I uevciop into moms, whicn, in turn, 
repeat the life history. In Florida, 
t these moths may be seen as soon as 
> uus& falls, trying from uower iu 
[Mover, and sheduing a strong metallic 
I radiance around, and thus wariiin ; 

the Darefooted Indian oi the perdous 
I spikes in his path. Ihese moths h a u- 
I a singularly constructed trunK, pro- 
luded with teeth, with which 
I collect the pollen and roll it into 
■ hard, perfectly formed balls, which art 
I then deposited upon the stigma ot 
[ another flower. These golden balls 
I are much prized by the Indians in 
soire parts of America, where they 
j form the current coin. The writer 
■•wonders whether the three golden 
balls of the pawnbroker have any- 
|. things to do with the golden bails of 
L the pollen of the Yucca, so much 
[ valued by the Indians. 

One of the finest ol the Yuccas found 
in Australian gardens is Y. aloaefolia 

lyariegata ; T. qoiadricolor has beaut i- 

i iul var egated foliage ; Y. filznientosa 
•s a dwarf-growin? species, so named 

[from tne thread-like filaments of the 
foligge ; Y. recurva pendula is also a 
line species of these, really useful plant. 

»— " Australasian." 

€> 

The Rose in Floral Work. 

K. Acknowledged queen of flowers, the 
■rose lifts itself in mighty grandeur 
£ahove her exquisite but less pre- 
Htentious sisters of the soil, and for 

h'-r sweet innocence and ever readiness 
fcto mingle with them we bow our 

tenderest respect and compliments. 

f We do not speak slightingly of all 
Hue of Flora's kingdom when lauding 



A. G. TOYNK 

Practical Saddle, Harness and 
Collar Maker and Repairer . , . 

wishes to notify the public that he has removed 
from 20 Franklin Street to 

Corner Pulteney and Flinders Streets 

•orl respectfully solicits the continue- ee of 
your patronise. All kinds of New and 
Oecond-hand SADDLERY. Harness and 
Stable Requisites stocked. 

All Orders promptly attended to. Repairs 
a Speciality. Old Harness taken as p.rt 
^payment for New, and full value allowed. 
Ail work guaranteed and the mos'. reas nable 
prices charged. Price-, ist free on application. 
Buy direct from the Maker. 



THE GARDEN AND FIELD. 



the charms of the rose, as each 
iiower in turn can oo<iSl its \oiury, 
and jUsiry so, as the ijlossi.ni ue» uw 
oi oeaiuy and without an aumirer is 
unknown, in its widow y grace ana 
loitmcss 01 mien the rose may co 
uepcnucU upon when displayed with 
us Kind, oni\ , to produce results in 
the mat fcer ol naiuiai charm not to 
uo obtained try the ohm, .ring oi 
blooms oi any howering plants not 
embraced in its ciass, ana it is con- 

eeaea the rose is in a class, ui 

Lnseihsn nature il is willing at all 
tunes to go hand in hana w«th a 

comxjauiion of different tyi-e, e. 

inou^h us adapiaoitity to such com- 
uiiiations is comparatively slight. 

In company with eari.at.ons, the 
rose loses its importance, w'hile the 
ca! nation itsell appears 10 sutler, the 
idtitr being more at ease unaidcU 
ihe former. 

There are opportunit.es, neverthe- 
less, lor roses oeing used lo advantage 
with other flowers as Uoral emblems 
be they tasiuoned ior the living or 
the dead. 

A bridal bouquet of white rosebud., 
einoedished with a few orchids at one 
side is beautiful as it is popular, 
ihere are other instances where the 
rose may be used in connection with 
other llowers with excellent effect, 

\uiat is most desired in the use oi 
roses is an avoidance of con monpluce 
combinations, such as roses and 
violets, roses and gardenias, roses 
with sweet peas or lily of the valley j 
in fact with any small llower in the 
construction oi corsage bouquets, 
small flowers being infinitely better 
alone than when in compan • of t..e 
rose, whose preeminence enables it to 
stand alone iu the fulness of its 
dignity. — Horticulture. 

<$> 

Sowing Small Seeds. 

Most country settlers, as a rule, 
have several old powder canisters 
lying about the place, which, as a 
rule, as soon as they are emptied are 
thrown down and entirely discarded. 
Gather these up carefully and lit them 
nicely with corks ; then bore a hole 
through the centre of the cork with 
a stout nail or any other implement, 
after which, get some of the stoutest 
feathers from either a goose or a 
turkey's wing ; cut the quill about 2 
or 3 in. from the base, insert the 
pointed end through the cork, and 
draw it through till the other end 
is flush with the end of the cork ; 
then cut the tip off, and see that 
there is no obstruction in the quill. 

Fill' your canisters with the various 
kinds of seeds, label them, or place 
some distinguishing mark on them, 
and then place the corks with the 
quills into each tin, and as occasion 
requires proceed to use them : and it 
will be found that after opening out 
the rows in the usual way by gently 
shaking the tins held in the horizontal 
position the seed will drop out in a 
thin, even stream, thereby saving an 



55 



ircjinense amount of seed and a lot 
oi trouble in after the runnings out. 

For peas, beet, etc., the same 
method can be persued, with the ex- 
ception that no quill is reqiuired, and 
when using take the cork from the 
tin, and shake the tin as before. The 
same device will also be found to 
economise greatly when sowing broad- 
Cast, although it is hardly so effective 
then. 

® 

Old Carnation Plants. 



Old carnation plants, three or more 
years old, may be renovated in the 
following manner :— Dig out the whole 
plant, injuring the roots as little as 
possible ; manure the spot where it 
was growing by digging in cow or 
sheep manure, and then replant two 
inches or so deeper than it was in 
the first place, spreading out the 
branches and covering them with soil. 
Then give a good watering. Each of 
the branches will then form new roots, 
and you will practically have as 
many young plants as the bush has 
branches. The same end may be 
gained by simply spreading two or 
three inches of fresh soil over the 
crown of the carnation and keeping it 
dump by judicious watering, but the 
first plan suggested is the better as 
it enables you to manure the soil 
beneath the plant. 




THE GARDEN AND FIBLD. 



July, 1012 



® Frtiit Garden @ 



Notes for July. 



— Pruning. — 

Pruning has two objects :— 

1st, To form the tree and regulate 
its shape and growth. 

2nd, To promote and regulate fruit 
bearing. 

The first named object of pruning 
is, of course, im|>ortant; but only in 
connection with the second, for one 
cannot conceive of a man desiring 
to grow fruit trees >\hich can neither 
bloom nor bear fru;t. If a man w ill 
let a ['each or an apricot tree abso- 
lutely alone it will, as a rule, bear 
plenty of good fruit from the third 
to say the eighth or tenth year. If 
he then chops or saws it off and lets 
it grow again he will lose one year 
and then have plenty of fruit again 
for a further term of years. This will 
be a very barbarous way of growing 
fruit but it is infinitely better than 
the plan followed in some of the 
gardens, and it is better th,an 
allowing the trees to grow straggly 
and half dead as old linear ed - for 
t rees naturally do. 

— Keep the Ceotre Open. — 

In pruning all trees, keep the centre 
open, so that there may be a free 
access of sunlight and air, for with- 
out these neither foliage nor fruit can 
develop. While the trees are bare 
look carefully at them and remove 
bodily any limbs which fill up the 
centre. Saw them cleanly out, smooth 
the wound with a knife, and if pos- 
sible tar or paint the surface to pre- 
serve the wood and facilitate healing. 
If several large limbs are thus cut out 
the remainder of the tree can in ma n> 
cases he left alone to carry a crop, 
because the fact of having removed a 
good bocly of wood will be enough to 
provide for the development of new 
wood. 

— Thin Out Old Pear Spurs. — 

In dealing with old apple and pear 
trees it is wise to thin out the old 
1 Masses of spurs, and thus permit of 



the strength of the tive being con- 
cent r u ted into the buds which remain. 
A spur with twenty blossom buds 
might well be reduced to ten, and 
one with ten to five, with advantage 
to the resulting crop of fruit. 

It is perhaps well to tell the 
amiateur that peaches and apricots 
beer on new wood and apples and 
pears on old spurs, and pruning 
should be regulated accordingly. 

— Peach Aphis. — 

In .July the peach aphis begins to 
appear on the young wood of peaches. 

Spraying with one of the oil emul- 
sions is said to be a complete cure. 
If it is considered necessary to attack 
them below ground, the grower is 
advised to open up the soil round 
the base of the trunks of the trees 
which were affected last season, and 
pour in a gallon or two of soap 
suds and tobacco water. Then watch 
for the first appearances on the twigs, 
and either cut them off and burn them 
carefully or drop them into a bucket 
of water on which a spoonful of kero- 
sine has been poured. If you do not 
care to cut off the twigs, and some- 
times it is not desirable, have a small 
tin of tobacco water or kerosine 
emulsion a'nd brush the twigs with a 
paint brush. The rubbing with the 
brush and the kerosine together will 
destroy the colony, and is less trouble 
than spraying for the first attacks. 
Give the roots another dose of to - 
bacco water and suds, and keep 
watch. The important thing, is to 
prevent the aphis from getting a 
start. Once let the aphis get ahead, 
and thorough spraying or fumigation 
is essential. 

— Peach Curl Leaf- — 

The remedy, or rather the preven- 
tion of curl leaf depends on the effec- 
tiveness of the spraying with Bor - 
deaux mixture. The work should be 
done before the buds open, or rather, 
just when they are beginning to open, 
and again when they are opening. 

— Grafting. — 
Blight - proof stocks for . apples 
should be worked at the end of the 
month or early in August. 



Scions, that is, wood for grafting, 
should l>e cut now and well heeled in 
under the tree or labelled with zinc 
otnd bedded in moist sand. It will 
then be ready for use when required 
up to September. 

I he grafting of old trees should lie 
done when the sap is rising. If 
the cleft graft sr the whip and tongue 
graft is used, the work is generally 
done early before the buds open, but 
if any form of bark graft is used, 
the operation must be delayed until 
the sap is sufficiently active to allow 
of the bark being readily lifted. For 
small stocks, say, up to an inch the 
whip and tongue graft is perhaps the 
best : but for trees over that size I 
like same form of bark graft. 

— Citrus Trees. — 

It is best oow to wait until the 
weather is warmer for planting out 
orange and lemon trees, but I think 
it is well not to delay until the young 
trees begin to grow. 

— Planting Almond and Cherry 
Trees. — 

It is well not to delay planting out 
almond trees, for they will begin to 
bloom at the end of -July, and it is 
well that they should be in the ground 
before the buds swell. If it is not 
convenient or the ground is too wet 
to plant out trees, it is a good plan 
to heel them in well and shift them 
several times. This prevents their 
starting to make root growth, and 
keeps them io a dormant condition 
until they can be planted. 



Novel Treatment of Peach 
Trees. 

Experiments made at the ex- 
perimental station at Bologna 
(Italv) have shown that by re- 
moving the bark in rings from the 
branches of ueach trees the fruit- 
ing is greatly encouraged, and the 
fruit is finer and ripens more 
quicklv than those of trees not so 
treated. The tree is not injured 
by this operation, and the fruit is 
even more firmlv attached to the 
branches. — Queensland . Agricultural 
Journal. 



m. wicks g Riverside & Balhannah Nurseries 

FRUIT TREES— All the Leading Varieties, Hardy and Well-Rooted. 

CRAPE VINES; NEW APPLE (Glengyle Red); BURBANK'S NEW PLUMS; APPLES in 70 varieties; large 
Stock PEARS. SPECIAL QUOTATIONS FQR QUANTITIES. VERY LARGE STOCK BEST PEACHES 
AND NECTARINES. 40 ACRES NURSERY STOCK. CATALOGUES POST FREE. 

NEW JAPANESE PLUM VESUVIUS MAGNIFICENT MATALLIC CRIMSON FOLIAGE. 



H. WICKS, RIVERSIDE AND BALHANNAH NURSERIES. 



Postal Address : PAYNBHAM, SOUTH AUSTRALIA. 



July, 1912 



THE GARDEN AND FIELD. 



5? 



The Apricot. 



— Pruning at Planting. — 
When the trees are in position their 
tops should be removed, and a stem 
of 12in. or 15 in. left for the future 
tree. During the first three months 
of the first season's growth the 
apricot requires considerable attention 
as regards its formation. Each 
branch should start at a different 
height, so as to avoid forks, for the 
trees are liable to split at their forks 
when heavy winds are experienced. 
To this end the young trees should be 
examined every week or ten days — the 
oftener the better — and all buds that 
would m a ke growth that is not desir- 
able should be rubbed off with the 
lingers, and with attention the trees 
in the orchsrd may be made of 
uniform shape. The rubbing-off of 
the buds needs to be done intelligently. 
On examining each tree the buds that 
are already forced out, or likely to be 
forced out, should be noted, the object 
being to allow three or four — three 
by preference — set stepwise to remain, 
and these should be retained in such 
a position as to evenly distribute the 
future main limbs around the tree, so 
that the head will be thoroughly 
well balanced. 

— Winter Pruning. — 

In pruning the apricot both skill 
and judgment are recfuired, and, per- 
haps more than any other tree, the 
apricot suffers from neglect of annual 
pruning. The object of the first tivo 
.or three years' pruning should be to 
secure a well-formed tree, capable of 
'carrying its future loads of fruit, 
rather than with a view to immediate 
profit. After the first year the objects 
'to be kept in view are to give 
strength of limb, to insure sufficient 
new wood to produce abundant crops 
| of excellent fruit without the over- 



crowding of the branches, and at the 
same time to maintain the spurs in a 
vigorous state of growth. The natural 
habit of the apricot is to throw out 
out needlessly long shoots, and these 
must be shortened back severely at 
every winter pruning, or, if this is 
neglected, the tree will become like 
most of the peach-trees, denuded of 
young be&rin'g-wood in the interior. 
The apricot carries its fruit on the 
spurs thrown out from last season's 
growth ; it has fruit and wood-buds 
mixed on the shoots of one year's 
growth, and it has also little fruit 
branches or spurs like the plum, which 
are capable of being renewed by 
shortening. The points to be re- 
membered in pruning are these : to 
keep the top well headed down ; to 
cut back the laterals to 3 in. or 4 in., 
thereby converting tb.em into fruit- 
spurs which will bear fruit the follow- 
ing season ; again, shorten back the 
spurs as they lengthen and become 
enfeebled, thus forcing the sap to- 
wards their base, thereby renewing 
them. The judgment of the grower 
must be exercised ; he must consider 
the character of the soil, the climate, 
and the variety he is growing. In 
some places the tendency of certain 
varieties is to make wood too rapidly 
whilst in another place the growth is 
much slower. Pruning must thus be 
adapted to circumstances ; but, pre- 
suming that the tree has been planted 
and pruned in such manner as to 
form a welPbalanced head, with 
branches three or four in number, the 
second year's pruning would then 
consist in heading back the vigorous 
growth of "the first year to 12 in. or 
14 in. In examining the tree at the 
third winter's pruning, you will notice 
at the end of each shoot that was 
cut back at the previous winter two 
and sometimes three or four strong 
shoots. If three or four shoots have 
been thrown out from each branch, 



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one or two of these should be cut 
clean away, and the rest shortened to 
a quarter or a third of their length. 
Those retained should be well apart — 
avoiding forks— -and they should not 
be left so as to interfere with any 
shoots from the next branch. The ob- 
ject should always be to retain the 
limbs eqjuidistant from one another, 
as far as that is possible. It is not 
desirable to, have too many limbs, as 
when the fruit-spurs are thrown out 
all those over 2 in. or A in.' in length 
are shortened ; these spurs will not 
only carry fruit, but throw out spurs 
from the terminal buds, and if these 
are properly treated they will con- 
tinue healthy and vigorous, and will 
bear fruit for many successive years. 

9 

Publication Received. 

Though written for English condi- 
tions, and to English time there is 
much of interest in this volume before 
us, "Gardening for the ignorant." it 
is written for those who kjnow 
little of gardening, though hardly 
pernaps as destitute of knowledge a}s 
the Scotch lady mentioned in the pre- 
pare who said to someone who was 
admiring her ilowers " Ah 1 but, 
Uoctor, ye ken the Latin names of 
the flowers, I ken but twa, and they 
are just Aurora Borealis, and Delir- 
ium Tremens. it enters freely into 
simplest details, and has many help- 
ful suggestions which are usually con- 
sidered not worth while by more 
ambitious writers of the subject. 

Amongst the many advantages of 
gardening, its helpful influence on 
mind and body, takes an important 
place, and the authors, who, oy the 
way, are two lady amateur garden- 
ers, very truly say. ''' That the actual 
work of gardening, as far as it is 
within one's power to accomplish it, 
is far more interesting than merely 
giving directions, and watching thie 
result. This is, indeed, the keynote 
of the pleasure of gardening. Our 
copy reaches us from Messrs. McMil- 
lan and Co., and the price is 1/-. 



FRUIT TREES. 

By far the Largest Stock in Australia. 
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Qembrook [Nurseries, 

Emerald (Vic), Australia. 



58 



THE OAUDBN AND FIELD 



July, 1912 



Fertilizers and Fertility. 

— A Paper read before the Society of 
American Florists. — 

Few phases ot scientijic investiga- 
tions are ot greater interest, or iioiu 
torth more promise ot proUiaole re- 
sults, than ihu studies wnicii are be- 
ing made in regard to the fertility 01 
our soils mid their conservation, i o 
the gardener the subject is of prime 
importance, whether hs worn, be in 
the open held or under a ruoi of glass; 
whether engaged in the growing of tlie 
primary food products, or in the pro- 
duction of materials for decoration 
and the expression of the hioher 
aesthetic feelings of mankind. 

That wo are still in it he experimental 
stage of agriculture can hardly be de- 
nied, though we are slowly approxima- 
ting to a scientific basis, '.theory and 
practice are often at variance, probably 
from a misunderstanding of the mean- 
ing of the facts before us. These 
differences will in time be eliminated, 
and our practice will constantly be- 
come more exact. That we still have 
many things to learn about our soils 
and their relation to plant life goes 
without saying, but at the present 
time I think we are not all making 
the best use of the knowledge which 
has accumulated on these subjects. 

In this paper, today, will be found 
little that is original, but rather an 
attempt to collate and place before 
you some of the more striking facts 
and theories current at this time- 
In these days of extensive garden- 
ing, all questions relating- in any way 
to the supply and assimil.it ion of the 
elements of fertility are of vital in- 
terest, as upon their correct solution 
depends the final profits or loss. 

In order that we may discuss these 
matters more intelligently, let us 
briefly review some of the fundamental 
.acts which underlie the subject, as 
well as some modern theories of fertili- 
ty and assimilation, and the relation 



of various factors which enter into the 
problem of plant growth. 

The great bulk of plant tissue is 
made up of starch, cellulose and 
water, with a small amount of pro 
louls or albuminoids. These reduced 
to their simplest terms mean carbon, 
oxygen, hydrogen and nitrogen, which 
together with potash, phosphorus 
and a little lime and sulphur, maKe 
up the list of essentials. Carbon 
oxygen, hydrogen and nitrogen in 
gaseous coudit on are everywhere pre- 
sent in the atmosphere, while potash 
phosphorus nad lime and suinhur are 
found to a igreater or less extent in 
most soils, and are the elements 
which become exhausted and have to 
lie renewed. Uf these latter elements 
sulphur may be omitted, as it, like 
some other elements of minor im- 
portance is usually found in sufficient 
quantity. 

Uf these substances the most expen 
sive and at the same time the most 
evanescent, is nitrogen. The soil will 
not hold it ; it is here todav and 
there tomarrow. It is inordinately 
fond of fresh fields of activity, and so 
impatient of conlinement that it has 
to be constantly kept at work, and 
watched lest it escape into the at- 
mosphere from combination which 
secretes it and deprives the plant of 
its services. 

The usual sources of supply for fer- 
tilizing purposes are from animal sub- 
stances, stable manure and from na- 
tural deposits of nitrates. * 

Potash is a more stable element, 
though likely to be lost by leaching, 
and is obtained in commercial quanti- 
ties from wood ashes and from the 
nitrates and sulphates. 

Phosphoric acid is commonly bought 
in the shape of ground phosphatic 
rock, from bone, horn, hair, from lish 
and from basic slag. These three ele- 
ments have been called " The tripod 
of fertility." 

From whatever source these ele- 
ments are obtained, they must be solu- 



ble in water in order to bo available 
to the crop. Potash and phosphoric 
acid can be applied to the soil at any 
time, and the loss from leaching or 
otherwise is not very serious, while 
any surplus beyond the present needs 
of the plants will be retained for future 
use ; but nitrogen applied in excess is, 
as a rule, nitrgen wasted, and as we 
have seen, this is an expensive fertili- 
zer. This leads us to thp theory, which 
has the support of good practice, that 
nitrogen should be applied in small 
quantities, and often rather than 
enough at one time to perfect the ceop. 
There are combinations of nitrogen, 
however, as in stable manure and 
animal matters, which require time to 
unlock and render available. Such 
compounds may be applied in larger 
quantities some time previous to the 
planting of the crop, or a time allow- 
ance made to enable the proper forces 
to tear the combinations apart, and 
render nitrogen fit for assimilation. 

(to be continued). 

<S> 

Drainage. 

The question of drainage on Orchard 
land is one which is considered of in- 
creasing importance. Many benelits 
are claimed by the advocates of under 
drainage, and in many cases it is of 
course essential that the work shouid 
be done. It is not often that one 
finds a practical orohardist who 
dissents from the main proposition, 
that drainage is desirable. A corres- 
pondent to the " Fanner and Grazier" 
nowever, holds somewhat unusial 
views on the subject. We reprint his 
articale as follows : — 

" A matter that wants revising, ac- 
cording to Australian experience, is 
drainage. To read the European au- 
thorities that are so often quoted 
here, soil drainage appears an unm xed 
<rood and a most profitable invest- 
ment. It is said to remove surface 
water from surface and subsoil ; to 



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' WALKERVILLE, SOUTH AUST. 

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July, 1912 



THE GARDEN AND FIEIyD. 



6a 



nconrage fertility ; to warm the soil 
md dry it ; to lengthen the season ol 
illage ; and man}' more tine things 
Besides that may all be right in a 
noist climate, but have very little 
relation to things as they are over a 
arge area in this country. 

— Surface Drains. — 

However they may operate under a 
Qild, steady rainfall, subsoil drains 
tre practically useless for carrying oh 
>ur heavy storms. if the ground is 
rorked and on a slope, the heavy 
bower makes a channel for itself, and 
iears downhill in a Hood, carrying with 
I hundreds of tons of soil, and this 
■ough the land may be pretorated 
rith drain pipes, in orchards various 
dans meet this difficulty with partial 
success. The land is only worked one 
pay, across the slope. Strips of grass 
r permanent crop are left. Slabs in 
. row are lixed in the ground, like a 
farden border, so as to check the cur- 
em at every row of trees. Some 
tinds of clay do not wash easily ; 
bese are filled in the washed-out 
►laces. Yet with all these con- 
rivances, or some of them, great 
lamage is still done by torrential 
ain. 

— Subsoil Drains. — 

If vou have a bog, or a permanently 
lour patch of (ground, there is no ques- 
ion of the advantage of drains; but 
f your subsoil is at all porous, and 
ften when it is not, local experience 
joes to prove that subpoil drainage is 
kostly a useless expense. And this is 
asy to understand if we consider the 
lain purpose of these drains, which 
I by carrying off the subsoil water to 
fllow access to the air. But our soil 
or the greater part of the vear has 
b subsoil moisture to sreak of. 
>tift 'soil is cracked bv the heat for 



Drink 

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W. H. PENGILLY'S 

MOSIFIELD NURSERY, 
FULLARTON, S.A. 

Fruit Trees 

til the leading varieties, well grown , 
ind well-rooted. Peachea, Apricots, 
Plums, Quinces, Figs, Almonds, Vines 

best table varieties. 
I have again to offer the finest grown 
ot of Standards and Dwarf Roses in 
this State. 
'Phone 1,108. 



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greui depths, alto wing the atmosphere 
tree access. i>ight soil, from its 
nature, aiso allows the air to emer 
in a dry time. it results that the 
eniel enu ol diainage is not requireu. 
ilie wriier has seen hundreds ol 
jjouu.is wasted in this way. Me can 
;iioi\ an orchard, naif drained anu 
haii not, anu the undratnwd portion 
iiives the best results. Me can show 
several orchards scientihcally draiueu 
inai proved laiiures, others undrained 
tnat na\e nourished, it is not sug- 
gested that the orchards failed be- 
cause they were drained ; but simply 
thai in most cases subsoil drains ^e 
has little to do with orchard results. 
At ..ne same time, there are few or- 
enaidists that do not find by experi- 
ence ana the colour ol their trees, that 
an odd dram here and there is wanted 
lar special places. An examination oi 
such cases will generally snow that the 
sou in that part is held in an underly- 
ing basin ot iock, clay, or shale, that 
requires a channel cut through it. 
that is all ; nature in our climate will 
do the rest. 

— Trenching. — 

Closely allied in tneory to subsoil 
uraiuing is that ol trenching ; boUl 
piuns nelp the air in a dam climate 
io penetrate more ueeiily in the so*i, 
and every system of tillage has tne 
same object. i>ut il the an - , owing to 
climatic reasons, penetrates deepiy 
uy a mere surface scratching, tnen li 
is evident that trenching and other 
expensive deep culture is so much 
uasie labour. And local results go 
lar to conlirm that opinion. Tne 
writer has a neighbour, who with 
great lauour, trenched half his kitchen 
garden two feet deep ; the other hall, 
tor lack of time, he simply dug nine 
inches. Io his surprise and disgust, 
one half of the graden bears crops 
equally as good as the other. 1 know 
of land 3(J years ago trenched for 
orange trees, one acre two feet, the 
other acre only a foot, because the 
solid rock was met with. The trees 
on the foot of soil have done better 
than those on the two foot. European 
experience is unanimous that you 
must trench for grape vines — trench- 
ing here costs about £40 per acre. 
Our vignerons, except in moist places, 
find a nine-inch ploughing costing, 
say, 10s. per acre, answer all pur- 
poses. All these facts, and mam- 
more that could be added, go to show 
that European (agricultutal or horti- 
cultural experience is of doubtful value 
for local application. And it is just 
this kind of experience that is quoted 
so freely in the agricultural columns 
of our press, leading to immense loss 
of time and money by deluded 
readers. 

— The Australian Plan. — 
The theory of drainage, subsoilmg, 
and trenching is sound in England. 
It is no doubt the best plan there to 
aerate the soil ; but to achieve the 
same end here quite a different pro- 
cess must be followed, and that is to 
scratch the surface ; break the crust 
that always forms after a few days 
on welt-worked soil. Then under our 
conditions the air penetrate freely and 
deeply. There is good reason to sup 



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pose that much of our second, third, 
and fourth ploughings, mig'ht be pro 
iitably superseded by as many more 
harrowings or cultivatings. , A pair of 
horses will plough an acre in a day, 
or cultivate six acres. Thjose who 
will change the first process for the 
second on all possible occasions will 
find their • advantage. Give three 
cultivations instead of a second 
ploughing, and you will save half 
your time, and have better results. 
1 notice on one of the most prosper- 
ous Hawkesbury farms where corn is 
a crop in the driest seasons, the 
cultivator is always going up aod 
down the rows ; or the harrows over 
the crops till their height stops the 
process. I notice in orchards that in 
praportion as they are harrowed or 
southed, so do they prosper and suc- 
ceed. In orchards, after the first 
planting, we have abolished the plough 
nl together ; how far farmers may do 
so I cannot say, but I am certain 
that in their case more and constant 
surface scratching would lead to pro- 
fitable results. 



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LOCKLEYS. 

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so 



THE GARDEN AND FIELD. 



July, 1912 



Pruning the Peach and 
Nectarine. 



These trees give best results when 
formed with low heads, and as they 
make very strong growth they will in 
consei ruence require very hard pruning 
for the iirst five or six years. The 
first year's pruning in orchard should 
consist in cutting hack, leaving only 
three or four main arms without any 
laterals. Second and third years they 
will require care and guiding. As it 
gets older it must not be allowed to 
grow too thick, and to avoid this a 
certain amount of thinning out and 
pinching back will have to be done ; 
but 1 do not approve of summer 
pruning these trees too severely, as 1 
have found, from mv personal ex- 
perience, that we have obtained far 
better results where only a moderate 



CURLEW BRANDY. 




thinning of shoots and very light 
summer pruning with a good winter 
pruning were given. With most varieties 
of peaches and nectarines, the trise, as 
it gVts older, insist not be allowed to 
grow too thick in the centre else that 
which should be good fruit inir wood 
will never properly develop owing to 
the density, and will, in consequence 
be barren of fruiting buds; therefore, 
the grower should see that the centre 
of the tree is just open enough to 
have sufficient light and room for the 
wood to develop properly. Then, at 
the time of winter pruning, manv of 
theso shoots will huve to be removed 
altogether, others cut back, leaving 
about six fruiting buds on each shoot. 
The more fruiting wood left the more 
fruit will be set, but the size and 
llavour will be poor, and the \ ; lue 
of the fruit when marketed will also 
be poor. To grow good fruit, too 
much fruiting wood must not be left. 
The grower himself will be the best 
judge as to the carrying capacity of 
his tree. 

To sum up, winter pruning consists 
of shortening in or cutting ofi half of 
last year's growth all over the tree, 
cutting out any sickly small wood 
which did not mature, thinning the 
strong shoots out where found to be 
too thick, and leaving only the re- 
quired number of shoots distributed 
evenly over the tree, at the same 
time performing the work in such a 
way as not to destroy the balance of 
the head. By reducing the wood one- 
half we reduce the coming crop by 
half (in numbers not in pounds), as 
the peach and nectarine always hear 
their fruit on one-year old wood ; 
thus the remaining half will be of 
better size and qiuality, and of greater 
commercial value. — Extracts from W. 
J. Allen's " Pruning," Department of 
Agriculture, N.S.W. 



For years the Only Brandy used 
in the Adelaide Hospital. 
Sole Agents — 

DOWNER A 00. 

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Preparation of Red Oil 
Emulsion. 

Add '21b. of soft soap to 1 gallon 
of soft water, arid boil until dissolv- 
ed, after which add 2 gallons of red 
oil and bring to a boil. Emulsify- 
by either stirring rapidly, or by pla- 
cing the nozzle of a spray-pump in 
the mixture and pumping quickly for 
a few minutes until it emulsifies. Dil- 
ute in the proportion of 1 in 30, or 
make the whole up to 60 gallons. 

When first made it looks something 
like cream. The strong emulnsion 
should first be placed in the spray - 
barrel, and then the required amount 
of water for diluting added. 

When the weather is very cold the 
water for diluting should he warmed; 
otherwise the mixture is liable to turn 
into a jelly. 

In applying this solution through 
the pump, considerable force must be 
used, so as to ensure the mixture 
reaching into all crevices where any 



insects might be sheltering ; and see j 
that every part of the tree is covered,! 
as if even a few are missed, they] 
breed very rapidly. If anv live ones! 
are found on the tree after this treat-! 
ment, it mpy receive another spraying! 
or, if only a few are found, the infes-j 
ted parts may be painted with the! 
emulsion, using a brush for the pur-j 
pose. 

Care should be taken is mixing toj 
see that the oil does not come in con- 
tact with the fire, and the work is] 
done in the open to prevent anyl 
possible chance of setting fire to any J 
buildings. 

Spray-pump and hose should be well 
rinsed in hot water directly after be- 
ing used, as the oil attacks the! 

rubber. 



<S> 

White Ants and Peach Trees. 

When the peach trees get old, andj 
decay sets in about the roots or main 
trunK, if there are any white ants in 
the vicinity they will find their way* 
into the trunk and soon gnaw thel 
centre out, gradually extending their 
passages up the main branches, and 
when a heavy wind-storm comes it isi 
no uncommon thing to see half-a- 
dozen large trees minus a lim|h| or two. 
This is the species that is always 
found at this work in the neighbour- 
hood of Sydney, and the soldier can; 
always be identified by its smooth 
scythe-like untoothed jaws, with the 
curious habit of ejecting a globule of 
milk-like iluid from a chamber in the 
front of its head, as a means of de- 
fence when captured. The winged or 
perfect form of this species is a slen- 
der chocolate - coloured inset, with? 
slender, rounded, blackish wings. 

— Treatment. — 
Cut out all dead branches or dead 
wood at the roots, and' treat with 
tar-water ; burn all dead wood or 
sttumps near the trees, which arej 
only likely to harbour the white ants. 
Above all, endeavour to find and de- 
stroy the permanent headquarters or 
nests, with the queens. Egg-laying is 
then over, and the white ant colony- 
will speedily perish, there being no 
young ones to take the place of the 
matured ones as they die. 

Dig in several pounds of Kainil 
above the roots of infested trees. 



Raising Orange Trees 
from Pips. 

Reply to R.M.— The pips for grow- 
ing orange stocks should be taken 
from seedling oranges, as these are 
said to make the best and most 
vigorous trees. The pips may be 
allowed to remain in the oranges until 
the warm weather in spring, when 
they are taken out and planted in a 
bed' prepared as follows :— If the land 
is heavy get sand and mix with thej 
soil, to which add, if practicable, ona, 
bag of well .rotted sheep manure to 



aly, 1912 



THE GARDEN AND FIELD. 



61 



-y b$d 4 ft. wide by 8 ft loner, 
it care should be taken to {jet 
manure, soil and sand thoroughly 
mL 

laiit the pips about 3ins. apart to 
epth of three-quarters of an inch, 
r which mulch the top of the 
! with well-rotted, drv. fine man- 
scattered over the top to a depth 
t quarter of an inch. This should 
watered with a fine rosepot everv 
ir dav unless the weather be very 
and hot . when it should receive 
ood sprinkline every day. The 
s should be protected from the sun 
using- frames raised from 12 to 1^ 
above the bed, and covered with 
dan or lig-ht brush fastened to 
n, so that the beds are sheltered 
n the driest ravs of the sun. which 
i]d possiblv burn off the youno- 
its as thev show above ground, 
the seedling's grow, the covers can 
dually be discarded, until nt leng-th 
plants are robust eno""h to re- 
■e do further shelter. The latter 
t of September is a good time to 
it the pips. 



I linen towel folded several 
les and dipped in hot water, 
cklv wrung; out, and applied 
IT the site of toothache or 
iralgia will often afford promnt 
ief. This treatment for colic 
i been found to work like magic, 
frdinary headaches almost al- 
irs vield to the simultaneous 
jlication of hot water to the 
t and back of the neck. 



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lllied with the British Dominions 
feneral Insurance Company. Ltd. 

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mat Assets Guarantee all Policies) 



HAMS-TIP HOLDINGS CURRIE 
STREET, ADELAIDE. 



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Current Rates. 

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X FARMING RTSKS INSURED. 
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r LTGTTTN I\t; AND BUSH FIRES, 
feirfs in all leading' towns. \mbi- 
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HIf<"d where not represented. Cor- 
respondence invited. 
H. T. NTCHOLLS, 

Manager for S,A. 
ilephone No. J2780. 



White Ants. 

In every colony there are four 
forms — males, females, soldiers, and 
workers. The males have pair of 
compound eyes placed just above the 
antennal fossae, and when young two 
pairs of large membranous and ap- 
proximately equal wings, projecting 
beyond the apex of the abdomen 
when at rest. They live permanently 
with the females. The females when 
young closely resemble the males, but 
later, when they become mothers of 
colonies, this resemblance is not so 
close. The soldiers are sterile, wing- 
less, and usually blind. Their heads 
are chitinous, strong, and peculiarly 
adapted for defence. They act as pro- 
tectors of the colony, although occa- 
sionally assisting the workers. The 
workers are sterile, wingless, usually 
blind, but little chitinised, having 
short and powerful jaws, and larval in 
appearance. They attend to all the 
duties of the colony, such as building 
the nests, caring for the young, and 
ministering to the wants of the queen. 
All except the migratory winged 
forms are incapable of enduring sun- 
light, as the soft delicate bodies of 
the other forms shrivel when exposed, 
and, consequently, all their operations 
are done under shelter. 

At the time of the nuptial flight, the 
winged forms emerge in pairs, and. 
under favorable conditions, each pair 
may establish a new colony, but as 
they are preyed upon by many insecti- 
vorous animals, this rarely happens. 
As soon as a king and queen have es- 
tablished a new colony, they superin- 
tend the rearing of the first brood of 
workers and soldiers until these are 
able to assume their special duties in 
the colony. Henceforth, the queen 
loses all power of locomotion, is con- 
stantly fed by the workers, and her 
size increases considerably. She 
now becomes an egg-laying machine, 
laying many thousands of eggs per 
day. When any accident befalls the 



queen, a "supplementary queen" is 
developed from a very young larva, 
being smaller, however, than a true 
queen, but serving the purpose of 
egg-laying equally as well. 

As so many of the colonising forms 
are destroyed during their nuptial 
flight, the more usual rule of the for- 
mation of a new colony is the split- 
ting up of old colonies. As methods 
of prevention, and remedies against 
white ants, the following may be men- 
tioned: — (i) Coat all foundation tim- 
bers with tar. (2) Build the founda- 
tions of buildings entirely of brick, 
stone, or concrete. (3) Fumigation 
with hydrocyanic gas at the strength 
of 1 oz. of potassium cyanide per 100 
cubic feet of space. (To make this 
gas, the required number (x) of 
ounces of potassium cyanide is 
weighed out; to this is added twice 
the number (2x) of fluid ounces of 
sulphuric acid, and four times ih : 
number (4X) of fluid ounces of water.) 
Fumigate in a tight room to which ac- 
cess cannot be gained during the 
operation, as the gas is a most deadly 
poison. After the room has been 
•closed, put the acid and water into an 
earthenware vessel and drop into it 
the cyanide contained in a bag at- 
tached to a string which runs freely 
through a keyhole. After fumiga- 
tion has gone on from one to two 
hours, open the room from the outside 
and allow it to air for not less than 
six hours before ente ring— "A gricol- 
tural News " 



Tomatoes can be used for jam, 
made ; as follows : — Scald and then 
peel the tomatoes. Boil an hour 
with sugar while stirring. Next 
add the juice of a lemon and let 
boil half-an-hour longer to thicken. 
Finally pot. For one pound of 
tomatoes there must be one pound 
of; sugar and half a lemon. The jam 
is excellent, and very like red cur- 
rant, especially when care is 
taken to strain out all the pips. 



JJliiMiilllu, urflw. M>lhn> ••ill ln> rfilllib .<tlf In 



1, ill ill Il ill ill 



I IliMillli ll Mill Iln Il ll<H," l ll | "'*ri<l«MHlk 



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I AGRICULTURAL ENGINEERS, &c, FREEL1NG, S.A. 

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6 2 



THE GARDEN AND FIELD 



July, 1912 



Manures^ for Fruit Trees 
and Shrubs. 

Soils cannot retain fertility unless 
(hey are able to supply all the re- 
quirements of the plants that, grow 
in them. And not only is the 
presence of suflicient quantities of the 
essential materials necessary, but 
they must also be in soluble form, 
so that they can be taken up by the 
roots of the plants. Though a soil 
may contain lime, potash, phosphoric 
acid, and other essential minerals in 
abundance, yet it will remain more or 
less barren if these substances are in 
an insoluble condition. Water and 
air are the chief factors in makin" 
the soil materials soluble, and the 
working of the land helps to effect 
this purpose. But when there aire 
still deficiencies, or the materials lie- 
come available too slowlv, the cul- 
tivator must assist with the help of 
manure. There are two classes of 
these stimulating materials, one bein» 
known as central and the other as 
special manures. General manures 
are those from the fmrm-vard and 
stable, and contain a mixture of solid 
and li<Vuid matter from animal excreta 
and the decaying straw or other 
material used as litter. These 
manures contain a varWi' ol fertilis- 
ing materials, and also have a use- 



ful mechanical action upon soils. 
Their use materially conduces to the 
fertility of soils, and thev ma" lie 
applied with advantage to all) classes 
of land and crops. In most localities, 
however, the supplies of cn>nenal 
manures are very limited, and but few 
cultivators are aide to use them ex. 
tensivelv. Another drawback is that 
they are bulky for carriage and 
handlin&r. which adds materially to 
their cost. Special manures contain 
only one or two essentia] constituents 
of plant food, and are a very useful 
class, as they can lie utilised economic- 
ally for particular soil deficiencies. 
The principal of these fertilisers re- 
quired in fruit culture are lime, bone- 
dust, superphosphate, guano, potash, 
soda, and magnesia. Rut though 
these special manures .•>>•<> effective and 
economical when judiciously used 
without some knowledge of the land'--' 
rec^iiremeTils they mav be wasted, and 
in some cases mav do more harm <^ 
(rood. Tt is not well to aoolv lime 
to land that already contains an 
alV^indanee of that material, or notash 
to soil that is naturally rich in thn* 
mineral. Though these fertilisers can 
be used profitably when the soil defi- 
ciefncies are known, thev ma-- be wast- 
ed other wise. Some fruits, such as the 
HTalDe, olive, pear, nlum Deft'* 1 
nnricot, and eherrv, take no r>otn"h 
in large oUantities. which is the 
reason why they thrive so well in 



volcan c soils. The orange, lemon/? 
fig, olive, and plum require lime in 
large proportions, a material that is] 
abundant in many soils, but absent] 
or in small supply, in others. I'hosd 
phoric acid is required in large proJ 
portions by the almond, quince, and' 
and lemon, and to a considerable, 
but lesser, extent by the plum, peal 
apple, cherry, orange, and strawberryO 

— The Principal Special Manures. 

Rone-dust is one of the best knowOj 
and most generally used special fer-f 
tilisers. It contains a large propoM 
tion of phosphoric acid and other use3 
ful materials, such as ammonia an* 
nitrogen. Rones are simnly broken m 
nieces, more or less small, or reduces 
to the form of dust or meal. As at, 
matter of course, the finer the mal 
terial the ouicker its action noon the 
roots of plants. Superphosphate Oj 
lime is formed by the action of 
sulphuric acid upon hones and various, 
mineral phosphites. Tt is ouicker in' 
its action than bone-dust, and is one 
of our most useful fertilisers'. Oua.no 
is a useful material, but its value 
depends unon the proportions of ant' 
monia and nhosphates, and the kinds 
varv considerably. Ovnsurr (sulphate 
of limet is a material found in somi$ 
parts of Australia, and mav be tun* 
ed to good account as a fertiliser on 
some soils, and makes a good dress- 



The most effective Spraying Oil for 
Orchard Pests is 

CRUDE PETROLEUM 

COSTS ONLY ONE THIRD OF ANY 
OTHER SPRAYING OIL. 



Packed in barrels containing 42 gallons, 
and in 4 and 8 gallon drums 

Get prices from — 

THE BRITISH IMPERIAL OIL CO., LTD., 

UNION BANK CHAMBERS, KING WILLIAM STREET, ADELAIDE. 
Branches and Agencies throughout Australasia. 



July, 1912 



THE GARDEN AND FIELD. 



63 



Vegetable Garden, 



ing for heavy clay, peaty, or alluvial 
soils. Potash is- found largely in 
wood ashes, and is sold in concen- 
trated forms as sulphate and nitrate 
(nitre of saltpetre). It is also largeb- 
used in the form of kainite. a material 
found in large natural deposits in 
Germany. Sulphate of ammonia is 
an excellent fertiliser, obtained from e 
bye-product in the manufacture of coal 
■ gas, containing from 20 to 25 per 
cent, of ammonia. Sulphate of ir - 
is a useful material for soils that 
lave not the requisite amount of 
soluble iron available, though this is 
not often the case. Soda may be 
apDlied in the form of nitrate of 
soda, and is a requirement of hm" 
'fruits. Lime is necessarv. more or 
Hess, for all fruits, but manv soils 
,contain sufficient natural supplies. It 
ps verv useful for soil« of a heavv 
mature, and for land that is deficient 
in vegetable matter. Lime is useful 
[in neutralising soils avids, and helos 
to make the alkalies, and soda 
'soluble and the land more open anrl 
friable. 

- Root Pruning. — 

Fruit trees, wehen planted in rich 
f soils, often make heavy annual growths 
of foliage and wood, but yield very 
poor crops. Tt is a common, but 
mistaken, practice to prune back the-e 
trees severely, the idea being that the 
iremedy is to remove plentv of the 
[wood. This, however, is oreciselv the 
thin? that ought not to be done, as 
'such treatment onlv increases the 
■evil. The more the branches are cut 
> awav the greater effort will the trees 
make to restore the old state of 
affairs. The true remedv is to cur- 
tail th° sunplv of nourishment W 
[lessening the power of the roots. Th : s 
tobfect can be effected bv root nrim- 
ling or the removal of a nortion of 
the roots. The usual method i« to 
tlMxke a semi-circular trench <^n one 
'side of the tree, at s"^h a d ; stan"" 
(from the st°m as wi'l defend upon 
'its size. Make the tr^n"h a sond« 
wi''". as dee" is the roots evtend. 
s»nd remove w-Hh cl^an cuts all tbe 
foo't within the radius. Tn t^° fol- 
lowing vear trpat the o*her side of 
the tree in th" same manner. This 
»n^e of treatment w ; ll rren^nl 1 -- 
W'Ti ' the most W'-irlirv tr"^s i"to 
fm if -hearing condition. — Exchange. 



PROPERTIES ! 



INVESTMENT & RESIDENCES 
of every description in City and 
Suburbs. 

i FARM &. GARDEN properties, &c. 
Apply— 

MAELOR-JONES AND 
PATTERSON, 

Land Brokers, 

(Opp. Savings Bank), 
CURRIE STREET, ADELAIDE. 



Asparagus. 

Asparagus is a native of the coast 
districts of Eurone and Asia. This 
fact accounts for the practice 'of 
applying salt to the beds. Expert 
opin ons differ as to the best ' r>'°n - : 
growing asparagus, but this remark 
applies to all cultivation. A rich, 
deep, sandy, alluvial, well drained 
soil, with plenty of saline matter, is 
the ideal asparagus <-•• ^urd. Will our 
readers near the sea shore please note 
this, and revel in the king of veget- 
ables. It is delicate, nutritious, and 
wholesome, and should be much more 
common than it is. 

Preparation of the Ground. — Double 
dig or trench the ground to a depth 
of 2 ft. at least, or better still, 3ft., 
at the same time working in ns much 
stable manure as can be spared, and 
a dressing of coarse bone dust. It 
the land is at all stiff, a ouantitv of 
short seaweed and sea sand with the 
mannre is an improvement. 

Raising the Plants. — The slants are 
better raised in separate seed beds of 
lio-ht. rich, sandv soil. Sow the seed 
in the autumn (Februarv. March, or 
Aprill or in spring (Agust and Sep- 
tember). Sow in drills 1 foot a^art 
and 1 inch deep. If sown in snrini- 
soak in tepid water for ten or twelve 
hours before sowing. When the, seed 
is well up, thin out the plants if too 
crowded, as thev will renuire to re- 
main in the seed bed until the second 
vear. 

Making the Beds. — Narrow beds, 
sav 3ft. wode. are in everv w*— pre- 
ferable, and IS in. at least "houJd be 
Wt between the beds. The beds 
»honld be kept as low as noseiM* 
because the yearlv drcss ; n-*- w'll 
PT«»rnallv raise them. A bed 3 ft. 
wide will take two rows of "lints. 
The plants should be set 1 ft. apart 
in the rows. 

Buying Plants. — As it takes two 
seasons to raise plants, and one or 
two vears more before cuttings n«*\ 
be made, those who desire to estab- 
lish an asparagus bed would act 
wisely in buying well-established plants 
from a nursorvmnn. These mav be 
planted out in the prepared bed in 
•Tune. Jnlv. or August . In pl-mt ; n - 
make the hole large enough and h'fh- 
e°t in the centre. Set the nlont in 
th" centre. Set the plant in the hole 
rnd spread the roots out all round 
Crfvet th° plants, so that they will 
have 3 or 4 in. of rich soil abovp 
them. The bed should not be cut 
fro*" the first season, and onlv moder- 
ately the second. After this, with 
nidiciV-- ■ Cutting and at t/ ntion. the 
berl • ill yield well for miny - ears. 

Dressing and Cultivation. — Before 
the plants shoot in sorino- the winter 
dressing of man"re shoul' 1 tyj li'ditb- 
forked over. During the <Tr»v ' 
season the beds are len-fited bv 



several dressings of superphosphate, 
kainit, and soot, or sulphate of am- 
monia, but don't overdo this. It is 
well to remember that 1 lb,', of ferti- 
liser equals 7cwt. to the acre, which is 
a good dressing of any one concentrat- 
ed manure. For a bed 16 ft. by 3 ft. 
each dressing might sonsist of 1 lb. 
each superphosphate and kainit and 
i tb, of sulphate of ammonia. After 
tne stems have turned yellow and 
been cut down, the bed should be 
dressed with seaweed, manure, and 
superphosphate, and left for the 
winter. Of course, all weeds should 
be kept down, and on no account 
shound the seed be allowed to fall. 
The worst weed in an asparagus bed 
is young asparagus. For ^pod results 
ample water is required in s"rH" 
Cutting should cease in summer, an 1 
the stems allowed to mature. 



MTSS NELLIE REDDICK STATES 
THAT SHE CANNOT EXPRESS ALL 
SHE SUFFERED FOR 19 MONTHS 
FROM NERVOUS BREAKDOWN. 
But Clements Tonic worked Wonders. 
Majny of the most serious nerve, 
stomach, liver, and kidney diseases 
arise from lack of care to keep the 
stomach in good working order, and a 
baldly-working- stomach is often the 
rause of intense neuralgic and sick head- 
aches. This testimony proves it. Writ- 
ten from 7 Evensdale-road, Hawthorn, 
Victoria, 7-7-'H. 

CLEMENTS TONIC, LTD. 
"' Mine was a case of nervous break- 
down and liver. I cannot express all 
I suffered for 19 months ; doctors' at- 
tendance and then medicines did me no 
good — in fact, I did not think I could 
live or it was possible for anything to 
do me good night or day. I could not 
sleep, and I scarcely walked from one 
room to another. I could not suffer 
to be left alone by my people for five 
minutes for fear I would die in their 
absence. I experienced the most dread- 
ful feelings ; my head was so dreadfully 
bad, which with all the other suffer- 
ings I underwent it was impossible to 
express. One day one of your books 
was thrown under the verandah and I 
read it through, and by so reading was 
greatly convinced it would do me good. 
I sent and got a bottle straight away, 
and I found so much behefit by it I 
continued and took 15 bottles, small 
size, and I can thankfully say it has 
cured me. I cannot praise it enough, 
for it did wonderful work for me. I 
have so much faith in it that it is able 
to cure anything, that Is my belief. 
I would never be without it, and have 
told many to give it a trial. You can 
publish this if you wish, for I cannot 
praise it enough. 

(" Signed) NELLIE REDDICK." 
For ailments of the liver, kidneys, 
stomach, and nerves, no medicine has 
the permanent, rapid, and beneficial 
effect as Clements Tonic. Send for It ; 
it lengthens life. ALL CHEMISTS 
AND STORES SELL IT EVERY- 
WHERE. 



64 



THE GARDEN AND FIELD. 



July, 1912 



Vegetable Notes for July. 

July is a " neither one thing 
nor another " month. It is, to a 
large extent, too late for winter 
planting, and it is too early for 
spring sowing. The following 
work is seasonable for the Ade- 
laide plains. In districts like 
Port Augusta, spring work should 
be pushed ahead, and plants for 
summer crops should be got ready 
for August planting out, since 
work there can often be done a 
month earlier than here. In the 
hills and the South-East, on the 
other hand, winter stuff only can 
be grown. 

— Sow Seeds. — 

Provided soil and climate are 
suitable, sow late varieties of cab- 
bage, cauliflower, cress, carrot, en- 
dive, lettuce, mustard, pickling or 
silver-skin onions, parsnip, paisley, 
radish, silver beet, red beet, spin- 
ach, turnips, and cress. 

— Peas and Broad Beans. — 

These may be sown in July for 
late crops, and this year should do 
very well. 

— Onions. — 

Onion plants should be set out 
at once on the plains if it has not 
already been done. 

— Potatoes. — 

Plant freely, according to the 
locality, so that the potatoes, as 
they come up, will escape the 
usual frosts. Out of season frosts 
can hardly be guarded against. 

— The Globe Artichoke. — 

The Globe Artichoke is the true 
artichoke. Seed may still be 
sown ; but it is better if the 
plants are ready to put out now. 
Thev should be four feet apart each 
way. It is the flower head . of this 
plant which is cooked and eaten, 
and thev are considered a luxury, 
but not a vegetable to make a 
meal from. 

— Jerusalem Artichoke. . — 

Jerusalem Artichoke is a tuber- 
ous rooted sunflower, and is a de- 
licious, healthy, egsilv-grown, pro- 
lific, and much neglected vegetable. 
Tubers should be planted from now 
till the end of August, in well-pre- 
pared, rich soil, where they can be 
watered in summer. 

— Asparagus. — 

July and early August is the 
most suitable time on the plains 
to make new beds of asparagus. 



— Old Asparagus Beds. — 

If not alreadv done, old aspara- 
gus beds should be dressed with 
either (ist) a heady dressing of 
stable manure, or fowl manure, to- 
gether with a gaod sprinkling of 
salt ; or (2nd) superphosphate and 
ka'init (say up to %lb. of each to 
the square vard). Instead of the 
kainit, a good sprinkling of wood 
ashes and salt may be used. 

— Broad Beans. — 

Earlv sown beds will be in 
flower, but the pods may not set. 
If this be the case, it is advisable 
to nip out the growing tops of the 
plants. This slight check often 
lias the desired effect. 

— Rhubarb. — 

Make new beds in much the same 
way as directed for asparagus, 
but planting- the crowns three feet 
apart. Manure the ground heavi- 
ly. > While rhubarb does not do as 
well on the plains as in the hills, 
it can be, and is, grown success- 
fully. 

— Sweet Potato. — 

Those who are blessed with light, 
sandv soil, should not fail to^ try 
this vegetable, which is so highly 
annreeiated and widely grown in 
America. Those having stiff clay 
soils mav as well leave it alone. 
The seedsmen can supply the 
ttibers, which should be nut in soil 
in a manure heap, under a frame 
now, and in August or September 
the voune plants can be taken off 
and set out in the garden. 

— Cucumbers, Tomatoes, Melons, 
and Marrows. — 

If a hotbed be available, or can 
be made, it will be desirable to 
raise some plants of the above 
summer crops. 

— Carrots. — 

This vegetable can be grown 
easily all through the summer 
on the Adelaide plains, and is a 
healthy, tiseful vegetable to have 
always available, especially where 
there are children. light soil 
suits them best, but in anv case 
it should be dug- deeply and man- 
ured to the full depth of the 
digging. Plant in drills 12 to 18 
inches apart, and thin out to from 
four to six inches in the rows. 

— French Beans. — 

In earlv localities a sowing of 
dwarf French or kidney beans 
may be made. Make a trench a 
foot wide and the same depth. 
F&ll with manure and trample 



down. Put four inches of sandy 1 
loam on the top, and plant the 
beans in a double row. Let the 
rows run north and south. A six- ( 
inch flooring board on each side, 
and a strip of calico over the top 
in cold weather, will help the 
beans along. 

— Silver Beet. — 

No garden should be without a 
bed of this excellent and all-round 
useful plant. The young tender 
leaves make an excellent veget- 
able, hardly distinguishable from 
spinach, and the big; leaves are as 
good a form of green food as can 
be grown for the fowls or the cow. 

$ 

Potatoes and Potash. 

Experiments at Rothamstead throw 
important light on effect of fertilisers 
and potato blight. The potatoes in 
a particular field were repeatedly and 
carefully sprayed with Bordeaux. The 
dates of the successive apnlicationis 
(says an exchange) were as follows J — 
June 27, July 7, August 3, and 18. 
Earlv in Aromst it was noticed that 
the leaves of all the no-potash plants 
were beginning to blight, while the foli- 
age in all the plots to which potash 
has been annuallv aoplied still appear- 
ed to be practicallv unaffected. The 
blight made rapid progress on each 
of the five no-potash plots, while the 
foliage of the vines upon all the other 
plots for the most part ripened 
normally. Practically all the leaves 
on the no-notash plots are dead bv 
the end of Aup-ust, at which date 
there was still considerable foliage on 
the other plots. There was no decay 
of the tubers, however, on any of the 
plots, but the marked inferiority in 
yield on the no-potash plots was, no 
doubt, in considerable measur* due to 
the ' relatively early death of the 
foliao-p. George Ville, the celebrated 
French agricultural chemist, found in 
his experiments that the s^nnression 
of potash reduced the cron of potatoes 
from 9 tons 16 cwt. to 4tom 4 cwt., 
and wrote on the S'lhiect : " When- 
ever soil does not receive notash. or 
where it gets no manure, the plants 
are poor and stunted, with withered 
and dry leaves, and that, too, in the 
month of June, when the other plants 
are still in a state of luxuriant 
growth. As for the tubers, they be- 
come wrinkled, withered, and red""«H 
in size, their preservation beinc 
almost impossible. . . .The lack of 
potash in the soil is coincident with 
rbe potato disease, whence we mav 
draw the conclusion that when plants 
are deprived of their chief minoral 
constituent, and consequently of one 
of the most essential elements i of their 
existence, they become a prey to in- 
ferior organisms, such as microscopic 
fungi, etc." — " Oueensl.md Agriculural 
Journal " 



July, 1912 



65 



Growing Onions. 

— Soil. — 

There is mo crop which reuuires a 
iore judicious selection of soil if the 
ist results are to be obtained. Th* 
>ose, friable, voicanic soil of Ballarat , 
tarraambool. and Mount Gambier 
re as suitable for onions as an- in 
le -world — ther are, in fact, the ideal 
mditions. Where such soil is not 
railable, the grower should to- a* 1 '! 
tcure a rich, deep, friable, sandv 
«m, rich in humus or vegetable 
atter. The mechanical condition of 
le soil is most important this for crop, 
nd heavv clay soils will not be found 
» be profitable, neither as a rule will 
tdit sand, but it is better th-»n clay, 
f suitable soil is not available our 
Ivice is, leave the onion cron alone. 

Another and most important con- 
deration is freedom from weeds. 



//////// 



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DISINFECTANT 
ANTISEPTIC 
DEODORANT, 



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for household use 



Recommended by the highest 
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as a preventive to contagion 
from infectious diseases. In- 
valuable for use with telephones. 



The Adelaide Chemical 
and Fert. to., Ltd., 

CUERIE STREET. 



The onion crop in it s early stages is 
easily choked and dillicult to hoe, and 
it is accordingly most unwise to plant 
the crop on land which has not been 
kept clean for several seasons. This 
is one strong argument in favor of 
the laborious transplanting system. 

— Preparation of the Soil. — 

A suitable preparation is to manure 
well and plant potatoes two years 
previously, and follow that with an- 
other manuring and mangolds or peas. 
In America carrots are considered to 
be a desirable crop to precede onions. 
"Maize is also often grown the vear 
previously. The important point is 
to grow hoed crops and keen the™ 
clean. Tt may be mentioned incidental- 
ly that cabbages do well after onions. 

— Manuring. — 
The onion requires plenty of avail- 
able plant food. - In this they are 
more greedy than either notatoes 
cabbages, tomatoes, or such croos. 
and the onion- grower cannot too well 
recognise the fact, for beginners often 
fail on this account. 

The irost important factor in onion 
culture is labor. It is an expensive 
crop the world over, and therefore 
the grower should give plenty, of 
manure to ensure the best ret'irn for 
his labor for the cost of a 5 to 10 
Ion cron is nearly ;-.s much as a 15 
to ?fl ton crop. 

As to the nature of manures to be 
used except, nerhaps. in the rich vol- 
canic soils, farmyard ma'nure is in 
dispensable for good crops especially 
should it be used freely on orecedin > 
cron=. From 10 to GO loads an acre 
will not be too much, and it shoun'd 
be as free as possible from weeds. 
Fowl manure is very cood for oni^n-. 

Tn addition to this, artificials shoul 1 
be used. On an a- < ra e 2.000 lb. of 
cnions contain (according to the Con- 
necticut Experimental Station re«*6rd'i 
2.70 fh. of nitrogen. 0. ( >2 lb. phosnhoric 
acid, anh 2.09 lb. potash. A cron of 
20 tons would therefore reimovp from 
the soil R0.4S lb. nitroo-en 20.(11 lt>. 
nhosp^oric acid. *nd 4R.P2 lb. not ish. 
Tlvs indicates that we should k»v« 
R. Jj. Watts, in his bulletin, " 
Culture ") supply the thrpe nlant 
foods in thp above proportions, re- 
membering that thev must be "-reatlv 
in pxcpss. for the roots can onlv 
draw on the small portion with which 
thev come in contact. 

Usually it is highly probable that 
the soil reoftlires all three fertilsers. 
Frorr. fi ta 8 cwt. of kainit or 2 to 2 
<>f muriate should he allied and i* 
should be well worked into the soil 
in the autumn lrefore the cron is to 
be olnnted. 

For phosnhroic acid, from 2 to .1 
cwt. of superohosnhate should bp 
anplicd before nlant imr. Thp nitrogen 
can bp anplipd in the form of nitratp 
of soda or aulohate of ammonia, 1 
Cwt. r>er acre, can be anoliod with thp 
cron. and 1 cwt. as a top-drcssinc 
later on. These manures will leave 
the ground in snhndid condition for 
future crops aftpr a heavy cron of 
onions has bepn harvested. 



— Preparing the Soil. — 
The land should be ploughed in the 
autumn and the potash applied, be- 
cause potash manures seldom give 
good results if applied with the crop. 
In spring the lend should be cross 
ploughed and worked down finely 
with disc harrows, spring-tooth cul- 
tivators, or the Planet Junior and 
harrows. Finally, it should be 
smoothed with a plank drag or brush 
harrows. No labor necessary to give 
a good tilth is wasted. So true is 
this that the expression has arisen, 
" As fine as an onion bed," to de- 
signate good cultivation. 

— Seed. — 
(rood seed is absolutely necessary, 
and as onion seed to be good and 
reliable must be fresh, it is wise be- 
fore buying to get samples and test 
the germinating power. Onion growers 
should always select and save the 
best bulbs and plant them for seed. 

— Sowing the Seed. — 

Stretch a line across the field as a 
rniide for the drill, and then with a 
Planet Jr. handdrill, drill in the 
first, row. Then have attached to the 
drill a ; guide by which the second and 
subsequent rows can be drilled with 
ease and regularity ; 4 lb. of good 
seed will be' enough for an acre of 
T.oad onion ground, b >t to ensure a 
full stand it is best to add one or 
two pounds to that. 

— Planting Out, — 
This is back-ach'ng work, and boys 
are best at it with a r ood man to 
look after them and keep them roin,g. 
Have good planting lines and good 
dibbles. Cut the roots three-parts 
off and the too half off. Teach the 
boys to hold the plants in the left 
hand, and plant so that the roots 
an- straight d~wn and the bulb just 
below the surface. The' soil must* be 
well firmed round the roots bv one 
prpssure of the dibble. 

The rows should be I foot apart 
and the onions 4in. in the rows. 
Four inches in diameter is a big 
on ; on. and we oinly need to have 
enough space for the onions to rrrow 
to meet one another, for the trms do 
not crowd the eround. p.s do those of 
some crops, thus, rendering wider 
planting neepssarv for air and light. 

— Weeds. — 

Success with onions depends to 
a very considerable extent on keep- 
ing the field free from weeds and 
the soil well worked. The Planet 
or other similar wheel hoe w*ill 
do this admirably and in a large 
field a horse can be used. As a 
rule, however, most of the work 
will have to be done with hand 
wheel hoes. 

" No one can hope to be suc- 
cessful in commercial onion-grow, 
ing," savs T. Greiner in Burpee's 
' Onions for Profit,' without being 
well-equipped with those imple- 
ments, -or Without using them, less 
as weed-destroyers, but rather as 



66 



THE GARDEN AND FIELD. 



June, 1912 



preventives against weeds. The 
fight should begin before weeds can 
be seen." 

This is necessary, and usually 
involves the greatest expense in 
producing the onion crop. The 
planting-out system gains in this 
much what it loses in the trouble 
of planting. Roys are good for 
weeding if they can be kept going 
under a good man. Girls are bet- 
ter still, and it is good hea.lt hv 
work for them, and not too hard. 
Boys, girls, or men must be 
taught to keep their feiet well be- 
tween the > rows. 

Hilling is not only not needed, 
but should be carefully avoided, 
as the onion bulb wants to grow 
on the surface of the soil. Go 
over with the wheel hoe and do 
all that can be done with that 
and the hand hoe, and then finish 
off by hand weeding, for to en- 
sure success tjhe crop must be kept 
clean and the soil must be kept 
loose and free. 

— Gathering. — 

It is not necessary . to break the 
tops, as some believe. It is not 
the habit of the onion to run to 
seed the first year, and when it 
does it shows that the seed is 
not of a good strain. The onion 
plant is a biennial and stores as 
much nutriment as it can in the 
bulb the first season, and then 
dies down to rest until the next 
season, when it uses the material 
to produce a flower stalk and 
seed. 

Onions mature unevenly, and it 
does not do to wait until, all are 
dead, for thev will ripen off after 
being pulled. They should be 
pulled, and if the sun be not too 
hot left in the windrows to cure, 
i.e., to dry off, which mav take a 
week or more, according to the 
weather. Thev should not be left 
too long, and if rain threatens 
should be got under cover. 

— Storage. — 

If onions are to be stored, do 
not let them stand in sacks. If 
possible, gather them in boxes or 
baskets, and cart them to the 
store, and there empty them out 
on the floor, or on shelves, or in 
a loft. If well cured and dry they 
can be piled a foot deep, but to 
keep onions the tops and roots 
should be twisted off. 

— Yield. — 

A good crop of onions should 
yield 13 tons to the acre, and a 
very heavy crop up to 20 tons. 
Probably from 5 to 10 tons are 
nearer the general yield. 



— Notes. — 

Do not spare the stable, or cow 
or barnyard manure, aftid have it 
free from weeds and well rotted. 

Do not throw old stems, useless 
onions, etc., about the land if it 
is to be cropped again the follow- 
ing vear, for thev may cause 
blight. 

Poultry manure and nightsoil 
are good for onions. 

The more well-rotted stable man- 
ure the better the onion crop. 



A RECORD ! 



How to Make an Asparagus 
Bed. 



Reply to .1 : — As asparagus is a 
permanent crop it is worth taking 
reasonable trouble to thoroughly pre 
pare the bed. The amount of prepara- 
tion necessary will to a large extent 
depend upon the natural soil. Long 
narrow beds are preferable, so that 
the cutting can be done from each 
side, without disturbance of the roots. 
The beds should lie kept low because 
the yearly dressing will tend to 
build it up. Four feet beds taking 
three rows are are a handy width, or 
two rows may be planted in a three 
foot bed. Tf the shape of the ground 
at one's disposal makes it desirable 
to have beds side by side, the whole 
area including 1 the 18 inch dividing 
paths shoidd be prepared. This will 
give extra' feed infer rooim for the roots. 
To prepare the bed take out the soil 
the depth of 18 inches, keening the 
top spit apart, if the subsoil is very 
poor it is advisable to wheel it away, 
and replace it by better. The ground 
should be thoroughly turned over to 
the depth of quite three feet. 

Some authorities advocate another 
foot but this is going to unnecessary 
trouble and expense. Having tho- 
onqrhlv. broken uw th" bottom soil, 
removing any which is best awav. 
any garden refuse scrapings from the 
wood heao, hones, old boots, etc., 
can be dug in. Any long manure 
available and a liberal dressing of 
bone dust, sav 2Tbs. to the square 
vard, should be worked in at the 
same time. Having prenared the 
bottom and trodden it fairlv firm, 
old decayed manure and the best of 
the top soil, should be placed on the 
bed in alternate layers, and forked 
over. Continue this until the bed is 
somewhat higher than the sur- 
round in" ground. If left for a f^w 
weeks it will sink a good de-d. 
During this time the surface should 
be turned over two or thre<> times so 
that the soil will be mellow nnd 
warm when the roofs 'n]wr>evl \- 

it. . 



AULDANA 
WINES . . 



in competition against all 



AUSTRALIA 



at ADELAIDE WINE SHOWS 



1*)4. CHAMPION CUF f«c 

HOCK 

l«05. CHAMPION CUP f«r 

CLARET 

1906. CHAMPION CUP for 

SHERRY 



Land must not be ploughed in a 
too wet condition, otherwise it 
cakes still more. 



Besides also many 

FIRST PRIZES 

too numerous to mention 
Town Offiee : 

Australasia Chambers, 
King Wm. St., Adelaide; 

Vineyards and Cellars : 

Magill, South Australia 



July, 1912 



67 



The Breeding, Selection, and 
Care of the Dairy Cow. 

From an article by M. B. Connor 
in the Victorian .1 ournal of Agri- 
culture. 



(Continued from June Issue). 



We may, therefore, from these 
and other similar facts, winch 
could be further extended, be jus- 
tified in concluding that, so far as 
regards the size, general appear- 
ance, external form, and muscular 
development, the influence of the 
male is superior and stronger to 
that of the female. Yet it must 
be clearly understood, that I do 
not wish it to be inferred by the 
stress I have laid upon the im- 
portance of the selection of the 
bull, that the qualities of the fe- 
male axe a matter of indifference. 
So far from this being the case, 
I would censure in the strongest 
terms, anv neglect displaved in the 
selection of the qualifications ne- 
cessarv in the cow to be used for 
breeding purposes. It is of the ut- 
most importance to study the 
breeding and milking qualifications 
of the cow as those of the bull, 
thouo-h the respective excellencies 
mav not ha the same. Hereditary 
disease, and weakness of constitu- 
tion are much more likelv to be 
transmitted to the offspring by 
the cow than the bull, which is in 
keeping with the long and inti- 
mate connection maintained be- 
tween the cow and her calf, both 
before and after birth, till wean- 
ing 'takes place. As the same blood 
nourishes both, each is likelv to 



become affected bv any unhealthy 
change in this fluid. Soundness of 
constitution is, therefore, an in- 
dispensable requisite in the cow. 
The fact, however, of the male 
animal begetting fifty to sixty off- 
spring in the course of a year, 
whilst the female seldom produces 
more than one, must, and always 
will, cause improvements in breeds 
of animals to be principally ef- 
fected bv means of the male used 
in the herds. 

— Selection of Animals For 
Breeding. — 

The animals selected for breed- 
inp- must be adapted for some well 
defined purnose in the system of 
management, and to the condi- 
tions in which they are to be 
placed. The principal causes of 
animal variation are climate, food, 
and habit. Where practicable, it 
is alvvavs wise to procure stock 
from similar country, as it is ne- 
cessarv to start with stock suit- 
able to one's district. All improve- 
ments in both animals anM plants 
are due to the natural laws of 
variation. The slightest differ- 
ences of form or organization are 
more or less hereditary and trans- 
mitted bv the parent to the pro- 
wnv. Desirable variations are 
selected,, perpetuated, and, as they 
anpear, accumulated. High cul- 
tivation is therefore .necessary to 
maintain imnmved form. As there 
are no infallible external signs in- 
dicating mi1k-<nviiifr capacity, ex- 
ceptions will alwiavs be met with. 

Much attention, when selecting a 
n'airv cow, is directed to the 
growth of the wedge-shaped body, 



the improvement of the hind quar- 
ters, and the development of the 
udder, with all its graceful out- 
lines and symmetrical proportions. 

The full viw of a typical dairy 
cow shows a lean, roomy frame ; 
a distinctly wedge-shaped body, 
with moderately long neck ; good 
sloping shoulders ; fine wither ; 
broad and deep chest ; light fore 
quarters, gradually enlarging in 
depth and width towards the hind 
quarters ; well sprung ribs ; 
straight back ; deep at flanks ; 
long and broad hind quarters ; 
thighs deep and broad ; fine bone- 
large docile eyes ; capacious, well 
shaped udder— broad, well up to 
the body and running firmly along 
the belly, the teats squarely set 
on and hanging perpendicularly. 

Cows of this type and quality 

cannot be picked up every day, 

and must be bred on the lines al- 
ready indicated. 

The dairvmen of the Jersey and 
Guernsey Islands set a good ex- 
ample to the rest of the world in 
the way thev guard the purity of 
blood in their cattle. As far back 
as 1789, a law was passed in 
Jersey, making it unlawful to im- 
port anv living cattle into the 
island. Heavy fines were imposed 
on the importer, the vessel, and 
even the sailors who aided in such 
importation. It is just this jealous 
regard for the purity of blood in 
their cattle that has sent all the 
world to these islands for them. 
Contrast this wise policy with 
that of the Victorian dairy far- 
'mer who is not content until he 
can pack all known breeds into the 
skin of one animal, with the re- 
sult that he has neither special 
purpose, nor dual purpose, but a 
no purpose cow. It simply shows 
what a lot we have to learn in 
regard to successful breeding. 

— Feeding. — 

Hand in hand with the selection 
and breeding of dairy cows is the 
question of proper feeding. Dairy 
cows, no matter how good thev 
mav be at the pail, if they are 
not fed to stimulate their produc- 
tive capacity, will not produce 
profitable returns. The old rule 
of thumb practice of the average 
farmer in confining the cows 
strictlv to the nroducts of the pas- 
tures for their sustenance will 
have to become a thing of the 
past if dairvino- is to be carried 
on successfully. Hand feeding 
must be resorted to and prepara- 
tion made to conserve abundance 
of succulent nutritious food for the 
dairy herd during the dry months 




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THE GARDEN AND FIELD. 



by the aid of the silo. This is 
imperative, for with the natural 
pastures as the onlv supply of 
food, milking caws suffer in con- 
stitution during bad seasons. If 
this trying condition is continued 
and practised, emaciation of the 
body is a natural consequence. 
Heavy milkers under these trying 
conditions become seriously in- 
jured, as more digestive food will 
be converted into the milk at the 
cost of their vitality. The con- 
stitution becomes weakened, and 
functional derangement and disease; 
of the organs follow, brought 
about bv sheer starvation. The 
progeny is also endangered if the 
cow is in calf, as it is deprived of 
the nutriment and support which 
should be obtained, from a well 
nourished mother to lav the foun- 
dation of a good constitution and 
a profitable milker, 

Dairy farmers are often led 
astray regarding the result of 
feeding and the effect 'it has on the 
return of milk produced. A cow 
when freshly calved, if in low con- 
dition, will generally respond to a 
s-stem of judicious feeding and 
care, and the quantity of her milk 
will increase in volume, especially 
if the feed she has been accustomed 
to is devoid of the necessary pro- 
teid constituents and moisture ; 
this increase will, however, only 
continue until such time as she 
builds up her svstem and becomes 
properly nourished. After the cow 



becomes well nourished and reaches 
her highest attainments, there ap- 
pears to be no method of feeding 
that will raise the standard of her 
milk to a still higher degree. Any 
food taken into the svstem up to 
this point and not utilised for the 
production of milk, will be used for 
forming fresh flesh or be excreted. 

The weighing of each cow's milk 
and the use of the Babcock tester 
will enable the dairyman to dis- 
criminate between good and bad 
cows, those not paying their way" 
and those being milked at a 
profit. There are two kinds of 
cows kept in most herds, those 
that eat more than they make, 
and those that make more than 
thev eat. " Feed for quantity 
and breed for quality " is a gol- 
den rule where the dairy cow is 
concerned. Cows cannot change 
the relative proportions of their 
milk to suit our convenience ; all 
we can do with feed is to assist 
the cow to produce a large quan- 
tity of milk of her own individual 
proportions. 

The principle of balancing the 
elements of food so that the cow 
mav be best assisted to make milk 
and in profitable quantities, the 
studv of environment, how to pro-, 
mote her hekilth and comfort, 'and 
the treatment meted out to her, 
all have an important bearing on 
the return in milk she will pro- 
duce from .the feed given her. The 
cow to keep in the herd is one 




IVote Address : 



7, ARCADE, ADELAIDE. 



that has the ability to turn all 
the food she may eat and digest, 
over and above that required for 
her maintenance, toward the 
udder, there to be transformed in- 
to milk. The capacity of a cow 
for producing milk depends largely 
upon her capability for digesting 
food and assimilating it into her 
tissues. Dairymen who profit 
most bv the keeping of cows soon 
learn to familiarize themselves 
with these important characteris- 
tics, and understand their rela- 
tionship to capacity for produc- 
tion. Feeding the dairy cow for 
profit involves a minute studv of 
each animal in the herd ; it re- 
quires the knowledge of the amount 
of milk and fat each cow is cap- 
able of producing. 

Dairy farming is becoming inten- 
sive rather than extensive. It is 
not uncommon now to hear of 
persons raising profitiable crops 
from apparently poor land, while 
other people receive no return at 
all from land of similar texture. 
The value of the manure made 
from good feeding is more and 
appreciated by the farmer as he 
uses it to renovate his depleted 
soil, robbed of both its humus and 
its nitrogen bv continual cropping. 
This loss can be avoided by rais- 
ing more fodder, keeping more 
stock, and thereby making more 
manure. Care must, however, be 
taken to provide a sufficiently 
rapid rotation of crops to insure 
good soil texture, and at the same 
time, abundance of fodder to be 
mixed with silage, a plentiful sup- 
ply of which should always be 
available. 

As the silo preserves the green 
succulent fodder throughout the 
vear better results are obtained 
than when crops are converted in- 
to hav. One important reason in 
favour of silage is that its pre- 
paration is founded on the fact 
that all green fodders contain 
about 75 per cent, of water, and 
to per cent, of fibre. When thev 
are dried, the water has shrunk 
to 20 per cent, and the fibre has 
increased to over 40 per cent. 
Much of the nutriment in the suc- 
culent state, therefore, becomes 
woody fibre in the dry prepared 
fodder. The blood and lean meat 
in the animal are mostly derived 
from the protein in the food eaten, 
and not from the carbo-hydrates, 
or fat, which onlv produce heat, 
enerp-v, and fat. It is literally 
true that the protein does make 
all these substances but at too 
"■reat an expense to be nractically 
carried out. One fourth of the 
solids in milk is protein and it 



July, 1912 



THE GARDEN AND FIELD. 



69 



Scientific Study of Soils*. 



therefore follows that the more 
milk a cow gives, the more pro- 
tein she requires. For the silo 
grow plenty of maize and legum- 
inous crops. The maize should be 
allowed to thoroughly mature and 
not cut until the grain has reached 
the dent stage of growth. Lucerne 
is still better, as nibs, of it are 
equivalent to 81bs. of bran It 
would pay farmers handsomely to 
go in for more lucerne cultivation. 
Peas and oats, mixed and sowed 
at the rate of two to three bushels 
to the acre, and cut when the oat 
heads are well formed and the peas 
are in blood, make a splendid feed 
high in protein, and one greatly 
relished by the cow. 

(to be continued). 



EXECUTOR TRUSTEE 

IN A6ENCY CO., OF S.A., LTD. 

Subscribed Capital • £75,000 
Amount at Cradit of Estates, Trusts, 
and Clients, £2,388,695 1s. 7d. 

DIRECTORS. — W. J. Magarey (Chairman), W. 
Herbert Phillipps, Esq., L. A. Jestop, H. C. E. 
Muecke, Richard Smith, E. W. van Sender], Esq. 

The Company transacts all classes of business as 
Executor, Trustee, Attorney and Agent. When 
winding up an estate only one charge is made for 
realization. 

MONEY TO LEND AT CURRENT RATF.S. 
The Company's SAFE DEPOSIT provides ab- 
■olate security for the storage, under Depositor's 
■oU control, of CASH, DEEuS, JEWELLERY 
SOKIP, PLATE, and other VALUABLES. 

YEARLY RENTALS OF SAFES, from £1 Is. 

W. W. CARTER, Manager. 
Offices, 2z Orenfell Street. 




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IMPLEMENT MAKEB. 
(Late of MORGAN). 

YOUNG STREET 

(Old Methodist Hall) between 
FRANKLIN it WAYMOUTH STS. 

DENNIS' PATENT 
STEEL BUCKSCRAPER AND SILT 
SCOOPS, GATES, ETC. 

Writ* (or Illustrated Catalogue and 
Prias Ii#t. 



(By " Agricola.") 

To most people the soil is a 
most uninteresting and common- 
place th ng. We are so accus- 
tomed to regard it as dirt or 
something unclean, that it is most 
difficult to realise that the soil is 
a most charming chemical labora- 
tory where numerous complex 
chemical changes are constantly 
taking place. We can scarcely 
imagine the soil as teeming with 
life, microscopic though it be — in 
fact, more thickly populated than 
the surface of the earth. 

For generations and generations 
the soil and everything connected 
with it have been shunned. (July 
during recent years have farming 
and gardening been considered de- 
sirable callings to pursue. The im- 
mense strides which have been 
made in agricultural science have 
done a great deal to raise the 
rural industries to a high level. 
The spirit of investigation has 
been aroused, and every intelligent 
farmer is studying his soils and 
crops and endeavouring to under- 
stand more and more about the 
farm which he owns. 

— Soil Analysis. — 

Nothing seems simpler than to 
make a chemical analysis of a soil 
and find out what is missing in a 
particular soil that makes it in- 
ferior to a soil in another part of 
the State. It is not such a simple 
matter as it looks. The soil is 
not only a vast reservoir of plant 
food which can be drawn upon by 
the foots of pflants just as need- 
ed, but it is also a great factory 
where raw material in the shape 
of manure is formed into the fin- 
ished article— the crop. A com- 
plete knowledge of the soil and the 
part it plays in the feeding of the 
plants is only obtained by an in- 
vestigation into the chemical, phy- 
sical, and biological aspects of the 
question. 

— Not a Storehouse Only. — 

We must not regard the soil as 
a mere storehouse of plant food, 
water is indispcnsible to all 
plants. It is, therefore, of para- 
mount importance to study the 
movement of water through the 
soil. The texture of the soil and 
the proportions of water and air 
which it retains , affect its temper- 
ature. Some soils are much 
warmer than others under the 
same conditions ; hence some soils 
are earlv, others are late. 



— Not a Dead, Inert Mass. — 

The soil is not a dead, inert 
mass. It is a scene of the great- 
est activity, both chemically and 
biologically. Were we able to 
watch the countless operations 
going on in the first foot of soil 
we would be filled with wonder 
and amazement. Probably with 
all our great inventions working 
on these subjects we shall some 
day have presented to us in cine- 
matograph stvle a busy scene as 
enacted in our surface soil. Some 
of the organisms in the soil work 
upon the dead vegetable matter 
and completely transform it into 
valuable plant food. Other or- 
ganisms work in an opposite di- 
rection and destroy the plant 
foods. Certain other organisms 
live upon the roots of plante to 
the mutual benefit of both. 

— Differences. — 

One cannot help noticing in a 
ong train journey the gradual 
change in the flora (plant life) as 
he passes from one part of the 
State to another. The change is 
a very decided one on passing' from 
Adelaide through the Mount Lofty 
Ranges, to Callington, and thence 
to Murray Bridge, through the 
desert past Narracoorte to Mount 
Gambier. 

It cannot help being noticed 
that certain plants do better in 
some regions than others. Some 
plants grow well near the sea- 
shores, some thrive on wet clay 
soils, whilst others grow to per- 
fection in our very sandy soils. 

Certain weeds grow well in clay 
lands, others again tolerate the 
sandy stretches of country. 

Plants are much influenced by 
environment, and at times slow 
to adapt themselves to new con- 
ditions. 

This is noticeable with intro- 
duced plants. A wheat that does 
well in Russia or Manitoba may, 
during its first season, be almost 
a failure in our State. It may take 
several vears before the new plant 
accommodates itself to new con- 
ditions of life. 

From what has been stated it 
must be felt that a thorough 
knowledge of the soM and its ori- 
gin is of great importance to the 
farmer. 

— The Soil and Its Origin. — 

If we take samples of soils from 
various sources we cannot help 
noticing that the soil is composed 



70 



THE GARDEN AND FIELD. 



July, 1912 



6f mingled fragments of different 
material, chiefly small particles of 
rock of varying sizes, from small 
pebbles to grains only discernible 
i,y the magnifying glass. From 
such examination we are led to 
believe that all soils have been 
formed from rocks. 

All soils are derived from the 
original or igneous rocks of the 
earth. Granites, diorites, and 
gabbros are good examples of the 
primary i rocks of our globe. Geo- 
logy teaches us that our globe 
was once a molten mass, which 
upon cooling solilied into rocks. 
These rocks must have contained 
all the mineral matter of plant 
food. We cannot conceive of any 
other source. All such plant food 
must have been in a most in- 
soluble state which had to be 
changed by various agencies into 
a soluble. 

, We can study these changes b«$St 
by reference to the lava beds of 
recent origin. In an incredibly 
short time this molten material 
solidifies, and the resulting rock 
is soon transformed into more or 
less fertile soil. 

— Pulverisation. — 

The first step in tne formation of 
soil from rock must be the break- 
ing up of the rock into smaller 
particles. Quite a number of na- 



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Calvanisei STOCK TROUGH. 




Tba Beat Trough Brer 
Invented Will net oraok, 
leak, rot, or ruat. 

All length*. 
Writ* me your require- 
ment* 



Paeka la email tpeoe. 
Bead for Oo telega*. 



JAMES ALSTON, 

Patentee and Manufacturer, 
QOBBH'3 BKIDRK «"CTH MKT. HODRMB- 

tola Ageoai for Soutb Au«trali» — 

H. C. RICHARDS 

6 and 8, Bljth StrMt, Adalaida. 
CUe* Oebaeme and Oa. 



tural a> encies 'take part in this 
process. Heat and cold, the action 
of air, water, ice, and wind all 
have their work to perform in this 
respect. Consider a granite rock. 
We are all familiar with the gran- 
ites at Victor Harbor, the Bluff, 
and Port Elliot. Those who have 
visited Port Lincoln must have 
been struck with the great develop- 
ment of granite rocks in that dis- 
trict. 

It is an easy matter to dis- 
tinguished by the naked eye 
three distinct minerals which com- 
prise these granite rocks. The 
black-looking shining material 
which peels off in small Hakes is 
mica ; the pink mineral is a fels- 
par ; and the somewhat bluish 
mineral is quartz. A typical gran- 
ite contains mica, felspar, and 
quartz. 

These three minerals are differ- 
ently affected by changes of tem- 
peratures. When heated they ex- 
pand at different rates, and when 
cooling their rates of contraction 
are different. When such rock is 
subject to extremes of tempera- 
tures, the result must be to shat- 
ter the rock, not of course in a 
single night. The natural forces 
are continually operating. In our 
northern districts and particular- 
ly in Central Australia, the differ- 
ence in temperature between day 
and night is very marked indeed. 
The hottest part of the day ex- 
periences a temperature of about 
160 deg., which gradually sinks to 
zero at night. The water Will al- 
most boil in the day, and at night 
become frozen. Rocks in these 
regions are constantly being 
strained by the unequal expansion 
and contraction of the component 
minerals. Even if the rock is com- 
posed of only one mineral these 
changes of temperature gradually 
tend to disintegrate it (break it 
up). It can easily be imagined 
how soon granite rocks begin to 
crumble away in these dry re- 
gions. The rocks are eventually 
reduced to dust. Then the wind 
does its part in conveying this 
dust to other places, piling the ma- 
terial up into vast sandhills or 
dunes. The great sandy ridges of 
Central Australia, the dunes of 
Sahara, and Central Asia are 
formed in this way. 

There are immense deposits of 
loess in China. This vast accu- 
mulation is supposed by geologists 
to be nothing else than the fine 
dust carried by the wind from the 
great desert of Central Asia. 

Those who have lived in Broken 
Hill can readily imagine what the 



wind can do in piling up dust. 
During our dry summer large 
quantities of dust are carried away 
by wind. We can watch the pro- 
gress of the sandhills on the coast 
at our watering places. We see 
fences almost covered by sand, and 
houses being overwhelmed in the 
same manner. 

Vegetation plays an important 
part in [ire venting the surface soil 
Irom being blown away. Our great- 
est dust storms occur on wide, 
treeless plains. It hot climates 
the most important agent engaged 
in breaking down rocks to dust is 
change in temperature. 

— Action of Frost. — 

In cold countries the great 
weathering agent is frost — intense 
cold. Physics teach us that water 
whilst changing into ice,, expands 
with almost irresistible force. If 
a bottle 'be filled withi water, 
corked tightly, and exposed on a 
very cold night, when the tem- 
perature falls below zero, it will 
be found to be cracked when ex- 
amined next morning. On the 
Continent of Europe and North 
America it is no uncommon occur- 
rence for water pipes to burst 
during cold weather. 

Almost all rocks, and especially 
sandy ones, are somewhat porous. 
Thev therefore absorb water. Dur- 
ing exceedingly cold weather this 
water freezes, expands, and forces 
tides of rock are bound firmly to- 
the particles of rock apart. Whilst 
the water remains as ice the par- 
gether. When the ice melts the 
rock particles easily separate. 
Consider a lump of hard soil. 
Rain falls. The clod becomes 
saturated with water, which 
freezes, expands, and forces the 
particles of soil apart. The clod 
remains as hard as a stone until 
the thawing sets in, when it falls 
to the finest powder, in a finer 
state of subdivision than Can be 
obtained by any crushing machine 
in existence. Frost in these coun- 
tries is a great , tillage implement, 
and is a farmer's friend. When 
frost damages our crops we are 
apt to regard it as a curse rather 
than a blessing. It may do harm 
at times, but it also does incal- 
culable good. 

Have you ever ascended the side 
of a hill in a cold climate , and no- 
ticed the number of loose stones 
that make walking a great effort? 
These si ones are the result of the 
work of frost. They have been 
broken from the rock composing 
the mountain, and are gradually 
working their way down the side 
of the hill. In Scotland such ac- 



July,19L2 



THE GARDEN AND FIELD. 



71 



cumulations of loose stones are 
termed " screes." 

In humid countries the face of 
polished granite rapidly deterior- 
ates. Cleopatra's Needle retained 
its polished face for centuries on 
tne banks of the Mile, but on re- 
moval to London it was soon 
found necessary to apply a water- 
proof varnish to protect the sur- 
tace. In Canada and the United 
States, and manv other countries 
the same precautions have to be 
taken to protect polished slabs. 
When Hag stones have to be quar- 
ried it is customarv for the work- 
men to saturate the surface of 
the rock with water before winter 
Sets in, for the rock, is found to 
spilt more readily along the bedding 
places under the action of frost 
than bv anv other means. 



Using Commercial Fertilizers. 

Artificial manures are used for 
the express purpose of obtaining 
an increased yield, and thereby a 

eater profit. Whether the fer- 
tiliser used will give a bigger pro- 
fit, or anv profit at all, depends 
fhielly upon the soil and the par- 
ticular crop. If the manure hap- 
pens to suit soil, climate and Con- 
ditions, an increased yield must 
result. At present it is a case of 
?' follow mv leader." Everybody 
uses phosphate because the next 
f* fellow " obtains a good yield by 
So doing. Farmers as a rule know 
pery little about their soils and 
the requirements of their crops. 
South Australian farmers are no 
worse than others in this respect, 
probablv thev have a better know- 
ledge than their friends in other 
parts of the Commonwealth. At 
all events, South Australian far- 
mers are welcomed all over Aus- 
tralia. We use manures more pro- 
fitablv than farmers in the eastern 
States. In some parts of New 
South Wales farmers are afraid to 
use superphosphate ; not until 
their neighbour has grown several 
Mod crops can they be induced to 
mo likewise. It is certainly a 
good plan for farmers to conduct 
Experiments on a small scale on 
their own farms. By so doing 
thev learn much in regard to the 
cKmatic conditions prevailing on 
their own farm. There are se- 
veral different s\ steins in vogue 
in many parts of the world. I 
will now describe a few. 

— The Ville System. — 

The Ville system is so named 
after the celebrated French chein- 
K. No svstem is absolutely the 
best, each lias its own particular 
merits. Voile's method assumes 



that plants may, as far as man- 
ures are concerned, be divided in- 
to three groups. Une group is 
specially benefited by the applica- 
tion of phosphates, a second by 
potash manures, and the third 
require nitrogen in abundance. 
Ville s plan suggests that the 
dominant fertiliser should be ap- 
plied in excess to the particular 
group. By this system wheat, 
rve, oats, barley, require nitrogen 
in excess ; phosphoric acid is dom- 
inant for turnips, maize, sorghum, 
sugar cane ; while peas, beans, 
clover, and potatoes require pot- 
ash manures. This system does 
not bar the use of other manures 
to the group of plants mentioned. 
It implies that while phosphatic 
and potash manures may be need- 
ed by wheat, oats, and barley, ni- 
trogen must be the plant food 
applied in excess. When the soil 
is fairly well supplied with plant 
food and the field is well tided, 
this system of manuring should 
give good results. 

— Wagner's System. — 
Wagner's svstem was propound- 
ed by the German scientist of the 
same name. According to Wag- 
ner as phosphatic and potash com- 
pounds and most mineral consti- 
tuents of soil are not likely to be 
leached out, whereas nitrogenous 
compounds are so soluble that 
they are easily lost in the drain- 
age water, it follows that nitro- 
nous 1 fertilisers must be care- 
fully used. The mineral elements 
are cheap, the nitrogen com- 
pounds dear. The economical use 
of nitrogen will mainly depend 
upon the abundance of phosphoric 
acid and potash present. When 
phosphoric and potash manures 
are applied in excess, then the ni- 
trogen must be applied when the 
plants are best able to make use 
of it, that is, during the growing 
period. It is also better to use 
small amounts of nitrogenous 
manures at such times and q'lian*- 
tities as the conditions demand. 

— The Analysis Svstem. — 

As the name implies the analysis 
system is based on the analysis 
of plants, which tell us the food 
requirements. We can, from an 
analysis, calculate the amount of 
plant food per acre removed by 
certain crops. Different formulas 
must therefore be recommended for 
each crop, and the phosphoric acid, 
potash, and nitrogen are used in 
the proportions in which they 
exist in the plants. This system, 
although it may result in large 
vields, is an expensive one. A 
soil mav be rich in phosphoric and 
potash, and may not need the ad- 



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covering 

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Claims paid exceed £7,500,000. 



Departments — FIRE, MARINE, 
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BONDS. BURGLARY, LIVE STOCK. 



dition of cither of these plant 
foods to secure good results. 

— No System. — 
The no svstem is sometimes 
termed the " hit or miss system." 
A manure may be used without 
any knowledge of the conditions of 
soil, and the crop requirements. 
If a good yield results all is wlell, 
but a poor yield at once shakes 
the farmer's belief in fertilisers. 
As before mentioned almost every 
farmer in this States uses a phos- 
phatic manure. Now we know 
that all soils are not alike either 
n chemical composition or physi- 
cal conditions. A sandy soil re- 
quires different treatment from 
that to be given to a stiff clay. 
Yet the farmers apply super to 
both, and oftentimes with good 
results. A farmer leaving the 
north for the southern districts 
expects his farm practices in the 
former to suit the conditions pre- 
vailing in the latter district. Such 



72 



a change is not so violent as one, 
say, from hnglauti to Australia. 
The Englishman has looked upon 
fallowing as a wasteful practice, 
he has also been taught to use 
nitrates in excess on his wheat 
crop. L/et him try such system 
of manuring in South Australia 
and in every instance he will 
come out on the wrong side of 
the ledger. Anyone who uses 
manures in a haphazard manner 
will come to grkf. For a system 
to be successful the principles 
governing such system must be 
sound. 

Different soils contain varying 
amounts of plant foods. A certain 
soil may be lacking phosphates, 
but may contain sufficient potash 
and nitrogen to produee a maxi- 
mum yield. In such cases phos- 
phatic manures are only needed ; 
it. would lie w. isting money to ) ap- 
ply the others. It seldom hap- 
yens that all three plant foods are 
lacking at one time. 

— Field Experiments are Always 
Best. — 

A chemical analysis of a soil 
may indicate that all the plant 
foods needed by a crop are pre- 
sent, and in more than sufficient 
amounts to produce big yields for 
many years. Still, the conditions 
may be such that only poor yields 
are obtained. In such case the 
only sensible way of finding out 
the proper fertilising ingredient re- 
quired is to put the question to 
the soil. A few- simple experi- 
ments could be conducted on the 
farm. A certain number of plots 
could be set aside, and different 
fertilisers used on each separate 
plot. Phosphates in one, potash 
manures in another, and nitrogen- 
ous compound in a third. Then 



THE GARDEN AND FIELD. 



a combination of the three ele- 
ments used on one plot. A check 
plot on which no manure is used 
is also necessary. To be worth 
anything such experiments should 
be carried out for a number of 
years on the same plots. The ex- 
perimental plots should receive ex- 
aetlv the same treatment as the 
rest of the Held. Generally the 
eye will detect any difference to 
growth, nevertheless it is neces- 
sarv that each plot should be se- 
parately harvested, and the re- 
sults tabulated, and just here let 
it be stated that this operation 
tnusrt lie carefully conducted. The 
weight of grain and straw from 
each plot should be carefully cal- 
culated. The result of one year's 
experiment must not be considered 
conclusive, but the average for, se- 
veral years will give much valu- 
able data to work upon. 

— The Plot System. — 
No matter how many tests are 
carried out by the " plot " sys- 
tem, there is no method so truth- 
ful as those conducted on field 
plots. The plot system is no 
doubt of great scientific interest. 
With such experiments the con- 
ductor has almost complete con- 
trol of every factor. Not so the 
farmer. He has little control over 
the field. True, he can plough and 
sow, and reap, but further than 
that he is powerless. There are 
so many conditions to be con- 
sidered on a large scale that do 
not present themselves in the plot 
system. The experimenter has com- 
plete control of drainage, physical 
conditions of the soil, immunity 
from insect or. fungus pests, and 
the amount of plant food present 
in the soil. The farmer has little, 
if any, control of these - factors 
when £xperimetating on a big farm. 



July, 1912 

ELDER'S TRUSTEE 

AND EXECUTOR CO., LIMITED. 

Office of ELDER, SMITH 61 Co., Ltd. 
Currie St., Adelaide, pro tern. 

AUTHORISED CAPITAL ... £5uO,0O0 
SUBSCRIBED CAPITA L ... £100,000 

Directors— T. E. BARR SMITH, T. L. 
BROWNE, G. H. PROSSER, A. J. 
MURRAY, and PETER WAITE. 



The Company, having been duly 
registered, is prepared to act as 
Trustees, Administrators, and Execu- 
tors. 

A. E. FRYER, Acting Sec. 



— Not a Panacea for All Evils. — 
Farmers should not consider the 
use of artihcial manures a pana- 
cea for all the " ills a plant is 
heir to." No matter how much 
manure is applied, the results will 
be poor unless the farmer works 
his soil intelligently, sows the, 
most suitable wheat for his dis- 
trict, and attacks fungus pests 1 at- 
tacking his plants. The constant 
use of artificial manures necessi- 
tates most careful farming. It 
means that a proper amount of 
humus must be kept in the soil 
to get good results. Where stable 
manure is impossible, a green crop 
must be ploughed in the soil. As 
artificial manures actually supply 
plant foods, it follows that when 
such manures have been sensibly 
employed, a soil must become 
richer year by year. 

We in South Australia wish to 
obtain maximum yields by the use 
of super. A time must come when 
our soils will be depleted of pot- 
ash, we will then find it absolutely 
necessary to apply both potash 
and phosphoric manures. We use 
such small amounts of phosphoric 
acid that one is inclined to doubt 
whether the increased yields are 
due to the use of this plant food. 
We are certain that the farmers 
to-day are getting much better 
v elds, not because they are using 
phosphates, but because of the' 
more intelligent methods of farm- 
ing now adopted. More attention 
is being paid to all forms of till- 
age operations, wheats are more 
carefully selected, and farm, imple- 
ments are greatly improving. All 
these factors tend to increased 
yields. We have still much to 
learn about farming. The Govern- 
ment cannot be accused of spend- 
ing too much money on experi- 
mental farming. 



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Stock and Station Agents, Wool Brokers, Live Stock Salesmen, 
.and Licensed Land Brokers. 

Managing Directors — George W. Bagot, John Lewis. 
Wool Managers — George Dowling. George Jeffery. 

Land Manager— Alfred C. Catt. 
Inspector of Branches — James Wilkinson. 

Sales of fat and store stock, land, and farm clearing sales conducted in 
any part of the State. 

All station and farm requisites supplied ; large estates disposed of for 
Closer Settlement ; advice given as to best means of realisation ; plans pre- 
pared. Valuations made in all parts of South Australia. An efficient 
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Sellers of house and land property in city, suburbs, and country are 
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to dispose of them. 

Splendid estates in New South Wales and Queensland for Sale. 

Head Office : 18 King William Street, Adelaide. 



July, lfclfc 



THE GARDEN AND FIELD. 



73 



What an Animal Requires. 



Crudely speaking (says the Hark 
Lane Express), an animal requires 
for growth nitrogenous material 
for tiesh formation, oil and' fat 
for energy, and minerals, phos- 
phate of lime, etc., for its bone 
structure, while the plant requires 
for its rapid development nitro- 
gen, phosphate of potash, etc., and 
other substances correlative to its 
nature. Fortunately for us, plants 
are able to derive a large part 
of their sustenance from the air 
and water, and substances which 
are almost always present in the 
soil in ample quantities, but there 
are some ingredients which are 
continuallv carried off the land by 
the present svstem of cultivation, 
and as thev are not contained in 
sufficiency in the natural soil, 
have to be replaced by us. These 
essential ingredients are nitrogen 
or ammonia, phosphate of lime, 
and potash. For instance, a 
wheat crop of 30 bushels extracts: 
— Nitrogen, 48lbs. per acre ; 2ilbs. 
phosphate of lime per acre ; 281bs. 
potash per acre. Barley crop of 
40 bushels extracts : 481bs. nitro- 
gen per acre ; 21 lbs. phosphate of 
lime per acre ; 35lbs. potash per 
acre ; and it stands to reason 
that we cannot continue to re- 
move these constituents from the 
soil without impoverishing it, and 
it follows as a consequence that 
in order to maintain the crop- 
bearing capacity of our land we 
must find some means of restor- 
ing these principal elements of 
fertility. 

« 

Climatic Conditions. 

The commonest topic of conver- 
sation wherever Australian farm- 
ers foregather is the state of the 
^ weather, what it has been, what 
[it is, and what may be expected 
,in the near future. 'It is natural 
[that it should be so. It is often 
[said that " climate beats culture," 
Jbut he who relies on climate 
trusts to luck, while he who places 
this dependence on culture inv a ri- 
rablv comes out better in^the end. 
' The business of the husbandman is 
as much influenced by climate as 
Rthat of the 1 agriculturist, and a 
fclose study of the climatic condi- 
tions of the localitv in which he 
Hives is of the greatest import- 
ranee. A verv curious illustration 
lof this was {riven by Professor 
t Sanson. A farmer on one side of 
• the River Rhone established a 
idairy herd of Dutch cattle. The 
cows throve well, and ') yielded a 
large quantity of milk. Induced 



by the success of this dairy, a 
farmer on the opposite side of the 
river endeavoured to establish a 
similar dairv herd, but without 
success. Hisi cattle did not thrive 
and they yielded very little milk. 
The cause of this non-success was 
a puzzle. The conditions of life 
in the 'two places were apparently 
identical ; they were at the same 
altitude, and the cattle received 
equal care. Professor Sanson, 
however, soon discovered the cause 
of the failure. In the second dairy 
the cattle were exposed 1 to thejpre- 
vailing wind, which was of a very 
drying nature, from which the first 
farm was protected. , This differ- 
ence, which was scarcely noticed 
bv the residents, accounted for the 
success on one farm and for the 
failure on the other. 



Planting. 



In planting trees in large quan- 
tities the land should be ploughed 
and marked out in rows four feet 
apart each way, and the young 
trees planted at the intersections 
of the furrows. All deciduous 
trees, that is, trees that drop 
their leaves, should be planted as 
earlv as the weather will allow. 
The roots should be well spread 
and planted firmly, the same as 
older trees. If a cultivator could 
run both ways between the rows 
four or fives times, each season 
until the end of the second sea- 
son, it would be of great benefit 
to the trees. After this the trees 
would begin to cover the ground 
and further cultivation would be 
unnecessarv. If the land is such 
that it cannot be ploughed, the 
trees may be planted in the 
ground the same distance apart, 
merelv making a hole to plant the 
tree in bv turning over the sod 
with a spade. All trees for fosest 
planting should be small, say from 
one to three vears old. The roots 
of all trees, whether old or young, 
should never for a moment be al- 



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UNLEY ROAD, UNLEY CITY. 



lowed to become dry ; and, if the 
weather is very dry, it is well to 
puddle them, that is,\ taking a pail 
of water and stirring in a few 
shovels of earth, making it about 
the thickness of gruel, and dipping 
the roots of the young tree into 
it before planting ; this keeps the 
roots from drying up. 



Neither horses, cattle, nor sheep 
appear to place very much faith 
in sense of sight, but they make 
keen use of the faculties of smell 
and hearing. A mare separated 
for a short time from her own 
foal must have a sniff at it to 
begin with if the young thing is 
in a group of like age. A cow will 
act' in the same way with her 
calf, and so will a ewe with her 
lamb. From the merely human 
point of view, a newly-clipped ewe 
looks a little odd when searching 
for a lamb with a patch of black 
on its shoulder or with a dark 
" collar " on its neck. The ewe 
disregards all markings and out- 
ward peculiarities ; she simply 
" noses " her way until she finds 
her own. 



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CARRIAGE, BUGGY 
SULKY BUILOE R 



THE LARGEST PRIZE TAKER IN SOUTH AUSTRALIA. 

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Established in 1886. 

Hindmarsh Square, Adelaide. 



74 



THE GARDEN AND FIELD. 



.July. 1912 



Then and Now. 



Farm life was downright hard 
work in the early days ; single 
furrow swing ploughs represented 
the most advanced method of cul- 
tivating the sod. As often as not 
half an acre, or so of wheat would 
be put in by means of a spade 
(and what a crop it would be !) 
Farmers had to haul their wheat 
along unmade roads, primitive 
bush tracks, to the city, or port, 
in waggons and drays of ponder- 
ous construction. They would re- 
turn home with six months' stock 
of stores, a cask of salt, and a 
lew urgent needs, such a horse- 
shoe iron, nails, etc. In those 
blessed days the farmers lived as 
best they could ; they had poor 
houses, with roofs of bark, that 
leaked! like sieves after each shower, 
of rain, lloors of earth, ;ind a mini- 
mum allowance of cooking utensils 
— frying pan, billycan, and camp 
oven. They seldom had any sheds 
for the few stock that they were 
able to tend. Everything was 
done in the hardest way. Man 
and beast suffered alike, and 
everything about the farm was 
disagreeable. The poor stock had 
to suffer in silence, but mankind 
could lind a measure of relief in 
language, and one may rest as- 
sured, from what their descendants 
have absorbed, and even, now so 
readily give expression to, that in 
this respect they cotdd do full jus- 
tice to any and every occasion. 
Sons can call to mind the oaths 
registered by them at the time 
that they would never cultivate 
the soil. Scores of them on ar- 
riving at the age of twenty-one 
shook off the dust of the desolate 
and dreary farms of i their parents 
and cleared out for the city. This 
was only sixty years ago, but 
how great the change since then. 
Now, instead of getting away 
from the country, nearly every- 
body wants to get on to a farm. 
There one can now have many of 
the conveniences and comforts of 
life, added to the health-giving at- 



mosphere and rural joys peculiar 
to farm life. Could some of the 
battlers of the forties revisit the 
old scenes, thev would find that 
the accommodation of all, includ- 
ing the dog, is immensely in ad- 
vance of what it was in their 
early days. The uncovered stringy- 
bark yards have] given place to 
line buildings, and instead of 
stunted, mangv stock nibbling 
straw, they would find high class 
stock of all kinds, living in com- 
fort, sheltered from the sun, and 
even provided with water within 
easy reach. They would find the 
modern farmer's family no longer 
growling over a diet of salt mut- 
ton and salter pig, served up on 
tinware, nor sitting on bare 
benches before bare but very 
greasy boards, but comfortably es- 
tablished at a table stocked with 
fresh meats, fruits, vegetables of 
all kinds, cream, butter, and many 
other luxuries which were strangers 
to the pioneer period. One can- 
not blame any ambitious farm 
boy for being disgusted in those 
days ; he had a right to be. 
Everything was drudgery and 
hard knocks. There was no plea- 
sure in the present, and no hope 
in the future. The average farm 
in those days was unimproved 
in every way — rickety buildings, 
patchwork fencing, inconvenient 
slip-rails, and general confusion. 
No wonder the boys wanted to 
get away. 

In these days good roads, sub- 
stantial farm buildings, neat fenc- 
ing, decent kitchens, and cosy 
dwelling rooms are the rule in- 
stead of the exception. Railways 
have shortened distances, and 
bicycles have brought the local 
township nearer, good prices are 
procurable for everything pro- 
duced, and altogether the lot of 
the prosperous farmer is one of 
the brightest imaginable, and if 
the veteran of the forties could 
come back he would indeed be de- 
lighted. He would find the once 
disconsolate farm bov sitting in a 
well-carpeted parlour listening to 



WATCHMAKERS, JEWELLERS and 
OPTICIANS. 

J. TROWBRIDGE 

(lj> years with Stevenson Bros.) 
57 GOUGER STREET, ADELAIDE. 



Engagement and Wedding Rings are 
made to order. Buy from the maker. 

A splendid assortment of WATCHES 
CLOCKS, JEWELLERY, & OPTICAL 
GOODS. All Lenses ground by expert 
workmen. Every article of the latest 
design, suitable for presents. 

Repairs a Speciality aod Guaran- 
teed. A Trial Solicited. 



the strains of his daughter's 
pianola, or absorbing the latest 
music hall ditties by means of an 
Edison record gramaphone. He 
would find the whole family well 
dressed, well informed, cheerful, 
healthy, and contented. The boys 
of to-day are not watching for any 
and every chance to} get away from 
the blanky place. If they express 
a wish to get away at all it is to 
put a year or two at Roseworthy 
College, or to spend a few weeks 
at the seaside. The farm boy 
of now is not as the farm boy of 
then, a dunderhead and ignor- 
amus, dull, stupid, and unambi- 
tious. He is a different creature ; 
one who learns about soils and 
crops, the selection and care of 
stock, and other things which the 
old-time farmers never dreamed of. 
Man farms now, not by the sweat 
of his brow, the muscles of his 
arms, and the sinews of his back, 
but by the aid of machinery. 
Machinery, usually driven by the 
wind, pumps water to supply 
stockyards, sheds, and house. 
Machinery, as represented bv horse- 
drawn drills, put in the crops, and 
Machinery of varied forms and 
vast utility takes off the crop 
and prepares it for market. All 
cultivation is done by machinery, 
and even the -labour of the dairy 
has been mechanically made easy. 
Everything and everybody live 
better, and are more comfortable 



GLOBE T IMBER MILLS^ 

TIMBER OF ALL KINDS. Galvanized Iron, Joinery, Mouldings, Turnery, Shadehouse Battens.Treiiis Laths. 
Boxes and Cases of Every description made up or packed in Shooks. 

Butter Boxes and Fruit Cases a Speciality. Write for Prices. 



Flinders Street, Adelaide, and at Port Adelaide. 



July, 1912 



THE GARDEN AND FIELD. 



75 



iused than was the case in the 
; rd old days of then. 

Of course farming is not without 
> hardships even now. Low 
ices and drv times can still cre- 
e misery, even in the best-order- 
establishments. But there is 
i longer the same ceaseless 
udgery, nor the same privation 
id forbidding conditions that 
aracterised the earlv history of 
e country. Summing it all up, 
ie can readilv sav that the 
inside " farmer of to-day is one 
the most prosperous and inde- 
ndent men in the world. If he 
ms a well-improved farm, and is 
t of debt (as ninetv-nine per 
tit. should be by this time), he 
ed desire to exchange places 
th no man. He need not envy 
e city dweller because the latter 
so well catered for in the mat- 
r af amusements. These also 
e wjithin reach during the course 
a periodical trip to town, and 
I the pleasanter for being treat- 
homeopathicallv. The advance 
is been great, but it has not as 
t reached all. There are many 
or farms and many poor, farm- 
}, and always will be. But when 
e compares the farms of then 
th the farms of now lall over the 
nntrv, it is easy enough to see 
d appreciate the immense strides 
at have been made towards pro- 
iss during the sixty odd years 
mediately behind. — Elder's Re- 
:w. 

<$> 

Plants have an organic existence 
lich requires to be fed with suit- 
k supplies of nourishment, just 

much as we or our animals, 
d as we all directly or indirect- 
come from the soil, so the sub- 
ances required for both partake 

the same nature, although in 
lerent forms. The bountiful 
rth is the mother of us all, or, 

Professor Huxley put it, " the 
»de of grass and the horse con- 
in the same elements differently 
|abined and arranged." 



K. BECHTEL, 

saddler, truss & bandage 

MAKER. 

59 O'Connell Street, 

NORTH ADELAIDE... 

tent Attachable and Detachable 
tgy, Spring Cart, Yankee, and C*b 
Saddles. 

Maes, Bandages, Kneecaps, Leather 
eketH, Shoulder Straps, etc., Made 
Order, and sent to all parts of tke 
Common wealth. Fit Guaranteed. 



LADY IN ATTENDANCE 



Prevention, 



(Continued from June Issue). 
— Disinfection. — 

Disinfection is the act or process 
by which infectious matter is re- 
moved or destroyed, and disin- 
fectants are the agents used by 
winch such removal or destruction 
is accomplished. 

Fire is the most effective of all 
disinfectants, and it is taken ad- 
vantage of in controlling the 
spread of communicable disease by 
the burning of carcasses and dis- 
charges of affected animals, and of 
sheds, bedding, manure, litter, soil 
and like substances with which 
such animals may have been in 
contact, or may in any way have 
infected or contaminated. Fixe 
and heat are also used for sterilis- 
ing utensils and instruments, and 
for purifying water and milk by 
boiling. Disinfection by boiling, or 
by exposure to superheated steam 
or hot dry air is also commonly 
practised. 

Next after fire in effectiveness 
come various chemical agents, the 
most powerful of which are cor- 
rosive sublimate (perchloride of 
mercury) ; sulphuric acid and 
other mineral acids ; caustic pot- 
ash, quicklime, and other strong 
alkalies ; carbolic acid, lysol, cre- 
olin, and allied coal-tar products 
such as phenyle, Jeye's Fluid, and 
Macdougall's dip ; permanganate of 
potash (Condy's iluid) ; formic 
aldehyde (formalin) ; chloride of 
zinc (Burnett's fluid) ; sulphur va- 
pour, and chlorine gas. Most of 
these act bv coagulating or chemi- 
callv combining with the albumen 
of which the infective germs are 
constituted, and so destroying 
them ; and, if they i come in contact 
with the infective matter, they are 
as effective as fire. Some 'of them 
are powerful caustics, and need to 
be used with very great care, and 
diluted to various strengths. Cor- 
rosive sublimate is usually diluted 
to I in 1,000 of water (acidulated),, 
carbolic acid I in 20, Jfonnalin 1 in 
40, permanganate 1 in 100, and 
they are safe and ellective in 
these strengths. The first-named 
ought not to be used in disinfect- 
ing iron, tin, zinc, or leaden uten- 
sils, instruments, or materials, as 
it chemically corrodes these me- 
tals. Caustic potash and the 
milder carbonates of potash and of 
Soda have a solvent action on 
greasy matters, and are hence use- 
ful disinfectants in creameries, 
butter factories, and slaughter 
houses. Another property which 



of Disease. 



dictates their general usage at 
such like premises is their freehom 
from, smell. Carbolic acid, chlor- 
ide of lime, formalin, and other 
substances having a powerful and 
penetrating odour should not be 
used where food materials, and 
especially milk and its products, 
are being manufactured, prepared 
or stored. Quicklime, in the form 
of lime-wash and as a powder, 
has been largely used, and is in 
great favour as a disinfectant of 
sheds, iloors, ground surfaces, cess- 
pits, and the like; but its capacity 
as a destroyer of disease-producing 
germs is doubtless largely pro- 
blematical, and when used as a 
lime-wash it is always a safe pre- 
caution to strengthen it with an 
effective proportion of carbolic 
acid, permanganate of potash, or 
other reliable disinfectant. 

Experiments recently carried out 
by Mr. J. A. Gilruth, M.R.C.V.S., 
the chief of the New Zealand Gov- 
ment veterinary staff, would ap- 
pear to indicate that lime is use- 
less as a reliable disinfectant for 
bones, soils, and paddock surfaces 
in such diseases as anthrax. He 
mixed crushed bones known to con- 
tain spores with an equal quanti- 
ty by weight of quicklime by 
grinding them together in a mor- 
tar. Sterilized water was added 
to jslake the lime, and the mixture 
set aside in sterilized bottles for 
a week. At the end of that time 
the lime was washed away from 
the particles of bone which were 
then placed in culture media. Just 
as luxurious a growth of organ- 
isms resulted as did from control 
cultures which had not been treat- 
ed with lime. Gilruth claims that 
although in this experiment the 
germs were within the substance 
of the bones trea|ted, the test was 
a fair one, in that the lime was 
as likely to get to a germ in a 
small %-inch cube of bone as to 
germs in larger bones, or in hard, 
clayey nodules of soils, and he 
points out that, while, at a pinch, 
equal parts of lime might be added 
to bones to be disinfected, it 
would be impracticable to treat 
the soil with equal parts of quick- 
lime. 

So far as concerns the disinfec- 
tion of bones containing anthrax 
or other disease germs (and bones 
imported from India and elsewhere 
have been responsible for a num- 
ber of outbreaks of anthrax in 
Australia and New 'Zealand during 
recent years), there are only two 
effective methods which can be 



76 



THE GARDEN AND FIELD. 



July, 1912 



practically applied without coin- 
mercial loss. One is treatment 
with sulphuric acid, whereby the 
blonesi'.arc chemically converted into 
soluble superphosphate of lime, the 
germs being destroyed in the pro- 
cess ; and the other is exposure 
for a lew hours to superheated 
steam, under pressure, whereby 
the heated steam is forced into 
the substance of the bone particles, 
and so> contacts with and destroys 
tlie contained germs. 

Of physical agencies which act 
as disinfectants, heat, cold, dry- 
ness or desiccation, and sunlight 
pr insolation are the most import- 
ant. Heat has already been ad- 
verted to. Cold is less effective 
than heat, but the activities of 
germs are in larjre measure des- 
troyed bv exposure to a degree of 
cold, at or below freezing point ; 
or, if the e/xposure is prolonged, 
even at a temperature somewhat 
above freezing point. Just as mois- 
ture is essential to the i life of 
germs, as of all living things, so 
dry tiess, or desiccation, is inimical 
to their development and growth ; 
and hence a long period, or an in- 
tense condition of dryness, contri- 
butes to the destruction of germ 
life. For the same reason, disin- 
fection is effected bv sunlight, or, 



more correctlv, bv insolation, by 
which is meant exposure to the 
sun's ravs — the actinic (or chemi- 
cally active) ravs probably, .rather 
than the light rays necessarily. 
The " sweetening " effects of sun- 
light are well known, and it would 
lie advantageous if the opportuni- 
tv were more frequently given for 
the penetration of sunlight into 
stables, byres, kennels, and styes. 

Of mechanical means of disinfec- 
tion', filtration and sedimentation 
are processes bv which germ-laden 
water mav be purified, and in this 
sense thev may be regarded as dis- 
iection methods. So also the flush- 
ing with water of drains, lloors, 
walls, and fittings, in so far as it 
effects the " cleansing " of these 
or the removal from them of in- 
fective matters, may be considered 
a means of disinfection. In the 
same sense, ventilation, by effect- 
ing exchange of air, and perflation, 
or air-llushiuir, by causing the re- 
moval of stagnant, devitalized, 
vitiated, or germ-laden air from 
a building a rc auxiliaries to effi- 
cient disinfection which should 
never be neglected. 

Internal Disinfection. — Disinfec- 
tion of the resjnratorv passages 
bv inhalation will be referred to 



when treating of the parasitic and I 
other lung diseases, but it may be 
said here that, attempts at inter-' 
mil disinfection of the body by the< 
introduction of agents into the 
alimentarv canal, or into the 
blood direct, have up to the pre-j 
sent been illusory ; at the same J 
time it would be rash to say that 
there a re no grounds for hope that I 
such a means of protecting the 
system mav lie successfully accom-1 
plished in the near future. 

— Disinfection of Premises. — 

The method of disinfection of 
buildings, yards, and paddocks to 
be adopted 'as a means of prevent- 
ing the extension of communicable 
disease will depend largely on thei 
nature of the disease and its man- 1 
nel of infection — whether by inges- 
is a fixed contagion or a volatile 
or floating infection — that is, whe- 
ther it is usually conveyed by di- 
rect or intermediate contact, as 
with the contagious anthrax, or 
by atmospheric contamination 
also, as in the infectious pleuro-, 
pneumonia. 

The period of incubation, by 
which is meant the time during 
which, after infection, the disease 
remains latent before the appear- 
ance of svmntoms, and the chan- 
nel of infection — whetker by inges- 
tion, • inhalation, or inoculation—; 
are also matters which must be 
taken into account in determining 
the method of disinfection to- be 
carried out. 

When dealing with a so-called 
infectious disease — that is, when 
atmospheric contamination or in 
fection has to be counteracted— 
fumigation of all closealble build 
ings should be performed. It is 
necessary, for effective fumigation 
that all openings into the build- 
ing should be effectively closed 
Bags may be stuffed into air holes i 
louvres, and other openings ; an< 
cracks and crevices in doors ; 
lloors, and ceilings may be pastes 
over temporarily with paper 
The process will be best illus- 
trated bv instancing fumigatioi 
with sulphur. Rock brimstone o 
flour of sulphur is ignited anj 
kept burning by different means 
perhaps the most convenient an 
successful of which is to ; place th 
ignited sulphur on an iron plat 
or shovel, kept at a dull-red hea' 
by the flame of a burning lamp o 1 
gas jet underneath. It may als 
i,v vaporized by placing it on to 
of a layer of live wood or co« 
ashes on a shovel or iron platfl 
The building should be kept close 
for a period of one or two hour 
after the sulphur has been burnt 
Five pounds' weight of sulphu 
completely burnt is sufficijent t 



Everybody Expects a 
Fair Deal 

And you will set it by paying a 
Visit to 

C. H. LEHMANN S 

Establishment for 

Saddlery, Collars, 
Harness, etc. 



A OaJl Respectfully Solicited. 
It will pay You. 

C. H. LEHMANN, GRENFELL STREET. 



July, 1912 



THE GARDEN AND FIELD. 



horoughly disinfect a shed con- 
aiuing i,ooo cubic feet of air 
ipace — that is, a Molding 10 feet 
jy 10 feet by io feet. This seems 
i large quantity of sulphur to use, 
»ut accuratelv conducted experi- 
nents have shown that anything 
ess than 5 per cent, of sulphurous 
icid gas (S02) is inefficient for 
iestruction of disease germs. If 
team is liberated into the com- 
mitment at the same time as the 
ulphur gas, then half the quanti- 
y of sulphur will suffice, as the 
ermicidal effect of the gas is more 
ronounced in the presence of 
loisture. On the whole, perhaps 
praying with formalin is the most 
ffective method of aerial disinfec- 
ion. A 3 per cent, solution in 
rater is used, and the finer the 
pray, and the greater the force 
nth which it is projected int\o cor- 
ers and crevices, the better. 

Additional measures for the dis- 
lfection of buildings comprise the 
emoval of all loose fittings, and 
he burning of such as cannot be 
horou«;hlv cleansed and disinfect- 
d with boiling water or other- 
rise ; the burning of all refuse, 
tter, sweepings, or other debris 
ikelv to convev infection ; the 
borough scraping, scouring, and 
leansing of walls, floors, ceilings, 
xtures, and under side of roof 
nth hot water and soft soap ; 
ad the swabbing of all such with 

strong disinfectant solution — 1 in 
,000 of corrosive sublimate, or 1 

I 20 or 40 or carbolic acid, creo- 
n. phenvle, Jeye's fluid, Mac- 
ougall's dip, chloride of lime, or 
austic soda, in such a way that 

II crevices and corners and pro- 
jctions are reached by the fluid, 
"he walls and floors may then be 
ainted, or lime-washed with hot 
arbolized quicklime, or coated 
ith heated tar. 

Yards, if paved, should be 
nshed and brushed with a cor- 
osive sublimate solution. If the 
oor is of earth, the surface mud 
r soil, to a depth of 6 inches or 
aore, should be spaded off, re- 
loved and burnt. The bared sur- 
\ce should then be charred bv 
overing with straw or litter, 
prinMed with kerosene, and fired. 
L thick dressing of quicklime may 
e applied, and the surface made 
p with fresh, clean earth, well 
ammed and graded. 

Drains. — Surface drains should b>ei 
irst swept clean, and copiously 
lushed with water, then flushed 
nth corrosive sublimate solution, 
nd afterwards made impervious 
T coating with heated tar. The 
infection of underground drains 
Wesents greater difficulties. They 
hould be scraped, if possible, and 



then slowlv flushed with a strong 
solution of caustic potask or 
caustic soda, after which flushing 
with water and corrosive sublim- 
ate solution may be carried out. 

Fences and walls of post and 
rail, pickets, bricks and corrugated 
iron, may be effectively disinfected 
by first removing all dirt and 
then swabbing with corrosive sub- 
limate solution, and afterwards 
coating with hot carbolized lime- 
wash or with hot tar. 

Paddocks are difficult to disin- 
fect, and little effectiveness at- 
taches to the plan usually adopt- 
ed bv treating them with dress- 
ings of lime. The only really re- 
liable measure is the giving over 
of the paddocks to cultivation for 
a series of years ; but, if this is 
impracticable, the paddocks should 
be rested until a crop of grass or 
cereal has been grown, which, 
when dry, should be fired. Hol- 
lows and depressions may be given 
a heavy lime-dressing with good 
effect, or they mav be sprinkled 
with carbolic or corrosive sublim- 
ate solution. In all cases the sur- 
face 1 should be exposed as much as 
possible to the full effects of a 
summer's sun. 

Water holes. — The disinfection of 
water holes and tanks is likewise 
a difficult matter. Little more 
than emptying, cleaning out the 
mud and sedimentary matters, 
and dressing the sides and bot- 
tom with quicklime or sulphate of 
iron, can be attempted ; a nd the 
best plan to adopt in regard to 
a water hole known to be infected 
is, after carrving out the above 
measures, to/ fence\.it round so as 
to prevent access of stock for a 
period of about twelve months, 
by which time, so far as concerns 
most communicable diseases, the 
danger of infection will have been 
reduced to a negligible degree. 

Finally, all buildings, yards and 
paddocks which are known to have 
become infected with disease germs 
should not be used for the hous- 
ing, holding ( or grazing of any ani- 
mals of a kind liable to contract 
the particular disease in question 
for a varying period, depending on 
the virility of the specific germ 
concerned ; and before their or- 
dinary use is resumed they should 
be tested bv allowing susceptible 
animals of low value to be -placed 
in them for a length of time suf- 
ficient to cover the incubation 
period of the disease. 

— Disposal of Dead Animals. — 

Closelv allied to disinfection is 
the question of the . disposal of the 
carcasses of dead animals, parti- 



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Diseases, Eczema, Indigestion, etc. 

Vitadatio cures are PERMANENT. 

Read what Mrs. Webster says about 
her CURE :— " 9 Marshall St., New- 
market, Jan. 10, 1912. To Mr. S. A. 
Palmer, Vitadatio, Melbourne. — Dear 
telling you how I had been cured of 
Hydatids and Gall Stones through 
taking Vitadatio. I have met with 
Sir, — About 12 years ago I wrote 
several people lately to whom I have 
recommended your Great Remedy, and 
I want you to know how thankful I 
am that I met you, and how anxious 
I am that those who suffer as I did 
should know what a gre^t chance 
there is of getting cured. I have no- 
thing to gain by writing you this, and 
I would not write it if there was any 
doubt about my cure, but I think 
every sufferer should know what Vita- 
datio has done for me. I am now 
well and hearty, and have reared a 
family of four children since. I would 
not have been alive to-day if it had 
not been for Vitadatio. If any on" 
would like to call and see mo, I will 
be glad to tell them all about my cure. 
Vours truly — (Sitmed) Mrs. H. Web- 
ster. Witness — William Davies. 

Mr. S. A. Palmer has had 10 years' 
experience in England, curing cases 
that have baffled the great specialists 
there. 

If you are a sufferer, write for full 
particulars about VITADATIO. Tt 
will cost you nothing to get all full 
informat ion. 

Sold by Chemists and Stores at 3/f> 
and 5/6 bottle. 

Head office — 439 Flinders Lane, Melb., 
Victoria. 




Am H. BKUC *I 

Engineer, General Machinist, &c. 
Corner of 

FRANKLIN AND MORPHETT ST., 
ADELAIDE 



Manufacturer of Centrifugal and 
geared forced Pumps— Repairs to all 
classes Steam, Oil and CHSolim: 
Engines 1 Speciality. 

A TRIAL SOLICITED 



THE GARDEN AND FIELD. July, 1912 

Forestry for Farmers. 



7S 



cularlv those which have been 
affected with communicable dis- 
ease. 

In Australia there is happily no 
necessity to discuss the merits of 
burial versus cremation. Kxcept 
in the large cities, where animal 
carcasses are usually dealt with 
at boiling-down or destructor 
works, there are, as a rule, ample 
facilities for the burning of car- 
casses, and this method of dis- 
posal is usually adopted — that is, 
when any method is adopted. For 
it is unfortunately the case that 
in many instances no attempt is 
made to dispose of carcasses ; 
they are simply allowed to 
rot in the sun where they lfc, and 
are often thus a bountiful source 
of contamination of water holes, 
creeks, and other water supplies, 
in times past, in regard to pleuro- 
pneumonia, and ev en dow n to "the 
present time in regard to anthrax, 
this criminally-neglectful custom 
has been largely responsible for 
the :persistence of these diseases on 
some properties and along certain 
of the main stock routes. 

A hint as to the construction of 
the cremation pyre for a bullock 
or horse may be of service. Im- 
mediately alongside the carcass a 
trench 2 feet wide, 2 feet deep, 
and 6 or 8 feet long, shallowing 
towards the ends, should be dug, 
and filled level with wood. On this 
and on the adjacent ground at the 
sides a foot thick layer of long 
wood should be piled, and the 
carcasses rolled on to it and 
covered above and all round with 
With a sufficient quantity of wood. 
A sprinkling of kerosene or tar to 
start the blaze, and replenishment 
of the wood as required, will com- 
plete the job. The advantage of 
the trench is that it obviates the 
necessity of lifting the carcass, 
and as the wood in it burns away 
it acts as a draught flue to expe- 
dite the combustion and render the 
cremation complete. Any of the 
surrounding ground surface that 
is soiled or soaked with blood or 
discharges from the dead animal, 
should be spaded off and thrown 
on to the fire, and in the case of 
communicable disease it is also a 
wise precaution to char the 
ground for some distance round 
by sprinkling with herosene and 
firing. Whenever possible, car- 
casses should be cremated where 
they lie, without removal. "Re- 
moval always means additional 
contamination of either vehicles 
or ground, and this involves extra 
trouble and expense of disinfection, 
and increased risk of spread of the 
disease. 



(From the South African Agricul- 
tural Journal). 

— General Requirements for Tree 

Growth. — 

Each species of tree makes its 
own special demands on the fac- 
tors in nature upon which tree-life 
depends, and these requirements 
are very varied and distinct. Some 
trees live only in cold regions, 
while others must have great 
warmth to succeed. Some of them 
stand on the boundary of tree- 
groiwth within the Arctic Circle'and 
others grow only in tropical lands 
and a re unable to resist the light- 
est frost. Between these extremes 
a large number of species exist 
which vary in their needs only 
slightlv. 

Every tree may be said to have 
its " optimumu locality " ; that is 
to say, conditions of environment 
under which it grows to perfection. 

Conditions exist under which cer- 
tain species of trees luxuriate ; or 
the conditions may be such that 
the same species thrive only mode- 
rately well or grow to but an 
ill-shapen and stunted form ; or 
again the tree mav fail to £Tow 
at all owing to the conditions be- 
ing entirely unsuitable. 

Hence, it becomes necessary to 
study in a general way the fac- 
tors in nature which govern the 
growth and development of forest 
trees. For the sake of clearness 
these may be derived under two 
main heads ; climate and soil. 

Under climatic requirements we 
will consider the bearing of heat, 
light, moisture, and wind towards 
trees. 

— (a) Requirements of trees for 

Heat. — 
When we have stated the fact 
that heat is essential for the phe- 
nomenon of growth, there is little 
of further importance to the prac- 
tical tree-planter to be said on 
this subject. It is always the 
highest and lowest temperature, 
rather than the average, which 
decides where a tree will grow. 
Each tree varies in the limit of 
cold or warmth it will endure. 
Extreme cold more often decides 
where a tree will not grow than 
extreme warmth. 

And in parts of this country 
where occasional sharp frosts oc- 
cur, it is important to ascertain to 
what extent a tree is frost-resist- 
ing. 



Sufficient heat is necessary for* 
transpiration which in turn is 
necessary to cause the circulation! 
of the sap bearing in solution the 
various plant foods. When thejj 
degree of heae is so reduced that, 
transpiration it no longer possiblea 
growth will cease and the trett 
remain inactive until sufficient, 
heat returns. If a tree belongs 
naturally to a region where cold 
never occurs, it will not only bej 
come inactive or dormant during 
a period 0 f cold, but the nature of 
its internal structure is such thai: 
it is killed. In this way tern per a-i 
ture has a threat deal to do witjj 
the distribution of trees , over thJ 
surface of the whole earth. 

The heat required by trees for 
transpiration and growth is sup* 
plied by the atmosphere, either di- 
rectly or through the soil. The 
sun is the only important source 
of atmospheric heat, hence thf 
temperature > of any given locality 
depends in the first place upon its 
latitude, that is its distance fro.n 
the Equator. Latitude may be, 
however, compensated for in many 
wa vs. 

For instance, a region lying 
right on the Equator may be cold, 
owing to extreme elevation or tc 
the presence of extensive sheets o' 
water. Or again, the temperature 



G. L. MUELLER'S 

Aromatic Schiedam Schnappi 




This universal cordial is manufacturer 
and bottled 
IN SCHIEDAM (HOLLAND) 
with special care and is warrantee 
free from every injurious property and 

ingredient. 
It is highly recommended by most 0 
the hotelkeepers in the Commonwealth 

of Australasia. 
Please take notice of the signature 011 
the labels, and beware of inferior 
imitations. 




Contain* M p«r oent. Proof Spirt*. 



THE GARDEN AND FIELD. 



79 



of one particularly locality may 
varv according to its aspect and 
slope. For example, it will bo 
observed that, generally speaking, 
the southern sides of a mountain 
range will be cooler than the 
northern, and a steep grade on 
which the ravs of the sun strike 
which the rays of the sun 
warmer than a gentle slope or the 
level. Such considerations must 
be borne in mind when a site for 
tree-planting is to be selected or 
trees are being chosen for a given 
site. 

I— (a) Requirements of Trees for 
Light. — 

The light of the sun is even- 
where so abundant that we some- 
times forget that without it there 
can be no growth. It is by means 
of light in contact with the green 
colouring matter (chlorophyll) in 
the leaves of trees that the car- 
bon dioxide is decomposed. Thus 
the plant food which is taken in 
through the roots and conveyed 
in the sap . through certain chan- 
nels (the xvlem) to the crown of 
^the tree is assimilated, and re- 
turns down the stem through 
other channels (phloem) to build 
up new tissue. 

During the process of germina- 
tion light is not required, because 
the embrvo is developed by means 
of substances deposited in the seed. 
[Nor does the first start of growth 
in spring require much light as it 
is done bv means of reserve ma- 
terials deposited in certain parts 
of the plant in autumn. But as 
Soon as these substances, both in 
germination and the first awaken- 
in? in spring, have been consumed, 
light becomes necessary for the 
elaboration of new food materials. 
Thus a forester bv .planting trees 
close together is able to cut off 
the light from the side of *.he 
trees and so prevent the growth 
.of lateral branches and promote 
Hftowth on the top where there is 
'light. Tall straight trees without 
•branches are thus produced and 
piature has done its own pruning. 
On the other hand if larr.-e spre.ad- 
■n? crowns are desired for sh ide 
and ornament the trees are pi ant- 
ed further apart so that each tree 
eniovs the full licrht and the trees 
become heavilv branched. 

I Each species of tree, however, 
varies in its lijrht requirements. In 
'lotne cases too little and in others 
>to much light can interfere with 
the phenomenon of growth. 

The forester makes studies of 
hVht to discover the normal lifht 
requirements of anv particular tree 
be wishes to plant. But ft tnnst 



here suffice to say that trees are 
dividing into light-demanding and 
shade-bearing species. Light-de- 
manders must always be given the 
full enjoyment of light, while 
shade-bearers will grow under the 
partial shade of others. A fur- 
ther class is sometimes recognized, 
namelv, shade-demanders, that is, 
trees that fail to grow in the lull 
light. 

Light is therefore an important 
factor in giving form and shape 
to a tree. Many of jyou will have 
noticed how vigorous and well- 
developed is a 'tree on the side ex- 
posed to the light, and how ill- 
shapen and stunted is the growth 
on the side subjected to shade. 

Upon this principle of light de- 
pends the distance trees must be 
planted apart, according to the 
shape of tree desired, as well as 
the subsequent time and manner 
to thin out the trees some years 
later. 

— (c) Requirements of Trees for 
Moisture. — 

Without water tree-growth is 
impossible. The temperature may 
be normal, liifht abundant, and 
the soil perfect, but in the/ |ajl> 
sence of moisture the roots can- 
not take in food, there can be no 
flow of sap up to the crown to be 
there elaborated in the light, nor 
can the necessary transpiration 
take place. Thus it would be 
futile to attempt to plant trees in 
any portions of the dry Karroo, 
even though the soil, heat, and 
light are sufficient. 

As we look over, the earth's sur- 
face we find forests do not exist 



in regipus where the rainfall is 
lower than 18 inches, but usually 
only where the rainfall is a great 
deal higher than that do luxuriant 
natural forests occur. It may be 
said that forests are a consequence 
of an adequate rainfall, but it is 
by no means proved that forests 
are the cause of increased precipi- 
tation. What foresters do claim 
in this respect is that > forests are 
capable of conservin-- thei moisture 
that does actually fall. 

The forester when planting en 
masse for timber production 
satisfies himself that the rainfall 
is sufficient for that particular 
species of tree. He finds it im- 
practicable as a rule to depend 
upon irrigation. The farmer may, 
however, be able to estalblish small 
plantations in parts of this coun- 
try where there is a small rain- 
fall bv irrigation, but unless he 
intends to irrigate it will be a 
waste of money to plant trees 
and expect them to grow to their 
full development where the rain- 
fall is lower than 18 inches ; un- 
less, as we shall see under the next 
heading, the soil is of such a 
nature that it is capable of com- 
pensating- for the low rainfall by 
its capacity for conserving mois- 
ture. 

— (d) Requirements of Trees for 
Soil. — 

We may consider soil from a 
physical and psvological point of 
view. The latter, though of some 
importance, has not the same 
great influence upon tree-growth 
as the former. It is to the 
physical conditions of the soil 
more than to its chemical compo- 



IT PAYS to Rug Your Cows. 



2 



o 



f 




>*uas 



Various Qualities and Prices. Write for Our List. 

OAT nrW Or T7DHQT Saddlers and Importers, 
nUL.JJllfIl 06 r rlUo 1 , QRENFELL ST., ADELAIDE. 




80 



July, 1912 



sition that ut tuition must be paid. 
A suitable depth and porosity is 
essential, while if these are pre- 
sent the chemical composition will 
be of secondary consideration, ex- 
cept, of course, in the case of ex- 
cessive salts, lime, or other de- 
leterious factors. 

Depth of soil is necessary to give 
stability to the roots to afford 
a large supply of mineral plant 
foods, but more important still 
to hold a large and continuous 
Supply of moisture. In this coun- 
try our rain does not as a rule 
fall all the year round, but rather 
at certain (or uncertain) seasons. 

In the east and north it is in 
the summer months, and in the 



wav through the interstices ami 
round and under the rocks. 

Thus the bottom lands can be 
retained for agricultural crops, 
while the unploughable hillsides 
and mountain slopes may he de- 
voted to forest trees. 

— (e) The Effect of Wind Upon 
Forest Trees. — 

Wind is both beneficial and 
harmful to forest trees. It is 
beneficial in as much as the mo- 
tion. of the atmosphere ensures a 
proper distribution of moisture, 
carbon dioxide, oxygen, and ni- 
trogen over the earth. It is, of 

course, of paramount importance, 
as without air currents there could 
be no life. Considering the mat- 



shapely by the growth being 
healthy and well developed only on 
the leeward side. 

These evils can to a great extent 
be overcome by planting hardy 
trees' on the " outskirts of the 
forest to form ,a curtain which will 
prevent . the entrance of either dry 
or cold winds. For the same pur- 
pose the trees are left denser on 
the edfre of the forest when the 
time arrives to thin out some of 
the stems in order to increase the 
light. For similar reasons forests 
are cut in the opposite direction to 
the prevailing wind. 

Plantations of trees may be es- 
tablished either by planting or 
sowing. For both methods, speak- 





A WINTER NECESSITY— THE RUGGING OF COWS. 



west and south-west in the win- 
ter months. A good depth of soil 
will be able to. hold moisture in 
reserve for the dry months. 

A suitable porosity is necessary 
to allow the free passage of 
oxygen to the roots and to per- 
mit the entrance and percolation 
of water. If a soil is too com- 
pact, as clay, neither water nior 
air can enter. If on the other 
hand soil is too porous, as sea 
sand, water will pass through it 
as a sieve, and it will be incap- 
able of retaining moisture for the 
the dry periods. An intermingling 
of fragments of rocks and boulders 
is often rather beneficial than a 
disadvantage to tree growth. The 
rocks assist in preventing the wash 
of soil, they retain moisture and 
keep the soil cool, while the roots 
of the trees will always find thea- 



ter from this point of view is. 
however, of no practical import- 
ance. Nature can be trusted to 
do her duty in this respect. 

Wind affects forest trees injuri- 
ously in two ways — 

(i) bv changing the temperature 
and decree of moisture unfavour- 
ably ; (2) 'by injuring, breaking, 
bending, or uprooting trees. 

In the first place dry winds re- 
duce the moisture while cold winds 
reduce the temperature and thus 
interfere with the healthy growth 
of trees. 

Strong winds may break the 
leading shoots or cause a tree to 
assume a curved shape, and violent 
winds 1 may overturn and uproot 
trees. Strong prevalent winds 
will cause trees to be ' very lin- 



ing generally, the ground must be 
equally well prepared. 

— (a) Preparation of the Soil. — 

Where possible, the ground 
should be wet! ploughed , and al- 
lowed to lie fallow for six or 
twelve months in order that the 
virgin sod may thoroughly rot. 

Just before planting or sowing, 
the "round should be cross- 
ploughed and harrowed. 

Where ploughing is impossible 
because of the surface stones and 
rocks, owing to the steepness of 
the mountain side, the natural 
vegetation can be burned off in 
the dry season and well jpicked to 
a depth of six or seven inches just 
before planting or sowing. 

Stood preparation of the area en- 
sures a better germination of the 



July, 1912 



THE GARDEN AND FIELD. 



81 



seed, and in the case of plapts a 
nore rapid and more uniform 
growth. 

In some cases it is possible and 
idvanta^eous to take an agricul- 
tural crop off the area before 
slanting. This reduces the cost 
>f preparation and keeps the 
T-ound free from weeds. 

In areas comparativelv free of 
latural vegetation it may be pos- 
sible to dispense with ploughing 
3r picking, and work the ground 
■fly at the spots where the 
>lants are to be inserted. This 
ast method, however, involves 
peat risk of failure, and ex- 
>erience shows that, as a rule, 
:omplete working of the soil se- 
:ures a more rapid formation and 
6 less expensive in the long run. 

- (b) SeaSon\to Sow or Plant. — 

The best time to plant is just 
jefore or during the rain, and, if 
(ossible, in the earlv spring. The 
leason for planting- extends over a 
Jeriod of three or four months, 
b the Western Province it is 
fune, Julv, Aup-ust, a nd Septem- 
>er. The month of August is, 
lowever, the ideal time. 

In the Eastern Province and the 
rransvaal the season is later, as 
ie rains fall in summer. It is 
lsuallv good to wait until one or 
:wo heavy rains have fallen so 
:hat the eround is well saturated. 
Planting or sowing- may commence 
n November and continue till 
Iffarch. Late planting or sowing; 
mist be avoided, as sharp frosts 
ire liable to occur in the north 
md in parts of the east, and verv 
roung plants are more liable to 
raffer. 

— Cc! Methods of Sowing. — 
The sowing mav be done either 
n rows or broadcast. It Is usually 
better not to harrow after sow- 
ng as there is a danger of the 
•eed being- buried too deep. In 
Host cases it is best to leave the 
»eed on the surface, just as nature 
loes when seed is blown from the 
Jarent tree. Tf scorching; is feared 
W the plundering of birds, the 
ilea mav l>e li;rhtlv gone over, 
after sowing, with bushes or 
"akes. 

Broadcast sowing gives a uni- 
form even forest, which later on 
Wtsures an even distribution of the- 
light. Sowing in rows has the 
advantage of saving seed and of 
its being- possible to cultivate after 
Semination. 

On the whole the best forests 
have been established in this coun- 
try by broadcast sowing. 



Sowing is less costlv than plant- 
ing when the seed is cheap, such 
as cluster pine. If seed is very 
costlv or if the grains of seed are 
too minute to be well sown, 
plants must first be raised in a 
nursery. 

Great care should be taken that 
the seed is evenly sown over the 
area. If the seed is badly sown 
the trees will he in clusters while 
parts of the ground will be bare. 
The result will be that the forest 
will be too dense in places and 
too open in others. 

The quantity of seed to be sown 
to the acre varies with each 
species, the nature of the soil, and 
according; to the vermin which is 
likely to feed upon the seed. 

A poor germinating soil must be 
more thickly sown than a good 
soil. This is to allow for the 
seed that does not germinate and 
to give the soil a denser cover. 
Or if the area is over-run with 
mice, baboons, and birds, due al- 
lowance must be made for the 
quantity of seed they will devour. 
In the case of cluster pinel sowings 
a fully stocked area is usually ob- 
tained when 1 8 to 30 lbs. of seed 
is sown to the acre. If the sow- 
ing is done in rows 3 feet apart 
the cmantity per acre may be re- 
duced to 10 to 15 lbs. 

In the case of wattles 5 to 7 
lbs. per acre is sufficient. 



— (d) Method of Planting. — 

In planting out, the roots must 
be disturbed as little as possible, 
least of all the fine rootlets 
through which the nourishing sub- 
stances are assimilated. These fine 
rootlets are generally .embedded in 
small lumps of earth which should 
not be shaken off. The least in- 
terference with the 1 roots occur 
when the plants are lifted with a 
ball of earth in which the root 
system is embeded. This can be 
done with a garden trowel. A hole 
is first opened in the prepared 
ground with a spade, trowel, or 
bush pick to a depth sufficient to 
accommodate the . longest roots. 
The soil is then firmly pressed 
about the roots so that all air 
spaces are filled, ; and at the time 
taking care to keep the plant erect 
and not to damage the top by 
pinching. 

If the sun is very hot the plant 
can be advantageously mulched 
bv placing a little grass or some 
weeds round about it. 

The best sized plants are those 
that are about 4 to 6 inches high 
in the case of pines, and 5 to 8 
inches in the case of gums. A 
strong healthy plant is one that 
has a <rood root system, that is, 
abundance of spreading roots. 

* 

TO ADVERTISERS.— Alteration of ad- 
vertisements should be in our bands not 
later than the 15th of the month. 



THE BURNING SUMMER HEAT 

MAKES MAN AND HOUSES LANGUID AND WEARY, BUT IT 

Makes no difference to the " VICTORIA.." 

And that is just the reason why you should hsfve a " VICTORIA " Petrol 
Engine on your Farm AT ONCE, if you do not already possess one. Men 
that are tired and weary with the Summer heat cannot get through their 
usual amount of work, and the same applies to horses, and hence Their 
labour becomes more costly. Not so with the " Victoria," it will go just 
as well in the Summer Sun as at any other time ; it does just the same 
amount of work. All vou have to do is to start it and leave it — it will 
look after itself. Running costs are only ONE PENNY 'PER HOUR, This, 
is one of the many reasons which prove the sound sensibility of instal- 
ling one or more " VICTORIAS " on your property. 

Leading features of the " VICTORIA " :— 

1. Uses only 3 pints of Petrol per hour on full load. 

2. No circulating pump for cool ing purposes. 

3. Easy starting. 

4. Petrol supply by gravitation. 

5. Magneto driven by oscillation. 

6. Floor space 4 feet 6 inches by 3 feet. 

Sole Agent 

D. THOMSON, 

EAGLE FOUNDRY - - - GAWLER. 



82 



THE GARDEN AND FIELD. 



July, 1912 



Red Water in Lambs. 



Under the term red water, se- 
vend diseases are included; indeed, 
red water (sanguineous ascites) is 
a residt of disease rather than a 
disease itself. It frequently pap- 
pens that whenever a shepherd on 
opening a sheep's carcase finds an 
accumulation of water in the ahdo- 
men he at 'once sets this down as 
the cause of death, and overlooks 
the | disease which has produced the 
water. Probably the disease in 
some lambs is caused by derange- 
ment of the liver, and the follow- 
ing should be a good medicine 
with which to drench them once 
or twice a week : — Sulphate of 
magnesia, 407.S. ; extract of tarax- 
acum, loz. ; carbonate of iron, 
2 drachms ; water, 1% pints. Dis- 
solve the magnesia and the tarax- 
acum in water, and then the iron. 
This is one dose each for six 
lambs. Avoid all watery and in- 
nutritions foods. — Exchange. 



Manufacture of Koumiss. 

According to a writer in the 
" American Druggist," koumiss is 
generally made by adding yeast 
to cows' milk and then ferment- 
ing. The best results are, how- 
ever, obtained from the use of 
mares' milk, this being the basic 
ingredient of the original Russian 
koumiss. Mares' milk is less rich 
in casein and fattv matter than 



cows' milk, and is, therefore, 1110 re 
easy of digestion. In the United 
States cows' milk is used always, 
and generally it answers the pur- 
pose well ; but it is better to di- 
lute the milk with water to re- 
duce the percentage of casein, etc. 
Mares' milk contains 8.75 of milk 
sugar ; cows' milk contains only 
.So.S. It is therefore necessary to 
add sugar to the preparation when 
made from cows' milk. The fol- 
lowing recipe has been found to 
answer well : — Dissolve 30Z6. of 
milk sugar in $2o£s. of water, and 
add the solution to 960ZS. of milk, 
rub together %oT. of compressed 
yeast and I'/^ozs. of brown sugar 
in a mortar with a little of the 
mixture, and then strain into the 
other portion. Strong bottles are 
essential, champagne bottles' being 
frequently used, and the corks 
should (it very tightly and be 
wired down. If the cork does 
not fit properly, the carbonic add 
gas, as formed, will escape, and 
leave a worthless preparation. The 
koumiss must be kept at a mode- 
rate temperature, and to ensure 
it being properly finished the bot- 
tles containing it should be gently 
shaken each day for about ten. 

$ • 



A Healthy Occupation. 

An American exchange says the 
healthiest of trades is tending cow 
stables. Here the average length 
of life is over 85, and it has been 
observed that many of the men 



OKO^OTP* «St ANCHOR HOTEL , 

CRENFELL STREET (adjoining East End Market). 

A. MIER3 Proprietor 

(late of Old Queen's Arms, Wright Street). 

wishes to intimate that he is now in possession of the above hotel, and 
hopes to merit n share of public support. Ample stabtinsr. Osth;r in 
attendance dav and ni Lrh t . Terms moderate. A trial solicited. 



HOUSE, LAND, AND ESTATE AGENCY. 
257, GRENEELL STREET (opp. New Market!. 
Properties of all descriptions — City and Suburban — for investment. Acres 
near Morphettville, just suit gardeners for nursery work, especially adapted 
for it — real good honest bargains. Plans forwarded on application. A 
first class Separator small size, as good as new, for sale at half price. 
Note address— 257, Grenfell Street. 

BRITTEN'S REGISTERED DENTISTRY. 

ARTIFICIAL TEETH ON EASY WEEKLY PAYMENTS. 
Painless Extract inns One Shilling. Gold Fillintra. Crown and Bridge 
work. Only Address — 

20, CURRIE STREET (Opposite Savings Bank). 

Open Saturday Evening* 7 to 9 p.m. Daily, 9 to 5.30. Saturday, 9 to 1. 



J. T. TUNBRIDGE. 

Vienna Dining 
Rooms. 

HINDLEY STREET, 
ADELAIDE. 

Opposite Ware's Exchange 
GIVE HIM A CALL. 




who look after cows live to be 
centenarians. This is because the 
cow is the only animal whose pre- 
sence is known to be thoroughly 
healthy for men. Kven the breath 
of a cow is beneficial, though no 
physiologist can tell precisely the 
reason why. The labour of wheel- 
ing' a barrow has such a strength- 
ening effect on the muscles and 
joints that confirmed barrow- 
wheelers show an average of, near- 
ly 77 years, and a great many live 
to be a hundred. This largely is 
because if a man wheels a barrow 
properly the wide apart arms 
open the chest, and help to 
strengthen the lungs in a wonder- 
lul way. 



Horse Feeding, 



The whole subject of the pro- 
per feeding of horses is one which 
is -ftot usually appreciated as itj 
deserves. There is far too great 
a tendency on the part of those 
connected with the animals to ig- 
nore the fact that constitutions as 
well as appetites vary, and the 
result not infrequently is that a 
horse gets far more than is good 
for him, for the simple reason 
that he eats more than his neigh- 
bour if he gets the chance. If pro- 
per observation were to be made', 
it would soon be ascertained how 
much each animal requires in the 
way of food to be at his best, 
and if the size of the feeds were 
to be regulated in propertion, the 
health of many a stable would be 
better. Horses doing hard work, 
as a rule, require something like 
half as much food again as those 
doing moderate work, and the 
pace at which they have to work 
should also be taken into >consider- 
ation ; and, if a hose is systema- 
tically fed upon indigestible food 
in large quantities, his health will 
suffer. 



July. 1912 



THE GARDEN AND FIELD. 



83 



Poultry Notes. 



Breeding Stock. 



Supply and demand are the two 
dominant factors in every business 
undertaking, a*nd in this respect the 
Joultry industry differs not in a 
single detail from other more impos- 
ing branches of commerce, excellent 
figures being obtainable for birds of 
what may be termed exclusive quality 
owing to the supply falling short o 
the demand, whilst on the other hanc 
over-production of the average "every 
day " specimen has been the means of 
reducing their market value to a 
point commensurate with that obtain- 
able for any commodity with a tem- 
dencv towards a slut in the market. 



Careful investigation instituted to 
determine the factor responsible for 
this surplus supply reveals the fact, 
that sufficient attention is rarely be- 
Btowed on the science of mating with 
a view of evolving a strain or line of 
birds that will gradually improve in 
quality each season and produce stock 
in which the percentage of culls will 
gradually diminish, until eventually by 
judicious breeding a faulty specimen 
will become somewhat of a raritv, 
and even when found need toot occa- 
sion the slightest anxiety, as birds 
frequently revert to an almost for- 
gotten fault possessed by some far 
back ancester. Such a specimen, if 
possessed of a* desirable point in a de- 
cided degree, may with safety be 



utilised as a breeder, and in this 
capacity will not infrequently give a 
far greater measure of satisfaction 
the more sighly bird possessed of a 
less fashionable iiedigree, owning to the 
fact of his breeding lines resting on a 
very solid foundation. 

The majority of breeders, especially 
amateurs, when taking up poultry 
breeding as a hobby or profession 
aim at producing quantity rather tban 
quality, and apply this principle to 
the procuration of stud stock, there- 
by imperilling their chance of build- 
ing up a remunerative business, for 
experience has amply demonstrated 
that in poultry raising, as in other 
pursuits, though there is invariably 
room at the top, the lower runes 
of the ladder are uncomfortably 
crowded and offer but the merest 
apology of a foothold, with conse- 
quent disastrous results in numerous 
instances. 

Breeders in every instance if fully 
alive to their own individual interest, 
should adopt a cautious att'.tude on 
the question of stud stock, and de- 
cide in no unmistakable manner that 
the best obtainable were toone too 
good for their purpose, as even if ow- 
ing to limited means a single pair 
have to be procured, instead of the 
usual pen, the pursual of such policy 
would prove more gratifying than 
3ecurinnr a larger quantity of inferior 
grade stock, and the enhanced value 
to the industry generally would 




THE KELLY" 

DUPLEX GRINDING MILL. 

We receive many enquiries for a mill to be operated by 
hand power, and we are pleased to say that thin mill is the 
most practical Mill for hand power we have ever seen. One 
man can easily grind fiOlbs. per hour. 
Cracks grain for Poultry. No end thrust on shaft. 
Call and inspect, or write us for further particulars. 

NORMAN & CO., 

BANK STREET, ADELAIDE. 



South Australian poultry owners have 
found that the very best remedy 
for the TICK CURSE is 

Faulding's 
Phenytas. 



Periodically dip the infested birds and spray infested houses and runs with 
Paulding's Phenytas and there will be no further fear of tick. 

PROLDINe'S PHBNYTHS is nba*lut« DEATH T© THE TICK 




speedily lx:ar eloquent testimony to 
the wisdom of its adoption. 

The reverse side of the picture 
claims attention, and forces itself on 
the observer's notice as the condition 
prevailing 1 at the psesent time. On 
every hand are found novices operat- 
ing with stock so inferior in character- 
istic of the variety they are supposed 
to represent that nothing short of 
absolute genius would enable any 
breeder to place operations on a solid 
foundation with them as the basis 
of a strain. The desire to secure 
quantity rather than quality for the 
money is the factor responsible for 
this order of things, and this ten- 
dency requires to be severely dis- 
couraged if rapid and permanent 
headway is desired, for very serious 
injury is being perpetrated on the 
industry by the persual of the present 
unsatisfactory programme. 

Reputable breeders should also exer- 
cise greater caution in their methods 
if they desire to obtain the fullest 
possible measure of profit from their 
undertaking, and the primary step in 
this direction is a firm determination 
to slaughter each and every bird fall- 
ing below- what may be safely termed 
a medium standard for the retention 
and subsequent disposal of culls has 
ruined many a reputation that 1 has 
taken years to build up. 

If a breeder decided that only such 
birds as display conspicuous merit 
are to be reserved and disposed of, 
he has mastered the chief obstacle in 
the road to success, and can with 
every confidence expect to receive re- 
peat orders from his customers, as 
merit proves the best advertisement, 
whilst weedy or defective specimens, 
no matter what price is demanded or 
received for them, are ever a source 
of dissatisfaction, equally to the 
breeder as to the purchaser. 

The average amateur is especially 
blameworthy in his methaids of con- 
ducting business, for, aften at the out- 
set of his breeding career, he in pur- 
chasing stock assures the breeder, 
either verbally or by letter, that he 
is in no wise particular about the 
show properties of the stock, but 
merely interested in their utility 
qualities. After receiving in most in- 
stances a faithful pen picture of the 
bird or birds, and expressing himself 
as thoroughly sgtiafied with same, he 
forgets that he has probably paid the 
lowest possible figure at which pure- 
bred stock can be sold, and roundly 
abuses the breeder for sending him 
birds that are not perfect in every 
respect, although fchey may prove 
part ioulaelv strong in the most de- 
sirable utility qualifications. 



Dependable hatching eggs are ob- 
tainable only from vigorous, hust- 
ling hens. 

The only way in which you can 
be certain that your birds i are free 
from lice is to examine them, 



4 



THB GARDEN AND PISLD 



Jnly, 1912 



Notes if\ Passing. 



ADDING INSULT TO INJURiY. 



Last week we noted that the 
Minister of Agriculture had prom- 
ised to consider the request of the 
P. and K. Club deputation that 
the Government subsidy should 
be continued, and we mentioned 
that members were fairly hopeful 
of an affirmative reply. It is 
now apparant that they credited 
the Minister with a better under- 
standing of the position than it 
had pleased Providence in its wis- 
dom, or his responsible officers to 
provide, for Mr. Pascoe has now 
definitely declined to d<> so. In 
his letter he repeats his suggestion 
of amalgamation as between the 
P. and K. and Royal Societies 
and further generously offers the 
services of the departmental Poo- 
Bah as guide, philosopher, friend 
and general mediator. Consider- 
ing that (firstly) the Royal in the 
most friendly spirit does not want 
to amalgamate with the P. & K.\ 
(secondly) that the P. and K., 
also in the friendliest spirit pos- 
sible, reciprocates the feeling ; 
(thirdly), that no good would re- 
sult from such an amalgamation, 
and (fourthly) that the commit- 
tees concerned might be safely 
trusted, to conduct their own busi- 
ness without the assistance of the 
aforesaid Poo-Bah. Mr. Pascoe 
appears to have merely added the 
insult of a silly suggestion to the 
injury of an unjustifiable refusal. 



A MISCONCEPTION. 



From quite private and confiden- 
tial sources we learn that the 
Ministerial idea of the P. and K. 



Club, shared by some of his col- 
leagues, is that it is an associa- 
tion of multi-millionaires who ha- 
bitually import ioo-guinea Bull 
dogs, which they then present to 
their friends. As a matter of fact, 
and as far as the subsidy is con- 
cerned it is an association of 
worthy, but rather impecunious 
poultry breeders (we deduce the 
impecuniosity from the members' 
donation list), who in the past 
have been responsible for the 
maintenance in their purity of the 
various races of domestic poultry, 
and to whom in view of the al- 
leged deterioration of their stock 
in stamina and vigour, utility 
breeders will in the near future have 
to look for assistance. If this 
truer recognition of the aims, ob- 
jects and use of the club were per- 
mitted to penetrate the Ministerial 
mind it would be to the general 
good of the poultry industry. 



AN INVITATION. 



The recently established " Mail " 
( May its shadow never grow Less) 
laments the decadence of the White 
Leghorn in particular, and the dis- 
organisation of the poultry industry 
in general and invites the Poultry 
and Kennel Club to act the part 
of Moses in journeying to a Prom- 
ised Land of Improvement. It oc- 
curs to us in passing that con- 
sidering that the Government made 
a world's record mess, though 
backed by unlimited capital, of 
" reorganising the industry," it is 
trying this unfortunate club, whose 
available funds would find ample 
accommodation in a penny money 
box, too high, to ask them 



to take on the job. Their 
leadership in the matter as sug- 
gested by our contemporary, how- 
ever, appears to consist princi- 
pal v in the issue of approved 
breeding charts and the institution 
of instructional! classes on the mu- 
tual help principal. We do not 
wish to be necessarily dolorous, 
but excellent as these proposals 
are in theory we imagine that in 
practice they are liable to fall as 
flat as the pancakes that danced 
before Pharaoh, or an expert's lec- 
ture on the tick question. 



MUTUAL HELP AND SELF- 
HELP. 



Mutual help and brotherly love 
are all very well in their way, but 
self help is usually the tvke which 
comes on top. Instructional class- 
es and leaning up against a bro- 
therlv fancier, may be alright, but 
we somewhat doubt their efficacy 
as a prescription for the man who 
wants to get to the top of the 
ladder. At all events we never 
heard that Messrs. G. M. Duncan, 
Charlie Leslie, F. J. Wimble, A. 
H. Padman, S. H. Pitman, J. H. 
Hobbs, C. B. Bertelsmier to name 
but a few of our successful breed- 
ers ever joined any Poultry Kin- 
dergarten, or sat round and held 
hands when they tackled the ques- 
tion of breeding the best birds in 
the best way. This does not, of 
course, mean that the Mail man's 
idea is not a thoroughly sound 
one, but knowledge on the co-oper- 
ative plan does not seem to alppeal 
to the Australian poultry breeder. 



MORE PRACTICAL. 



Coming to the more practical 
side, we are wholly in accord with 



♦♦♦♦♦♦ ♦♦♦♦ ♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦< 



99 



BLACK ORPINGTONS. 

OUR SPECIAL ENGLISH STRAIN. 

Our Special English Strain. Have won dozens 
of Kirst and Special prizes, also Cups and 
Trophies In all leading shows- 

Pen 1 :— A Champion Cock, Son of the famous 
" Sargenfri King," a (treat prize winner mated 
to selected, low Set blocky hens of rich green sheen, 
also prize takers. Eggs 42/- dozen. 

Pen 2 :— Headed by "Bargenfpi Prince," an- 
other splendid cock of " Sargenfri King " line, 
mated to a few choice hens and pullets of massive 

size of type. Eggs. 42/- dozeb. 
Pkn 3:— Headed by a vigorous young Cockerel of 



great size and broad back, very low set, with good 
females. Eggs. 21/- dozen. 

AMERICAN BARRED PLYMOUTH 
ROCKS. 

The Ringlet Strain. 

They are barred to the skin : fine feather, fine 
layers. 

Pen 1 :— Imported American Strain, headed by a 
grand shaped, dark cock, mated to a pen of fe- 
males that won "Garden & Field " Challenge 
Cup, Maroh Koyal, 1911 Eggs. 42/- dozen. 
Pen i : — Specially mated to produce good lavers 
combined with show qualities. Eggs. 21/- dozen. 



SARGENFRI WHITE LEGHORNS. 

Heavy-Laving strnin, have b en distributed all 
over Australia. N.Z., India, Malay States. This 
strain has been line bred for 12 years, »nd built up 
from tested hens laying from 280 to 298 eggs per 
year. Eggs. 21/- Uld 10/6. 

THE INVINCIBLE SARGENFRI 
RUNNER DUCKS 

are veritable egg machines — won every 1st and! 
Special Priie in Adelaide Shows during 1911— aleo^ 
won all prizes at March Royal 1912. 3 

Eggs, 21/- and !• 6. a 



Near Glynde 
Hotel, 



East Payneham 



♦♦♦♦ 



July, 1912 



THE GARDEN AND FIELD. 



85 



the writer's straight-out advocacy 
of the singly tested bird as the 
basis of successful breeding and 
we heartily congratulate " Prac- 
cal " on the thoroughness with 
which he lives up to his pen name, 
in the suggestions and advice 
which he offers in this regard. 



WILD SHOOTING. 



During the last six or eight years 
the Poultrv expert has been rather 
generally regarded as an innocu - 
ous if somewhat verbose person, 
whose vaigaries could well be 
treated with tolerant indifference. 
Recentiv, however, he appears to 
have acquired a gun, with which 
he has been indulging in some 
short range shooting at S.A. Birds 
and Breeders' Shows and Show - 
men. According to Sir Oracle, 
men, methods and material are all 
wrong. .In fact everything is all 
wrong ! Poor S.A. ! '! Now a 
gun in the hands of a fool or a 
poultrv expert (they are not neces- 
sarily identical), even when loaded 
with simple spite, is a dangerous 
tb*ing, and we fancv that the 
tolerant attitude of past days 
is likelv to turn into something 
much more solid and unpleasant. 
'In the meanwhile, perhaps, Mr. 
Laurie will inform the public why 
he has during the last few years 
spent, sav, £1,000 on " all wrong" 
stock and necessary equipment at 
Roseworthv ? Secondly, what he 
has to show for his presumably 
"All rifht " methods ? 



QUITE ABSURD. 



The folly and absurdity of the 
expert's recent vaperings may be, 
perhaps, more accurately judged, 
when we remember that (firstly) 
S. A. leads the world in laying 
istock ; (secondly), that the S.A. 
breeders have exported birds to 
each of the five continents, and 
(thirdly) that S.A. exports more 
e KK s P er capita than probably any 
country in the world. In the face 
of such facts one is inclined to 
wonder at the true cause of our 
expert's recent erratic shooting. 



A PROPHESY. 



f In view of the recent talk of 
the lack of stamina and ovarian 
troubles in highly bred stock we 
recall with interest an article by 
Prof. Brown, the English poultry 
authority, which we republished 
some four or five years ago, in 
which he foretold the position 
which is possibly approaching in 



S.A. stock. The professor indica- 
ted in the article referred to that 
it was only those breeders (prob- 
ably not five per cent, of the 
whole) who ruthlessly culled their 
stock for every physical defect, 
and every constitutional weakness 
who could hope to 1 live with the 
leaders when they got to the 250 
gait. It certainly appears that 
Prof. Brown was not far out in 
what he then wrote, and that the 
growing weakness of Leghorn 
stock in particular may be traced 
to forced feeding, immature breed- 
ing stock, and the hurry and haste 
to get to the top of the tree quick, 
which present competition condi - 
tions encourage, have been serious 
obstacles, to a thoroughly perman- 
ent improvement. 



OPEN SHEDS. 



When it was announced that at 
long and weary last the Poultry 
Kxpert had decided to add to the 
interest of the Roseworthv laying 
com petition by including a scratch- 
ing shed versus open pen section, 
considerable speculation was ex 
pressed as to what particular 
bungle he would make in carrying 
out the affair. That there would 
be one, two, or ten mistakes, was 
one past form taken for granted. It 
now appears that the scratching 
sheds provided are hardly adequate 
to requirements. It is agreed by 
most authorities that for 6 birds 
a 6 x 10 space with plenty of head 
room is the minimum that should 
be allowed. Whether a Rose- 
worthy scratching pen fulfil these 
conditions we do not know, but 
have been given to understand that 
their arrangements fall short of 
perfection. Possibly Mr. Laurie 
may argue that there were not 
sufficient funds available to put 
up ideal sheds; as, however, close 
on £ 1 ,000 was placed on the Esti- 
mates last year for contingent 
poultrv expenses at Roseworthv 
little attention need be paid to 
this, for a poultrv man of average 
ability could be trusted to run a 
small experimental earthquake, let 
alone a dozen experimental 
scratching sheds on so handsome 
an amount. 

$ 

It is impossible to obtain satis- 
factory fertility unless a sound 
constitutioned male bird heads the 
pen. 

Don't overcrowd. Proper care 
and space given to a few will re' 
turn more profit than is obtainable 
from a large number neglected. 



Golor Feeding of Black 
Fowls. 

The subject of feeding for color 
one hears discussed by groups of 
fanciers) congregated for friendly chats 
year in and year out. Some will 
argue that what you feed has no 
effect on the color, while others will 
insist that it does. 

As far as black birds are concerned, 
I have been convinced for years that 
the kind of feed for young stock when 
taking 00 their mature plumage and 
the old birds during molt has much 
to do with the color. 

Several years ago I had a late 
hatched S. C. Black Minorca cockerel 
that had the promise of making an 
extra fine bird, but too late and im- 
mature for use that season. On 
account of his extra large lrame and 
good coior I put him out on a farm 
to hold over for a good bird. The fol- 
lowing fall this bird was fed wholllv 
on yellow corn, during his molt and 
when I came to look h'im over after 
molt I found, much to my surprise, 
that he was off in color, showing 
purple barring to quite an extent, 
but otherwise he was a grand bird. 
As he was bred from a line of blood 
producing excellent color and showed 
such promising color as a cockerel, I 
decided to hold hun over another 
year The following late summer 
before he had started his molt, I 
brought him in and placed him by 
himself in a roomy coop with good 
grass run attached and fed him 
mostly on wheat with now and then 
a feeding of buckwheat or oats, all 
through nis molt, and the result was 
that this color was almost perfect— 
a rich, greenish sheen, free from any 
barring of purple, and he won the 
blue that season at one of our lead- 
ing shows in hot company. 

This aod other similar experiences 
lonnr ago convinced me that yellow 
corn fed wholly or freely to black 
bjtds when they are taking on new 
plumage, will affect the color and 
produce purple or bronze barring. Tu 
just what extent this is true I have 
never tried any experiments to find 
out until! this year. 



A. R. CRESWICK 

DENTIST 

(Lute with Eskell & Tattersall). 

VICTORIA SQUAEE W., ADELAIDE. 
(Near Post Office). 



ALL WORK GUARANTEED. 

Artificial Teeth made and misfitting 
Teeth remodelled. Teeth Scaled, stop- 
ped and Extracted. Laughing Gas ad- 
ministered. Painless Extraction. 

Consultation and Advice Free. 
Country districts visited regularly. 
See dailies for dates. 



t6 



Interesting Mating Problems. 



By S. T. Barlett, in Reliable I'rul- 
try .Journal. 

If not. already done, the selec- 
tion • of your breeders cannot be 
made to 0 soon. It matters little 
what variety you may be breed- 
ing, there are a nmnbtjr of founda- 
tion facts and principles that can- 
not be neglected if the best results 
are to be seen in your stock next 
fall. 

Bear in mind that it is, far|bptter 
to breed from a very few choice 
birds than to " run chances " of 
getting a few really good ones 
from a large llock raised from a 
more numerous parent' stock. If 
you have only a trio of strictly 
iirst-class birds, confine your in- 
cubation to their eggs. Too many 
poultrymen forget that it is a very 
exceptional thing for a chick t ltfa| be 
better than its parent. It is only 
by strict adherence to nature's 
laws that we can make improve- 
ment ini our stock. 

— Study Individuals. — 

To improve from year to year, 
every breeding . bird must be in- 
dividually studied and mated to 
one of the opposite sex that is 
strong in the weak points ol the 
bird under stud}'. For there are 
very few birds that even approx- 
imate perfection. 

Given two ideal breeders of the 
same family or strain, we might 
expect a fair percentage of similar 
quality chicks from tfyem. But 
who has these ideal birds ? The 
very few in existence command a 
purchase price away beyond the 
capacity of the purse of the aver- 
age poultryman. What is the 
problem therefore confronting him? 
Simply this : '" When the best 
things are not possible, the best 
use must be made of those that 



THE GARDEN AND FIELD. 



are." Do the best you can with 
what you have. First, make an 
intelligent and thorough study of 
your male bird. You know wthat 
lie should be. But if you are as 
keenly critical with your own as 
with your neighbor's birds, you 
will see that he has his ladings, 
and will not shut your eyes un- 
wisely to them. Whereever he is 
weak you female may be strong. 

It may be that your male is a 
buff bird, good in color but 
deficient in shape characteristics. 
If such he the case, by no means 
mate him to a female similarly 
affected. Generally speaking you 
will find the hen transmits her 
type ' to her chickens. Never use a 
poorly shaped hen in the hope of 
seeing a striking improvement in 
the tyi>e of her progeny. You will 
be disappointed. If you are lim- 
ited to one male bird, you must 
pay special and minute attention 
to the females. Again, remember 
that von will get better chicks 
from adult parents than from 
young ones. 

— Breed Mature Birds. — 

Hens are vastly preferable to 
pullets a s breeders and cocks to 
cockerels. The general inclination 
is to mate cock with pullets or 
cockerels with hens ; but we are 
convinced that better quality and 
more strongly constituted chicks 
are given by adult birds than by 
those of any other age. 

Until a male has molted once as 
an adult you cannot positively 
pass on his quality. The color 
pigment in his blood may or may 
not be intense enough to stand the 
strain adult molt. One cannot tell 
until the bird has been tested by 
age. Man}- of our readers have 
congratulated themselves on the 
possession of particularly strong 
colored cockerels only to> find them 
lamentable failures as cocks. The 



July, 1912 



same is true with the females. We 
have had deep colored buff pullets 
that as such have greatly pleased 
the eye ; but as matured hens 
they have wofully deteriorated in 
quality. A bird of color that holds 
his own fron year is a mine of 
wealth to the poultryman. 

The writer has a hen that is 
now seven years old and a cock 
past five, and both are as nearly 
perfect as they were six and four 
years ago respectively. Such birds 
as long as they will breed at all 
are priceless. For such reasons, 
we advise if possible, breeding 
only from tried adult parent stock. 

— Individual Matdngs. — 

If you are not limited to one 
male your range of operations is 
of course more extended ; but do 
not forget that a few choice birds 
are immeasurably better as 
breeders than a lot of mediocre 
specimens. 

From a long experience, the 
writer is prepared to say that the 
highest possible results can be 
secured only from individual mat- 
mgs — one cock and one hen only, 
running together. If the breed is 
of a solid color, standard bred 
birds may do very well together. 
In whites, of course, shades of color 
are not to be considered, for 
white is white although many 
think they have it when really they 
have not. 

— Mating Buffs. — 

If it be a buff variety it is well 
to bear in mind that the tendency 
is for the chicks to be a shade 
lighter than their sire. Hence a 
bird a bit darker than desired for 
the exhibition pen may be quite 
the thing in the breeding pen. 
But do not make the mistake of 
mating extremes of color in buffs. 
If you do vou will not strike a 
happy medium between the two ; 



K00N00WARRA POULTRY YARDS. 



Barred Plymouth Rocks : 



Ckl, 1st and Sp. at Victoria P. & K. C. 
Show ; 1st and Medal Essendon Show, 
Vic; 1st and Sp. Adelaide P. & K. Cluh Show, 1911; Hens and Pullets, 
all winners, P. & K. C. Show, Adelaide, 19U : 1st, 2nd, and 3rd Pullet, 
March Royal Show. Good Utility, £1 Is 



Buff Orpingtons : 



Birds 1st and 2nd Ckl., 1st and 2nd Pullet, March 
Royal Show. Good sound color and healthy stock ; 
also good winter layers and splendid birds for Export trade. £1 Is. setting. 



Rhode Island Reds : 



America's leading utility birds, lately imported 
into Australia by me. 



UUhit o Plumnnth Rnnlre ■ Snow-white birdB, easy to breed and rear, 

wniie riymouin kocks . typical F „ mer s fow , J K0Od Winter 

and excellent Table Birds. 1st and 2nd Ckl., lit and 2nd Pullet, March 
Royal Show. £| Is. 

White nrninntnnc * Imported and prize-winning stock. Won 1st Ckl, 
mil ic uiumyiviis . lst puUet Roya , Snow> Adelaide September, 1910. 

1st, 2nd, and 3rd Ckl., lst and 2nd Pullet, March Royal Show. Great 
Winter Layers and good Table Birds. £| Is. setting. 

Pfikin Duekfi ' Never beaten in show pen. Four Firsts, 1 Second, 2 Sp 
' . at P & K . ciuh Show, Adelaide, 1911, out of five entries 
Two Firsts, 1 Second and Special at Royal A. & H. Show, Adeleide, Sept. 
1910, out of three entries. A limited number of Settings at £2 2s. 



1 am now booking orders for breeding pens. I mate my breeding pens in June and will supply egge for setting. 

Book early avoid dissapointmcnt. 



Could not supply all order* last season. 



Eggs securely packed and delivered on Rail or Coach (buyer pays carriage). Eggs All Stamped Kooooowarra. My Stodk won 23 prizes at Royal Show, March 2921' 
Terms : Cash with Order. I keep nothing but Al Stock. I cull heavily and breed only from the Best. 



P. O. MANUEL, Enfield, S.A. 



9 



Telephone : Central 273. 



July, 1912 



THE GARDEN AND FIELD. 



but your chicks will in all prob- 
ability be a badly discolored lot. 
Shaftiness, mealiness, and most 
other faidts. In blacks do not mate 
two birds of extremely brilliant 
metallic green. If you do your 
cockerels may have red hackles. 
In the sire one cannot have too 
much sheen ; but such a bird 
should have with him a dull black 
female. 

— Elating Parti-colored Varieties. — 

In the parti-colored varieties 
the need of individual selection and 
mating is even more intensified. 
Having a Light Brahma male for 
instance somewhat undersized per- 
haps but with good, clean, distinct 
lacing on hackle tail coverts, 
saddle, etc., and a hen large, 
strong, and good in her black one 

[can afford to dispense with the 
lacing in her. She will give 

[Brahma type and the cock impart 
the fine points of the breed to at 

rleast a fair proportion of their 
progeny. 

In short, all matings to be prac- 
tically successful in improving any 
variety, must be more or less on 
the compensation plan. " Two and 
Itwo " do not always " make four" 
in breeding poultry. And do not 
expect too many really high class 
chicks from anv mating. Do the 
best you can and there will ai- 
rways be a large number of culls. 
In the newer breeds this is pat- 
ocularly true. 

' After a long series of experi- 
ments as an amateur fancier aim- 
,ing at Standard excellence, the 
writer has learned that if he 
raises ten per cent of good show 
birds, he has done well. And yet 
there are found men who want a 
sitting of eggs for a couple of 
dollars and then " kick " because 
(every bird raised is not a winner. 
Such is life. 

Select vour breeders early ; do 
"Bo/t force them into laying soon ; 
mate them intelligently and if 
possible in pairs, and doing your 
.best you will not be altogether dis- 
appointed next year. 

♦ 

The first eggs laid by a pullet 
should never be incubated. 



WANTED TO SELL 



INCUBATORS AND BROODERS, 
Simplex, nwarded first price (silver 
medal) Adelaide Exhibition, 19)0. 
Agent for Cort's Patent Cooler-safe, 
• boon in summer. Send for price 
list.-D. IANY0N. Manufacturer, 48 
North Terrace, Kent Town. 6-12. 



Guinea Fowls. 



Although Guinea Fowls are not 
\ ltv popular, they axe not unpro- 
fitable birds to keep, since their 
llesh makes excellent eating and 
their eggs are rich and delicate. 
The meat resembles that of the 
pheasant, and forms a pleasing 
variety of food. The best way to 
secure a stock of Guineas is to 
procure sittings of eggs and set 
them, under Game! hens, or bant aims. 
The period required to hatch them 
out is twenty-six to twenty-seven 
days. 

When hatched, the chickens 
should be placed in roomy coops. 
Feed them frequently — for the hrst 
lew days once or even twice an 
nour is not too olten. The food 
should consist of a mixture of 
oatmeal, finely-chopped hard-boiled 
eggs, groats, millet, soaked bread, 
and pressed curds. After three or 
four days the eggs may be dis- 
continued, and their place supplied 
with ants' eggs, and as a change 
clean gentles. As green food there 
is notning to surpass young nettles 
and mustard and cress chopped 
very line. As they grow older a 
small quantity of cooked meat 
may occasionally be given to them. 

It will generally be found that 
cocks greatly preponderate in all 
broods of Guinea Fowls. Some 
times only one turns out to be ol 
the feminine gender from a brood 
of a dozen or more. However, the 
surplus males may be utilised for 
the table, and one cock and from 
two to four hens may be retained 
for stock purposes. 

Adult hens lay from seventy to 
ninety eggs during the season 
before evincing any inclination to 
broodiness, if one egg is always 
left in the nest. Care snould oe 
taken not to startle or disturb the 
Guinea hen while on the nest, or 
she will forth with seek a new and 
perhaps inaccessible spot wherein 
to deposit her eggs. 

The distinguishing point of the 
cock bird is that his wattles are 
longer than those of his mates ; 
also the cry is somewhat different, 
the female uttering the familiar 
,' Come back," while that of the 
male is a shrill shriek. The colour 
varies from a dark bluish grey to 
a lavender hue, while white Guine a 
Fowls are to be met with, and 
are very attractive looking birds. 
The eggs are of a coflee-and-milk 
shade, and pointed at one end. 

If kept in a paddock or large 
enclosure, with trees and shrubs 
and a few hiding-places, Guinea 



Fowls repay their owners remark- 
ably well, since they are very 
hardy and prolific. The feathers of 
one wing should be cut to prevent 
the birds Hying away until they 
ara thoroughly tamed and used to 
their domain. 

Stock birds may be fed on the 
ordinary poultry food, and those 
intended for table purposes should 
be kept for a short time in an 
enclosed space or loose-box, and 
very freely supplied with butter- 
milk, curds, lettuces, steeped oats, 
and chopped fat or suet— that is, 
if kept on a farm where such fat- 
producing materials are usually 
to be met with. But when kept 
by others whose resources are 
limited, the birds will fatten well 
on meal (oat and barley) mixed 
stiffly with house scraps. A small 
drinking fountain constantly re- 
plenished should be always within 
reach. 

If kindly and quietly treated 
these birds will become tame and 
greatly attached to their owners 
and feeders. They prefer roosting 
in trees to a poultry-house when 
the choice can be allowed. Their 
weight when fully grown is usually 
about three and a half pounds. 



For market birds, size and vigor 
are the chief requisites. 

It is suicidal policy to turn birds 
out on free range and let them 
" shift for themselves," if their 
owner expects to derive a profit 
from them. 

The contention that a breeder 
can best succeed with the variety 
that he has a strong fancy for is 
one that admits of no debate. 

Keep your layers vigorous and 
health)' a nd they will amply repay 
you for your trouble with abund- 
ance of eggs. 



Eqqs! Eqqs! 

Sittings from Heavy Laying 

White Leghorns 
Black Leghorns 
Black Orpingtons 
Silver Wyandottes 

15 Eggs to each setting. Guaranteed 
fertile or replaced. 10/6 per setting. 

T. E. YELLAND, 
S.A. Farmers' Co-Op. Union, Ltd. 



88 



THE GARDEN AND FIELD. 



July, Mil 



Helps to Beginners. 



PRACTICAL ADVICE TOR YOUNG 
1'OULTltYMEN. 

(By VV . H. Guyer, " Inland " Poultry 
Journal.) 

" Do real poultrymen ever smile ':" 

I hi tigs are not all dark in our busi- 
ness ; we are not always paying out 
tnoney if we have any tact at all in 
the work. ( hickens come home to 
roost, and money if wisely sj>ent in 
poultry will come bringing more with 
it at the proper time. 

The first year takes a lot of grit. 
It is money out all the while in the 
most of cases. You must buy your 
stock, incubator, brooders, feed of 
all kinds; then comes in the qfuestioii 
of buildings, which is no small item. 
The bills come in thick and fast, and 
you wonder if the tide is ever uum: 
to turn. But September comes and 
your chicks are now hustling big 
fellows, and you feel proud and more 
hopeful than ever before. October 
conies and letters are coming in each 
day, asking about the kind of stork 
you have and the prices. \ ou make 
reply to all these telling in every in- 
Stance just what you have and what 
you ask for them. In a few days a 
letter comes containing lOdol. for a 
pair of your own birds, and you are 
all smiles to-night. You linger in the 
poultry yards, you stoop down and 

stroke the glossy coats of your bi^r 
Dicks and Harrys, you give them a 
little extra feed, you eveta talk to 
them in a way that would make your 
wife smile or your neighbour roll and 

laugh were he to hear you. 

As you walk towards the house you 
feel like kicking yourself for even 
thinking of feeling blue over the busi- 
ness. 

You ship the birds and in a few 
days more your customer writes you 
that the birds came all O.K., and he 
is much pleased with them. You are 
more happy now thlan ever before, 
your smile is something colossal. 
You feel good towards everybody in 
the world, you would like to act right 
down and write a long letter to the 
editor of the poultry paper in wnich 



you placed your ad., calling him all 
sorts of endearing names. You rebuke 
yourself for even ever hinting that it 
was all poultry-keeper talk to run 
ads., or help the A.P.A. You recall 
the time when Joe Houzer's pup got 
among your pullets and tore some of 
the finest ones ere your wife knew it, 
and how you did down in your heart 
curse that pup und then condemn the 
whole poultry fraternity as a fake and 
many other things which would not 
look well in print. What a fool you 
were ! You read the letter over again 

to make sure it is lOdol., and not one 
dollar, with a cipher left off. "1 am 

right, it is a X." 

Dear beg.nner, this is not imagina- 
tion ; this is real life. A fellow has 
a right to smile when hp can raise 
and sell good stock ; he has a riyht 
to feci proud that he can raise stock 
that other people think are worth 
idol, or lOdol. each, lie has a right 
to thrust his thumbs under his 
shoulder braces and stalk through his 
yards with an air that makes him 
iord of all he surveys. And let me 
tell you that the more difficulties you 
have encountered aod overcome, the 
greater and more lasting will be your 
joy when once you have the green- 
backs tucked snugly in your wallet 
and your heart at ease l»eca'uso you 
have done right by the other fellow. 
Smiles are no longer grins, when you 
fil l that you have given your cus- 
tomer the best birds in the yards for 
the price asked. However often the 
temptation may come to do other 
t han the right thing, don't sell your 
birthright for a purse of silver. Your 
sins will find you out, and your smiles 
will be turned to tears, and you will 
return to your poultry yards the 
meanest feeling man under heaven. 

[here are joys in the poultry 
world, and 'you, beginner, have a 
right to your share of them. 

— Keeping at it. — 

It pays to stick to your business 
whether in the poultry business or 
in the grocery business. The enthu- 
siasm of some poultry beginners lasts 
but for a season, some stick to it for 
two years, while others hammer away 
five years, while others are at it for 
a lifetime. 

No man can make a success of a 
thing like poultry in one year. 



The " Comet " is the Incubator 
You should buy. 




for"you can rely on getting a good hatch, 
for broody hens, when £you can get eggs 
cheaply and without trouble. 

Call and inspect or write us — 



Why wait 
hatched so 



NORMAN & CO., 

BANK STREET, ADELAIDE. 



1 cannot tell you how imany letters 
I got this season from fellows who 
were " sick of their job," and offered 
1 1 ii 'ii buds at a great sacrifice. 1 
have tried to hud out the reason for 
such a state of affairs, and these aru 
some of them. 

First. They dom't count the cost. 
They count up the profits without 
counting the cost. Says one fellow: — 
" Mi. M — down yonder kept one 
hundred hens last year, and cleared 
two dollars on every tail of them." 
J his fellow in question went into it 
with ttie same end in view, but he 
was as ignorant ol a hen as an Indian 
of an automobile, and the result was 
he lost about all the feed he put into 
them and gave it up as a bad job, 
saving : " Them lousy hens did noth- 
ing but eat and eat and pick and 
pick." i he poultry business is not 
a gold mine where the nuggets are 
ly'iag along in rows like Bur/bank 
potatoes ! A man will put his money 
in the bank at four per cent, and 
when he puts it into a hen he expects 
twenty or even thirty per cent. I 
have no doubt some old timers make 
a big per cent, but what foolishness 
lor a beginner to expect such profits 
the lirst year. Bear beginner count 
the cost. 

Second. They have no definite aim 
in view. One fellow starts to raise 
poultry for the market and buys a 
lot of heavywiegnts, and by the time 
the \ ear is half gone he meets with a 
fancy breeder and hearing him tell of 
the ribbons won, the big prices he gets 
for eggs, he says, " What a fool I 
am ! Here 1 am raising hens for 10 
cent a pound and that fellow is sell- 
ing them for odol, lOdol, and 40dol, 
each. 1 get 30 cents a dozen for 
fresh eggs, and he gets odol. for every 
13. Good-bye, old heavyweight, give 
me a show bird." and immediately 
he sends hard-earned cash for a lot 
of show birds, having no idea what 
he wants or what he is getting or 
what to do with theim when he does 
get them. 

This is a day of specialising, and 
every young person ought to tak« 
such facts to heart. 

Third. Lack of attention to details 
The old poultryman knows that it is 
eternal vigilance that counts year in 
and year out. There are many enemies 
lurking in the way and these enemies, 
as a rule, are nor as big as elephants, 
hence you must keep your eyes open 
to see them. 

There are many other causes for 
such failures, but these are ever be- 
fore me as I investigate these matters. 

Young man, burn your bridges be- 
hind you. Go into it to succeed, and 
you will " I just knew I would fail, 
and I did." To be sure, he was half 
whipped the minute he entertained 
such an idea. I can, is what counts. 

Let not rats, cats dogs, shumks, 
mites, disease, things present or things 
to come put you out of the fight. 



July, 1912 



THE GARDEN AND FIELD. 



69 



Others have won, but through much 
tribulation, and you can, too. 

Pue these thoughts into deep spots 
in your gray matter, and you will 
tind yourself succeeding. 

— Poultry Houses. — 
The principal requisites for a good 
poultry house are the same whether 
the house is- for the city fancier or 
the poultry farmer, the small breeder 
or the breeder of hundreds. Whether 
we are breeding for fine feathers, eggs 
or meat, our foundation must be 
strong, healthy, vigorous stock, and 
to obtain and retain this health, 
sttength and vigour it is necessary to 
Lave suitable buildings. 

"Dry, draft-proof, clean, convenient" 
These four words should be the "hand- 
writing on the wall " to everyone who 
contemplates the erection or main- 
tenance of poultry home. The loca- 
tions and plans may be numerous and 
varied were the styles of speech in 
vogue at the Tower of Babel, but it 
either plan or locatiaji Cannot be made 
to meet these four requirements it 
had better be abandoned. 

A poultry house must be kept 
clean, consequently it should be ar- 
ranged as conveniently as possiole to 
admit of this being done without un- 
necessary labor. Another important 
point is this : A house may be 
arranged to carry its normal quota of 
fowls in good order through winter, 
but it will almost always become 
crowded during the tall when the 
young flock is maturing, and before 
the final culling and sales have dis- 
posed of the surplus. As at this 
season we generally have a great 
deal of wet, nasty weather, it usually 
follows that the beginning of winter, 
when it should be at its very best. 
To avokl this state of affairs, extra 
dropping boards and roosts should be 
provided, and extra care and labour 
expended to keep the house clean and 
free from vermin. 

When new houses are to be built 
the ground should be graded up, 
foundation laid, frame erected, and 
roai put on as early in the summer 
as possible, and if the floor ia to be 
of earth, it should then be filled in to 
the desired depth or a little more. 
Now sheathe the north wall, and if 
necessary the balance of the work can 
be left till fall, and even if not 
necessary, if is advisable, as it allows 
the interior to become thoroughly dry 
and sweet during the hot summer 
months. If it is necessary to com- 
plete the building at once, then all 
windaws and doors should be left off 
or wide open during the summer. 



Incubator Hints for the 
Month. 



Get machine ready for hatching. 

See that it is perfectly clean inside. 

Get a new burner if you have the 
slightest doubt of the old one. 

See that the spiders and mice have 
not built their homes in the flues or 
ventilation holes. 

Get a new wick. 

Put the incubator in a room in 
which you can keep the temperature 
as even as possible. 

A thoroughly ventilated, sweet 
cellar makes an ideal incubator room. 

Before you start hatching, get this 
clearly into your head : Am incubator 
won't hatch by itself it is merely a 
machine for you to hatch with. If 
you buy a spade, do you put it out 
in the garden in the evening and get 
up next morning to see how much 
ground it has dug ? 

An " incubator expert " is only a 
clean, methodical, time-giving man. 
If you are not an " expert " now, 
become one at once, or sell you 
incubator. 

Some men can't work a sausage 
machine successfully, and yet blame 
their incubator for a poor hatch. 

Can you honestly say that you have 
gone through the whole hatch with- 
out having shirked your attention 
upon a single occasion. 

.Moisture is only necessary to pre- 
vent the hot air from drying out the 
egg too much j you don't put moisture 
into the egg. 

When the salt on your table is damp 
there is no need for moisture in any 
make of incub\ator, and when it is dry 
there is. 

Moisture plays a very small part in 
incubator results, yet what a lot of 
talk we sometimes hear on the sub- 
ject. 

As a general rule moisture is never 
wanted in South Australia in the 
winter, and generally, if not always, 
during the summer, when your incuba- 
tor would be better having its holi- 
days. 

If voiir hatch is due on a warm day 
with a dry north wind blowing, then 
use moisture in the pan ; that won't 
be along just yet, though. 



C Q. SHEPPARD <Sc CO. 

If you wish to sell or purchase HOU SE, GARDEN, or FARM property 

consult us, and we will give you our best advice. No business no charge. 

C. Cm. SHEPPARD & CO., 20, CTJRRIE STREET. 

Telephone 3370. Opp. Savings Bank. 




An . . . 
Ideal 

Roofing 

Paint . . 



A Galranized-Iron Roof is the best 
conductor of heat, but the effect of the 
hot sun can so easily be overcome by 
the application of such a remarkable 
cooler as " KING'S COMPO." 

Easily applied. Cheat. Lasting. 
Large tins, 7/6. 

King & Co., Waymouth Street. 

And all Ironmongers and Colour Merchants. 



When it Rains Wear a 

9 



SLICKER 

TO KEEP YOU DRY 
AND COMFORTABLE 

Cheapest in the end 
because it 

WEARS LONGEST 

GUARANTEED 
Best dealers everywhere 

A. J. TOWER CO. , 

Melbourne-Sydney-Brisbane-Perth-Auckland 
Factory at Boston, U. S. A. 




If you have never worked an inuba,- 
tor, now is the time to buy one so 
that you may have one hatch to get 
you used to the work before the main 
hatching starts next month. 

Ifyou possess an incubator you have 
no excuse for late chicks. 

Start hatching the heavy breeds at 
once. Early hatched chicks bring in 
have no excuse for late chicks, 
disease and dissappointment. 

A breeder bought a 100-egg incube- 
tor and put in 50 eggs from his 
White T/eghorn pen and 50 eggs from 
J?rown Leghorn pen, and informed his 
friend. A little later his friend asked 
him what he thought of his machine. 
" No jolly good ; only got 45 per 
cent, hatch." " How maJny White 
Leghorns." " Oh, 40." " How many 
Brown's ?" " Five, of course." " Why, 
man, you got an 30 per cent, hatch 
with your white egr^s, and only 10 per 
cent, with your browns. Must have 
something wrong with that pen." 
" Never saw it in that light before." 
Now he looks inside the wire netting 
for the cause of a bad hatch. 

4 

Successful poultry raising and 
egg production go hand in hand 
with care and shelter. 



90 



THE GARDEN AND FIElvD. 



.luiy, 1912 



Colour ation in Relation to Egg 
Production. 



By A. S. Galbraith in "roukry." 

" Fine leathers make line birds," 
and sometimes denote line layers. 
01 all the external characters 
which have been drawn upon to 
guide us in selecting layers, colour 
has perhaps been least often 
emphasised as showing any marked 
variation in relation to reproduc- 
tive powers . Former experiences 
of my own having been so curious- 
ly conlirmcd by the records ol 
many ol the pens in last winter's 
laying competition, 1 have com- 
pared notes on the subject with 
some breeders ol wide experience, 
and find that their observations 
coincide with my own. 

In considering the laws affecting 
secondary characters, such as the 
plumage ol male birds, Professors 
Geddes and Thomson ascribe their 
brilliancy of colour to excessive 
energy which leads to the laying 
down of more pigment in the 
energy expending male. This vital 
energy being an inherent part of 
living things, permeating the 
whole being, one would naturally 
expect that the vitality that shows 
in the great reproductive powers 
of a good layer, would be evident 
in her plumage also. I have 
found that in many breeds coloura- 
tion does appear to be distinct- 
ly associated with reproductive 
powers. 

My attention was first drawn to 
this in the case of three broods 
which came into my possession. All 
were bred under conditions that 
w r ere not favourable to the develop- 
ment of great vigour, and as thev 
were not nearly hardy enough for 
my farm, the laying of the best 
was not record breaking ; but in 
each brood there was one very 



12 Poultry Papers for Is. 




THE AUSTRALIAN HEN 

AND FANCIERS' FRIEND 

is the generally acknowledge 
best Poultry & Fanciers' Paper 



in the Commonwealth. It is published 
twice a month and costs 5s. a year, post 
free. But to prove its value, we shall hend 
you 12 back numbers — a liberal poultry 
education— post free, for Is. Money back 
if you are not satisfied. Write to-day before 
they have all gone. 

The Australian Hen 

AND FANCIERS' FRIEND, 
756 GEORGE ST., SYDNEY, N.S.W. 



poorly coloured bird, who proved 
to be such a bad layer that all 
three were killed. When examined 
they were perlectly healthy, but 
the egg cluster consisted of only 
a few pin-head eggs, at a time 
when the others had been in full 
lay for months. They were Cam- 
pines, bull Orpingtons, and cross 
bull Orpingtons-Campines. 

From the best layers in each 
brood eggs were set, all crossed 
with a Scots Grey cock. This 
gave the required hardiness. Out 
ol thirty pullets kept, two were 
very poorly coloured. These had 
not commenced to lay in January, 
so they were killed, showing on 
examination, like those of the 
previous year, only the poorest 
cluster of undeveloped eggs. 
Since then I killed several birds 
who were poorly coloured, at six 
to eight mouths, and have always 
lound the same to be the case. 

Uf these cross-breds, the Scots 
Grey-Sdver Campine produced on 
the one hand birds with slatey- 
blue bodies and black heads, who 
were excellent layers ; and on the 
other birds with barred bodies and 
white heads who were moderate to 
poor layers. The latter produced 
all their eggs in sprang and 
summer, while the former laid 
fairly well in the winter. 

In speaking of a breed which is 
very similar to this cross, namely, 
the Braeckel, M. Vander Snickt 
mentioned at Heading those birds 
who, with grey bodies, barred, 
llowered or ashen grey, have 
white necks, a s being typical ; then 
he added, " Very often birds are 
seeu with a black head on a gold 
or silver neck. These are the 
best " This is precisely what I 
had found with the cross-bred 
pullets. The dark headed, more 
intensely coloured pullets, showed 
greater vitality, w\ere better lor- 
agers, better winter layers, and 
stood the inclemency of weather to 
which they were at all times ex- 
posed sleeping as all did in the 
trees, summer and winter. 

Among other breeds, in the 
meantime, I found that the light- 
est, that is the most poorlv colour- 
ed, of each brood were the poorest 
layers, and in some I noticed that 
the converse held. Thus, out of 
five silver Wyandottes one very 
darkly marked one was far the 
best layer, two somewhat light 
ones came next, while one nearly 
wliite on the breast, and with 



light Hull, was not worth keeping. 
I do not mean to imply by this 
that black birds are better layers 
than white. There appears to be 
in every breed a mean of coloura- 
tion which is the expression of 
mod'erate physical well-being and 
vitality, and in those which have 
come under my notioe, all diverg- 
ing from that point in the direc- 
tion of paleness of feather (not 
light colour, but poor colour), 
show a lessening of vitality, which 
is further borne out by poor re- 
productive powers ; while those 
div erging in the direction of great- 
er intensity of colour are marKcdly 
better layers. When we remember 
that colour implies rate of vibra- 
tion of light waves we can compre- 
hend why it may indicate greater 
or less vitality. 

On comparing notes with others 
I find that their experiences with 
most black and white breads have 
been the same. One breeder 
tells me that when he mated up 
two pens of Anconas, one with 
yellow legs and the other with 
mottled, the former produced 
hard leathered, dark birds, 
who were good layers, while 
the latter produced soft / feath- 
ered, light birds, which were 
poor layers. Among; the barred 
greys this also appears to hold 
good. In Scots Greys pure, the 
black headed cockerel with reddish 
hackles produces, not only the 
best coloured birds for show, but 
also the best layers. 

In cross-bred birds, as in newly- 
made breeds, another factor is apt 
to complicate matters. One can- 
not always tell whether departure 
from the normal colour is an ex- 
pression of individual vitality, or 
an out-cropping of colour from 
some particular ancestor of a dif- 
ferent colour altogether. But I 
have never known a poorly coloured 
bird, pure or crossed, who was a 
really good layer. Some of the 
pens in last winter's laying com- 
petition might almost have been 
made to order in support of this 
statement, notably the silver 
Wyandottes. One pen consisted of 
lour large handsome birds, very 
show) , decidedly light in colour 
and with brilliantly red combs. 
The other pen presented a great 
contrast. They were very dark, 
small and insignoficant at first 
with no combs noticeable on 
arrival. But they developed quick- 
ly, and proved excellent layer® 
once they made a commencement, 
while the brilliant beauties, al- 
though from one of the best of 
strains, steadily declined under the 
trying conditions, and proved to 



July, 1912. 



t»E GAJLDEN AND FIELD 



91 



5e no better layers than those of a 
lull, sooty black. 

Among white birds I have al- 
vays found that those ol a rich 
jpaque white were better layers 
;han those whose colour was of a 
hin bluish tinge, in this tact, i 
>elieve, lies the explanation of the 
food laying of the white Wyan- 
lotte, even when bred for show, 
n this instance the fancier has hit 
ipon a utility point as his ideal, 
he white colour he aims at being 
he external sign of those quali- 
ies which produce great layers 
Jo long as this remains one of 
is aims he can scarcely spoil the 
idute Wyandotte. Let us hope 
is fancy may never soar from 
ipaque creamy white to skim 
ailk blue. 

When we come to buff breeds of 
aodern make it more difficult to 
ietect the medium oi colour. With- 
nt exception, all those that I 
ave met with among Buff (Jrping- 
ons and buff Plymouth Rocks 
vho were decidedly light, of a 
>ale sandy tint, have been poor 
a.yers. But when the shade is so 
[ark that it becomes another 
olour, and is not buff, but "red" 
►r cinnamon brown, then we do 
lot find the birds to be the best 
ivers of the brood. But the con- 
usion of colour and names of 
olour among so-called buffs is so 
Teat that it is difficult to judge 
i what we hear, or even see. We 
an scarcely tell whether, in these 
ases, we are looking at density 
f pigmentation or alt a different 
igment altogether. I know of 
tiff Orpingtons which are an ob- 
sct lesson on the point of colour, 
"here are four pullets, who vary 
a tint from a light sandy colour 
j> a rich rufous shade, and during 
heir first few months laying they 
reduced eggs in exact accordance 
vith their colour. The lightest 
lid worst, the next in shade laid 
alf as many again, the next 
xactly double the first, and the 
jurth laid just an egg of two 
inder four times the number of the 
Vat. Many of the pens last year 
onfirmed my own previous notes 
n the buff breeds ; though in my 
ery limited experience I have ' not 
«en able to detect any marked 
ifference in the colour of moderate 
0 excellent buff Plymouth Rocks. 

Of all the external characters to 
Hrich we ascribe importance in 
be selection of stock for laying 
md breeding, I have found this 
me of intensity of colour the most 
elpful and most reliable. For in 
electing these birds we are choos- 
tg those with the greatest 
Og those with the greatest amount 



of vitality, hence the strongest 
constitutions. And I have found 
here, where the stock has to be 
the hardiest possible, as Professor 
Govvell found at the Maine Agri- 
cultural Station, that among ex- 
cellent lavers (even the derided 
" sprinter ") " one feature is com- 
mon to all these hens ; they all 
have strong constitions." 

$ 

Poultry Hints. 

" Breeding right and feeling 
right " ensures success in poultry 
raising. 

The essentials for profitable pro- 
duction are sound growth and con- 
stitutional vigour. 

Fresh air in the roosting houses 
is absolutely essential at all times. 

Uniformity in the size and col- 
our of eggs can be best secured by 
keeping, but a single variety of 
standard-bred fowls. 

A bright red comb is invariably 
an indication of healthy vigor. 

Experience is the first thing ne- 
cessary to success in poultry keep- 
ing. 

It is serious mistake to con- 
fine turkeys at night in ordinary 
poultry houses. Provide 'a roomy, 
well-ventilated shed for their use. 

Pav particular attention to your 
breeding birds and see that they 
are housed in proper quarters. 

Guard against rats in the chic- 
ken coops, or they will cause 
more damage in a single night 
than you can repair in a whole 
season. 

Cull drastically as imperfections 
assert themselves, and weed out 
all but the " top-notchers." 

Breeding for fancy points can be 
carried to an extreme. Utility fea- 
tures should be kept constantly 
in view. 

A certain amount of food is re- 
quired to keep fowls alive. An ad- 
ditional measure is necessary to 
secure a satisfactory egg yield. 

Fowls should be kept busy 
scratching — not to free themselves 
from vermin, but to find the where- 
withal 'to fill their \ crops. 

Oats and vVheat are as good all- 
round foods as can be given in 
the way of grain. 

Green cabbage leaves are excel- 
lent vegetable fodder for poultry. 



A single satisfactory breed of 
fowls is wjorth more ]to their own- 
er than a dozen different varieties. 

Never neglect the supply of grit. 
It is doubly important in the case 
of fowls confined to limited runs. 

Sour or mouldy foods should 
have no place in a successful poul- 
try raiser's programme. 



For Weak Nerves 

or Poor Appetite Take 

CLEMENTS TONIC 

Mr. Hufton only took three bottles and 
he is in perfect health t -day. 

Mr. Thomas Hufton, of Falls Street, 
Leichhardt, is well known and speaks 
greatly in favour of this splendid nerve 
and brain tonic, and recommends its use 
to those in ill-health suffering from 
weak nerves, poor appetite, general 
debility, or loss of Sleep. He writes, 
May 26th, 1911:— 

CLEMENTS TONIC LTD., 

" I promised to let you know 
the results after I had taken the 
Tonic. I have taken three bottles 
altogether, AND I AM IN 
PERFECT HEALTH. I could 
not be better. I shall always 
recommend it to anyone who is 
broken down in health as I was. 
I thank you again for your 
kindness. 
(Sgd.) THOMAS HUFTON." 

Here is a Second Tes- 
timony to this Medicine 
Motorists Should Read It 

Mr. Charles H. Smith, lately of Garratts 
Ltd., t e well known motor importing 
firm , writes from his Melbourne add ress, 
22 Gore Street, Fitzroy, Melbourne, 
June 28th 1911. 

CLEMENTS TONIC LTD., 

" Clements Tonic is of great 
value for keeping the nerves 
sound, the blood pure. Since I 
have been in Australia, especially 
when employed as demonstrator 
in Garratts Ltd. to give speed 
exhibitions with new and valuable 
cars, I found sound nerve 
necessary. 

' ' Clements Tonic is a splendid 
natural medicine, for it has kept 
me in good health since I was 
recommended to use it. Motorists 
should use it for the nerves. 
(Sgd.) CHARLES SMITH." 

There would not be so much ill-health, 
or so great a proportion of ailments as 
Insomnia or loss of sleep, Biliousness, 
Poor Appetite, Nervous and Sick Head- 
ache, Weak Nerves, Nervous Breakdown, 
Constipation, Indigestion, or Poor Blood, 
if this splendid tonic medicine were more 
largely used. ALL CHEMISTS AND 
STORKS SELL IT EVERYWHERE. 



91 



THE GARDEN AND FIELD. 



July, 1912 



Growing Pekin Ducks. 

DUCKS ARE QUICK GROWERS AND 
EASY TO RAISE. — A PLAN OF 
FEEDING AND PREPARATION EOR 
THE MARKET. 



By Mrs. A. M. Bush, in The New 
Zealand Poultry Journal. 

it is a reinarku bie lact lhat poultry- 
men do no l take the same interest in 
uuck.s that their importance deserves, 
Probably some breeders have Uad a 
lew duets in their yards at one time, 
"'just to give them a trial, and with- 
out taking into consideration the dit- 
lerenee in them to other varieties oi 
poultry, nave tound them a continual 
nuisance, as they greedily eat the 
whole allowance oi food from the 
expectant chickens and dab'ole in the 
drinking vessels, so they have to t>e 
constantly cleaned and replenished. 

With great injustice to the ducks, 
they have let such an experience aa 
this prejudice them forever against 
this class of poultry, while if tliey hai^ 
Ijegun right and kept each variety oy 
themselves they would have found thai 
the ducks are more easily raised, are 
not troubled by vermin, grow faster, 
ure ready for market sooner, command 
a better price per pound and are 
more easily confined than chickens. 
Alter a lair trial they might even 
give up chickens lor market ^as the 
writer has donej, keeping the hens 
principally for incubating ducks eg^s 
and supplying the table with ' fresh 
eggs- 

A most satisfactory fence is made 
with one inch mesh wire netting, 
eighteen inches wide, fastened on 
pointed sticks two leet long, which 
are driven in the ground the extra 
six inches. One roll of the netting. 
150 feet long will enclose a place 
large enough for seventy-five or one 
hundred ducklings. If possible these 
runs should be put on an alfalfa or 
clover held. In a few days the ducks 
will eat all the green stuff, when the 
neeting can be rolled up and stretched 
in a fresh place. This constant 
changing of their runs keeps their 
quarters clean, and consequently keeps 
them healthy t as the only disease 



lhat is at all troublesome to duokg 
here is what is known as abnormal 
liver. This trouble is caused by lilthy 
quarters, impure water, sour food and 
lack of grit. Knowing the causes, it 
is easy to avoid this trouble. Provide 
shelter from the hot sun. 

My plan of feeding is as followB : — 
\\ lien twenty four hours old the duck- 
lings are removed to the brooder and 
fed on the following mixture, Five 
parts of bread or cracker crumbs, and 
one part hard boiled eggs, with a 
little line grit added. The eggs fed 
are the infertile ones tested out at 
the end of the fifth day and kept m a 
cool place until they are used. After 
four or live days their food is a 
good mixture of bran, oats and 
corn chop, equal parts, with about 
live per cent beef scraps with 
some grit and soft green stuil added. 
This mixture, with the addition of 
more nueat and oil the chopped clover 
or alfalfa they will eat, is continued 
untU 'fattening time. It takes about 
two weeks to fatten ducks, when a 
great proport on of corn chop is used 
and very little green stuff. As the 
birds are apt to lose their appetites 
when so large a proportion of corn is 
used, mix in some charcoal and old 
plaster, pulverized. 

— Pure-bred Pekins for Market. — 

With such care they should weigh 
at ten or eleven weeks, ten pounds per 
pair if they belong to the .Pekin var- 
iety, woich has proved most profit- 
able in the hands of experienced 
breeders, being the quickest growing 
and presenting the most attractive 
carcass when dressed. Bes:des their 
attractiveness for market, which is a 
merchantable commodity they are 
delicious in flavour, no liner meat be- 
ing put upon one's table than a fat 
duck nicely roasted. 

Market ducks are usually scalded 
before picking. One breeder says that 
after beheading a fowl, he plunges it 
in a boiler of hot water, holding it 
under for about two minutes. 'The 
feathers are thus loosened by the 
steam and come off easily, the water 
not having penetrated to the skin. 
Ducks at the ordinary age, picked in 
this manner, are usually as easily 
dressed as chickens. The feathers are 
quite valuable, bringing from 2s to 



Music for Everybody. 

If you like Music and have never 
learnt to play, do not hestitate tol 

take lessons at once by the NEW j 
I'ATKNTED METHOD. 

Miss NELLIE LEAK guarantees to I 
teach any person to play in G weeks. 

You can become an expert 1'ianist 
without going through the drudgery I 
of learning ' the old style of music, j 
You btgin playing tunes right off. 

Tnis method has been thoroughly I 
tested, so there is no doubt about the 
success. Country districts visited if] 
sufficient number begin. 

Write for particulars and terms to j 
Miss N. LEAK, Albert Street, Good- I 

wood. 

All Classes of Music Published. 
Music for Pupils Transposed to Order 
from any favorite Song, Hymn, or 
Piece. 

Liverpool & London & Globe 

Insurance Company, Limited. 

CLAIMS PAID EXCEED £55,000,000. 
ASSETS EXCEED £11,500,000. 
All Descriptions of Insurances Undertaken 

at Lowest Current Kates. 
FIRE (including Haystacks and Growing 
Crops), ACCIDENT and DISEASE, Em- 
ployers' Liability and Workmen's Compensa- 
tion, Fidelity Guarantee, PL \.TE GLASS, 

Burglary, PUBLIC RISKS. 
Agents in all the Principal Country Towns. 



Chief Office fok South Aostkalia— 

36, Grenfell St., Adelaide 

Tom Steele, Acting Local Manager. 



3s ptr pound. Being pure white they 
command a good price and have a ; 
ready sale. The breeding ducks may 
be picked two or three times after the 
breeding season is over, but only / 
about every six weeks when the 
feathers are " ripe." 

The size of the mature Pekin duck 
is required by the standard to be'eight 
pounds for the male and seven pounds 
for the female. Those weights are re- 
quired for then?,, but there is no nec- 
essity to stop at that. We can ■with 



THE DIFFERENCE IS JUST THIS: WHEN YOU USE 

Burford's Prize INo. 1 Soap, 

Burford's No. Starch, 
Burford's Extract of Soap, 

YOU SAVE YOUR MONEY. 
WHEN YOU USE A SUBSTITUTE THE OTHER MAN SAVES YOUR MONEY. 



DON'T LET HIM HAVE IT. 



3> 
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►> 
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►>> 
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►> 



July, 1912 



THE GARDEN AND FIELD. 



93 



Editorial Notice*. 



AUENT3. — Messrs. ATKINSON & CO. 
id MESSRS. GOKDON & GOTCH, Ltd. 

The Editor will be pleased to receive 
irrespondence and answer questions, 
lese replies will, for the most part, be 
nt by mail, unless received just prior 
i date of publication. 

PUBLISHING DATE.— On the 2oth of 
.ch month preceding title date. 

DISCO.NTiN UAN L ES.- Responsible sub- 
ribers will continue to receive this 
urnal until we are notified by letter to 
■continue, when all arrears must be 
.id. 

SUBsSCKll'ilON.— Posted to any part 
Australasia 5/- per year, in advance, 
welgn, 6/. 

ADDRESS— 85. Currie St.. Adelaide, 
riephone, 1234. 



oper care make a quick growing 
rain of ducks weigh ten or eleven 
unds each and not lose in symmetry, 
tting- down to actual experience, 
have had some of my heaviest speci- 
ens score the highest. So it is to 
e interest of all breeders to select 
sir breeding stock carefullv, keeping 
ly the heavy, deep breasted and 
impact specimens, also having due 
gard for the exhibition reauire- 
;nts. Each year if one small flock 
kept, buy drakes of another strain 
i there will be no in breeding. 

Po those who hatch artificially 
rly maturity is particularly desir- 
le. Tn the matter of egg- prodction 
b Pekin duck is a close rival to the 
a, laying from 100 to 150 eggs in 
ison, the number of eggs depending 
tirely on the food and care given. 

ffany Deople have an idea that 
cks will only thrive where there is 
pond or water course. This has 
en found to be erroneous. Dishes 
lonld be so constructed thai the 
icklings mav drink freely without 
»ttin? wet. When they get older we 
id wooden buckets verv convenient 
linking vessels. If there is a pond 
r brook on the farm, so much bettpr 
ir the mature stock, as th°v are thus 
la to keen their plumage dean, 
ie lack of a water course should not 
'Apt anv one from entering the ranks 
I a duck raiser. 



<f> Pigeon Notes. 



When selecting birds for the show 
Bn it i«5 impossible to overhaul 
lem too carefully. 

To obtain stock strong in egg- 
roducing tendency, mate healthv, 
tying hens to males of similar 
lood lines, the progenv of heavy 
tyers. 

Thanks to well laid down svs- 
ans of selection, the loo egg hen 
jr. an almost immediate pos- 
Ibility. 

Every vear the demand for good 
onltrv is increasing and the' pro- 
ive section of the poultrv- 
commnnitv is realising, bet- 
iees for its stock. 



Pigeon Notes. 



Bv Carrier. 
The public outside the pigeon 
fancy often confuse the carrier 
with the homer but the fancy 
know now only too well that the 
carrier is only a stay at home 
to be looked at kind of a fellow 
hence their apparant desire not to 
tempt me awav from home. 
When asked at a meeting; of the 
S.A.C. and P. to write notes to 
this paper the idea was, that I 
should visit the various lofts and 
describe the birds met with. Carrier 
is quite prepared to visit when 
invited to do so, but not having 
the power of a Health Board he 
does not care to push m until the 
invitation comes along. It rather 
strikes me that having lately 
heard of so many burglaries pigeon 
men are loath to have carrier 
moving around. Still if they are 
anxious for any notes to appear 
thev must chance a bit and do 
their part. 



Victorian Notes. 



(By G.J.M). 



We have had our first show — 
the South Suburban, at the South 
Melbourne Town Hall. In fancv 
birds tkere was not a great entry, 
but the qnality was all that 
could be desired. The Homers 
were both a big and a strong lot. 
In Saddlebacks Messrs. Shee and 
Ingram divided the honours. In 
Magpie classes there was good 
competition between Messrs. Clarke, 
Searle, Courtenav, and Jackson. 
In Homers the chief winners were 
Messrs Cole, Mills, Whitehall, and 
Mack. 

I have the schedule of the North 
Suburban Show to hand. As 
usual the Brunswick Town Hall 
has been engaged, but, judging 
from last year and the boom in 
Pigeons over here, I do not think 
that they will be able to get their 
exhibits into the hall they used 
last year. 

As I have already mentioned in 
these notes, the Williamstown Club 
is allowing its Young Bird Cup to 
be competed for at this fixture. 
Besides this fact, the Society has 
put up a goodly list of specials on 
its account, so the event is likely 
to be some thing worth going a 



loag way to see. And we must 
not forget that the newly-formed 
Fantail Cliib has put up several 
prizes and specials — to say> nothing 
of a Rose — bowl for young bitds. 
On the whole I am looking forward 
with pleasurable expectation to 
the show 



Birds that keep clean in the 
wattle when feeding their young 
are generally all right inside ; but 
birds that go greasy on the beak 
and dirty in front must be 
watcheh, particularly if in addi- 
tion the plumage loses colour and 
sheen. 



WOODWARD & MEAD 

PIGEON SPECIALISTS, 
Have now some 1911 youngsters ready 
in 

MAGPIES, JACOBINS, HOMERS. 
NUNS. 
Price* to suit all purses. 

G. J. MEAD, 
" Chiltern," Sycamore Grove, 

BALACLAVA, Victoria. 




O.K. LOFTS. 

Have some real beauties to sell 

in TURBITS, BLONDINETTES, AFRI- 
CAN OWLS, NUNS and S. F. TUMB- 
LERS. 

These lofts have won CHAMPIONS 
at Sydney Royal, also CUPS, and 
MEDALS at S.A. Canary and Pigeon 
Show and a host of SPECIAL, FIRST 
and SECOND PRIZES. 

Prices from 5/- each. 
Apply— 

E. A. GROSSER, 
Hamilton. S.A 



Readers I Can you writeus 

XVOdAlCIO : something about 
your methods of breeding, reaping, 
and managing Live Stock ? Let 
as have it if it will only All the 
bsuifc of a Poet card. 



THE GARDEN AND FIEH.D. 



July, 1912. 



@ Home 



A Mother's Responsibility. 



M The most important question 
which concerns the mother is that 
of the nutrition of children. She 
must know how to care for and 
feed her child, not only that it 
tnaj not die, but that it shall 
grow and develop properly and 
reach its maturity with a sound 
mind in a sound body. The Care 
of the nervous System is second 
in importance only, to that of feed- 
ing. If anything" is done to im- 
prove the nerves of the rising 
generation, we must begin with 
the infants. Great harm is ha/bitu- 
ally done to the delicate and im- 
mature brain of the voung child 
by allowing undue excitement and 
by over-stimulating this orpin 
during this period of rapid growth. 
Parents must see to it that in 
this period the child is duly pro- 
tected, and that its surroundings 
are quiet and peaceful, so ss to 
allow a natural healthy develop- 
ment. Older children need especial 
watching during their school life, 
and particularly as puberty ap- 
proaches. The importance of a 
simple life for growing children 
cannot be over-estimated. The 
aim should be not to see how 
much school work a child can do 
and not break down utterly, or 
how much indigestible food he mav 
eat without having acute attacks 
of indigestion, but so to regulate 
the child's life that he shall reach 
maturity with a sound body, 
which shall give him the best 
chance in the struggle for existence. 
The mother's duty is to prevent 
sickness, not to cure it. The 
great causes which . carry off infants 
and young children are not the 
acute diseases such as pneumonia, 
scarlet fever, and diphtheria, but 
those conditions wihich lead to the 
impairment of nutrition to such a 



Notes. {§ 



degree that even the slightest 
acute ailment becomes dangerous 
or even fatal." 

<8> 

The Children's Teeth. 



If a child has a dirty face its 
parents are disturbed an 1 mortified 
but there are very many parents 
who view with c dm unconcern or 
else entirely ignore a far worse 
state of affairs inside the child's 
mouth. Wheth r thev think any- 
thing inside does not matter, or 
whether they do not notice, I do 
not kniow. One sees a. pretty child 
daintily dressed, with tidy hair 
and clean face. One thinks what 
an attractive child he 's <iq h» 
smiles ; then is exposed to view 
a double row of foul teeth, the 
edires pcrhaos, white, but the rest 
yellow, brown, or black, according 
to the stage of neglect. 

Why will Parents allow such a 
disfigurement ? Tt is nothing less. 
Such a set of teeth will spoil the 
prettiest face, and not only that, 
but must fill anyone the least 
sensitive with a feelinc of disgust 
and aversion. If parents are deaf 
to all that is said and written 
about the care of the teeth on 
account of the child's health, let 
them think of it from the point of 
view of looks and cleanliness. Of 
course it is hard for a busy mother 
to attend to little things like this, 
but if something must be neglected 
let it be the faces and hands, 
rather than the teeth. Thev will 
not suffer permanently, but if the 
teeth are neglected suffering and 
false teeth will be the result. 

The first teeth should be brushed 
after meals if the child's mouth is 
to look neat and well cared for 
Teach them that it is just as dis- 



graceful to have dirty teeth as it 
is to have dirt*- face and hands. 
If the halvit is formed early iti will 
be easier to care for the permanent 
teeth, which begin to come at the ' 
age of six. There are cases where 
there is some organic defect inl 
the teeth, and where no amount i 
of care an save them, but even 
when things are as bad as that I 
accumulations of food may 'beJ 
removed and the mouth will look 
a little better. There are many 
prep a rations for cleansing thel 
teeth, but white Castile soap andj 
precipitated chalk are cheap and! 
effective, being, besides, the basis : 
of mail}' of the tooth powders. 

<$> 

Doctors and Health. 

The general arrangement accord- 
ing to which the physician 
serves the public is one that 
is very largely at variance with : 
ordinary common sense and likely 
to defeat the very object being, 
sought. Ostensibly the medical, 
profession exists for the preserva- 
tion of the health of the public. 
In order for this object to be ob*< 
tained in its fullest measure, dis-, 
ease must be prevented to the, 
very (rreatest extent possible, and 
when it does break out it should; 
be given treatment. But the' 
emphasis should be laid — and very, 
very strongly — upon prevention.,- 
If the skill of the physician is to 
be rewarded by the most desirable 
results, he must not simply be 
active in the sick room, but he 
must devote much of his energy 
to matters of general sanitation 
and right living. A large part of 
oiir sickness is preventable, if only 
the skill of our doctors were di- 
rected in the riiyht angle. But by 
our own foolish arrangement of 
paving the physician only to curej 
and not to prevent, we make it 
financially unprofitable for him 
seriouslv to undertake the preven- 
tion of sickness. To effect health 
through causing people to live 
ri<rht1v is unprofitable, but to let 
disease spread a nd then treat sick 
folks brines in the dollars. It is 
to the credit of most doctors thai 
thev really do try to prevent the 
spread of disease ; but at the same 
time anyone can see that the sys- 
tem is wrong. Old customs are, 
hard to change, and we do not 
expect to see a revolution in thi^ 
one, but if there is in its consider-j 
ation a suggestion that may be 
easilv applied it is that our muni- 
cipalities and provincial govern- 
ments ought more largely to em-; 
plov our doctors to do preventive 
work in the way of giving public; 




That You ean Have Your 

Worn and Ditoarded 

SILVERWARE RE-PLATED 

and mad* to Look Liko Now by Seeding it to 

B. WALLiS, 

78, Flinders St., Adelaide. 

Coaehbuilder*' and Bieyole Buildorn' Niokel-Piating 
a Speciality. 



July, 1912 



THE GARDEN AND FIELD. 



95 



ddressts when epidemics threaten, 
1 inspecting schools more close- 
t and in probing into health 
roblems generally, rather than 

0 cause them to depend for their 
diole livelihood upon healing, 
■hich in its turn is so largely de- 
endent upon the spread of disease 
rought about by ignorance and 
Tong living. — Exchange. 

* 

Clothing. 

Too much clothing is quite as 
angerous as too little, but there 
re many people who, from lack of 
nowledge, imagine that bv wear- 
tg very heavv undergarments thev 
re rendering themselves proof 
jainst colds and sore throats, 
he great point to observe is to 
ress suitablv for all weathers, a 
line which is verv difficult to ac- 
>mplish some seasons, especially 
hen the temperature is changing 
rer>- dav. Doctors say that 
tanv, especially women, catch 
jld owine to neglect of the 
rtkles. How many think nothing 
f running over to a neighbour's 
ith the feet shod in iust the 
ippers thev happen to be wear- 
tg in the house at the moment, 
erhaps a pair of rubbers has been 
ipped on over the slippers to pro- 
set them and the soles of the 
et, but the ankles, what of them? 

It would seem that the ankles 
re verv sensitive to anv sudden 
ian<re from heat to cold, so thev 
lould be kept warm and dry. 

A strong healthy person, who is 
lit every dav in all sorts of 
'eather, and takes plentv of exer- 
9e is far less likely to take cold 
lan one who perhaps, owing to 
I-health, goes out seldom and 
ikes little or no exercise, simplv 
pause the svstem of the former 
winrr to it being in a heqlthv con- 
tion. is proof against the changes 

1 the temperature and the exer- 
•e keeps the circulation in good 
rder. 

A quick, brisk walker will re- 
trire far less clothing than one 
■o walks slowlv. 

Children out plaving in cold 
eather should be kept constantly 
tovinc as many colds are caught 
ironirh their trettine over-heated 
Bd then sitting down till cool 
W rested. 

With regard the throat do not 
mffle it up too much, neither ex- 
»»e it to all weathers with a 
tew to hardening it as some 
eople do. 



Keep the throat warm, not hot, 
by wearing a folded silk handker- 
chief under the jacket. 

Constant colds and sore throat 
undermine the system, therefore 
thev should be carefully guarded 
against as " only a cold " has 
often been the forerunner of some- 
thing very much more serious, 
which has left its mark on the 
patient for months and even years 
to. come. 

Clothing the bodv properlv and 
toning up the svstem are only pre- 
ventatives, but having caught a 
cold or sore 'throat let us see 
what can be done to relieve the 
sufferer. 

<S> 

Do You Know ? 



That a little ammonia in the 
water will help wonderfully with 
the family washing ? 

That creaking hinges should be 
rubbed with blacklead, soft soap, 
and a little machine oil ? 

That to clean all kinds of straw 
baskets, mats, etc., you may wash 
them in salt and water, and wipe 
them with a clean, dry cloth ? 

That when making common 
boiled starch sprinkle in a little 
powdered kitchen salt ? This will 
prent the starch sticking to the 
iron. 

Thzt the collars of dresses, 
coats, etc., may be cleaned by 
dissolving one part of common 
salt in four parts of alcohol, rub- 
bing it on gently with a small 
sponge, then wiping off with a 
dry soft rag ? 

That flat irons when new should 
be heated very slowlv or thev 
may crack ? When they have once 
been tempered in this way any 
amount of heat will not injure 
them ? 

That you may often get rid of 
black beetles, cockroaches, etc., bv 
mixing a little sugar with some 
finely powdered plaster of Paris 
and sprinkling about the hearth ? 

That all bed linen should be 
thoroughly aired before it is 
used ? 

Tkat sheets should he folded in 
paires, and kept on a shelf in a 
dry cupboard or closet ? 

That shelves are better than 
drawers or chests for linen, as 
thev -re not so likely to gather 
damp ? 

That you may remove mildew 
from linen by making a mixture of 
two parts starch finely powdered, 
one part common salt, and the 



juice of one lemon ? Apply with a 
brush to the spots, and let the 
article lie on the grass tor a 
couple of days and a night. Then 
w ash in the usual way. 



Take Enough Sleep. 

"A healthy infant sleeps most 
of the time during the first few 
weeks," savs the New York, "State 
Medical Journal," " and in the 
early vears people are disposed to 
let children sleep as they will. 
But from six or seven years old, 
when school begins, this sensible 
policy comes to an end, and sleep 
is put off persistently through all 
the vears on to manhood and 
womanhood. At the age of io or 
ii the rhild is allowed to sleep 
onlv eight or nine hours, whan its 
parents should insist on its hav- 
ing what it absolutely needs, 
which is io or n at least. Up to 
20 a youth needs nine hours sileep, 
and an adult should have eight. 
Insufficient sleep is one of the cry- 
ing evils of the day. The want of 
proper rest and normal conditions 
of the nervous system, and espe- 
cially the brain, produces a lament- 
able condition ; deterioration in 
both bodv and mind, and exhaus- 
tion, excitability, and intpllectual 
disorders are gradually taking the 
place of the love of work, general 
wellbeing, and the spirit of initia- 
tive." 



T. SHEPPARD 

WATCH IMPORTER. 
BOWMAN'S ARCADE, ADELAIDE. 

Sole Importer of the Famous 
Registered 

" Sheppo " Brand Watches. 

Silveroid Double-cased Keyless Chrono- 
meter LeverB, £1 10/-. Open Face, 
£1 5/-. Sheppo Double-cased Key- 
winders, £1 5/-. Open Face, £1 1/-. 
Sheppo Watches are Lifetime Watches, 
no others no good. 



TTNLEY PARK PRESERVED 
FRUITS & JAMS 

IOHAS. TERRY, Manufacturer). 

Made from loeallv grown fruit ol 
best selected quality. 

Every tin guaranteed. Pure and 
unadulterated. 
G *orekeer>ers supplied direct from the 
P^CTORY. TTNT.EY PARK, or from 
R F. DEANS, distributing Agent. 
Waymouth Street, Adelaide. 

fT WTLL PAY FRUIT GROWERS TO 
TRY UNT/EY PARK WHEN 
SELLING. 



• 



96 



THE GARDEN AND FIELD 



July, 1912 



Recipes and Hints. 



Orange and Lemon Marmalade.— 

A lady with a reputation for 
good housekeeping givies the fol- 
lowing recipe for orange, and 
lemon marmalade :— Take 6 sweet 
oranges and 7 lemons. Pare finely 
and soak in 5 quarts of water for 
12 hours. Boil until the skins are 
tender ; stand aside until next day, 
and boil with I2lbs. crvstal sugar. 

Bread Crust Pudding. — Crusts 
accumulate in many houses where 
people have not learned that thev 
are the sweetest and richest part 
of the loaf. The following is a 
good recipe for using them : — 
Soak the pieces of bread and 
crusts in sufficient milk (skim will 
do, but new is better) to well 
cover them. Place all in a large 
dish in oven, and leave until soft 
and sponivv. Then beat up with 
a fork, sprinkle with mixed spice, 
add sugar to taste, a liberal 
amount af raisins and currants. 
Beat all together, and place in 
buttered pie dishes and bake until 
solid and brown. This is a deK- 
cious luncheon pudding, espeeiallv 
cold. An egg or two added will 
make the pudding richer. 

To make crood starch take one 
cup of starch, and let it soak in 
two cups of cold water for two 
or three days before required. 
When wanted for use add one cup 
of boiling water, in which has 
been dissolved a small teaspoonful 
of borax. Take a lump of yellow 
soap, and rub into the starch un- 1 
till it lathers well. Starch at 
once. 

Sties on Children's Eyes. — The 
tiresome little gatherings on chil- 
dren's eye lids called sties mav 
often be checked by persistent 
bathing- with verv hot water di- 
rectly redness and swelling begin 
to show (taking great care to have 
no exposure to draughts or cold 
between bathing). This scatters 
the inflammation which causes the 
sty. Zinc ointment will usuallv 
check development, but not so 
safely. A child who is constantlv 
troubled in this wav is in weak 
health, and wants some siritable 
tonic or medical treatment. 

Rhubarb Telly.— This is best 
made when the rhubarb is well 
grown, towards the end of the 
rhubarb season. Wash the stalks 
but do not peel, as the pink skin 
gives an attractive tint to . the 
jellv. Cut the stalks into medium 
sized bits, never mind stringing 
them, and to each pound of fruit 
allow a cupful of water. Stew 



gentlv until a perfect pulp. Strain 
through a cheese cloth bag, and 
to each pint of juice allow a pound 
of granulated sugar. I^et the juice 
boil for about 20 minutes, add the 
sugar, and stir until the sugar is 
quite dissolved. When the syrup 
is thick turn into glasses and 
cover when cold. You have here 
a verv agreeable, pretty jellv, its 
pale pink tone being unusual and 
an ornament to any table. 

To Destroy Ants.— Half a pound 
of flour of brimstone and four 
ounces of potash, placed over the 
fire in an iron or earthen pan un- 
til dissolved and united, then 
beaten into powder, and a 
little of it infused in water. 
Wherever this is sprinkled the ants 
will die or leave the place. 

To Clean Bottles. — Cut a raw 
potato into small pieces, and put 
them into the bottle with one 
tablespoon salt and two table- 
spoons water. Shake well to- 
gether until every mark is re- 
moved. We know this is a good 
plan. 

To Remove Sunburn.— A little 
lemon juice put into a cup of milk, 
and then the face washed with the 
milk, is a complete remedv for 
sunburn, provided that it is not 
too severe. 

To Remove Tar from Cloth.— 
Rub the cloth well with turpentine 
and every trace of tar will be re- 
moved. 

To Cure Heartburn.— Eat a small 
piece of raw carrot ; it will give 
certain relief. Don't laiigh at its 
simplicity, but try it. 

Cement for Bottles and Jars. — 
One-third vellow beeswax and two- 
thirds finely powdered resin ; put 
ton-ether into a clean sauoepan 
and set near the fire to melt 
slowly. When all is melted re- 
move from the fire and stir in 
finelv powdered red brick dust un- 
til the mixture becomes the con- 
sistency of sealing wax ; then dip 
the corked jars in twice. 

Pickled Cabbage.— Chop the cab- 
bage. In the meanwhile, place on 
the fire a granite kettle half full 
of cider vinegar, and add one bag 
spices, and about one cup sugar to 



Schmidt & Catchlove 

106 Angas Street, Adelaide. 

GENERAL ENGINEERS. 

Makers of all classes of PUMPS. 
Specialists in Oil, Gas, and Petrol 
ENGINES. 

Repair Works and Tool Makers 
'Phone 3161. 



one quart vinegar. Let boil a 
moment, have chopped cabbage 
near at hand one side of you, the 
stone jar on the stove beside the 
kettle, place a small portion of the 
cabin-age in the kettle, let scald, 
remove to the jar, and put in fresh 
cabbage. A long-handled colander 
dipper is convenient for removing 
cabbage from kettle to jar, as the 
vinegar will then drain back into 
kettle. Fresh vinegar, sweetened 
and spiced, may be added when ne- 
cessary. When all is scalded pour 
the remaining hot vinegar over the 
cabbage, cover with an earthen 
plate and add a light weight to 
keep the cabbage under the 
vinegar. Try this. 



A Catechism. 



Is your . home beautiful ? 

Are the surroundings pretty ? 

Are they as good as those of 

any neighbor ? 

Are they as pretty as you could 
make them ? 

If not, why not ? 

Putting aside beauty — 

Are the rooms as clean and as 
tidy as those of anv of your 
neighbors. 

Are they well ventilated ? 

Are they kept well aired ? 

Are the nooks and corners, the 
ledges, and tops of shelves free 
from accumulations of dust ? 

If not, 1 whv not ? 



ADELAIDE SEWING MACHINE EXCHANGE. 

All makes Sewing Machines Stocked. Singers, almost new, £3 10/ ; Drop 
Heads, £4 10/- ; Wertheim's, £2. Other makes less, all guaranteed te« 
years. Terms arranged. Machines Bought. Repairs guaranteed for five 
years. 

23, Adelaide Arcade, and 1, Carria gton Street (Opp. King's Theatre). 



August, 1912 



97 



Carnation Breeding. 

In transferring the pollen, some 
use a magnifying glass, camel's 
lair brush and pair of tweezers. 
[ have never used either, until re- 
:entlv when I find it necessary to 
lse eye glasses. I do not believe 
n the method practiced by some 
n removing the petals of the 
lower when half developed, as I 
hink it injurious to the normal 
levelopment of the other import- 
ant parts erf the flower, so essen- 
:ial to success. My custom is to 
mitt the cajvx in three or four 
places, so that the petals can drop 
iown around the stem, thus 
eaving the pistil, stamens, an- 
thers and stigma fully exposed to 
ight and air. The stamens, can 
n this wav be easilv removed be- 
tween the thumb and finger (fore 
Hneer) with the anthers and pol- 
len intact, and transmitted as de- 
sired. 

In using the camel's hair brush 
ior convevinp- the pollen there is 
ianger of getting- it mixed, as it 
s difficult to clean the brush, be- 
fore using on a different cross, 
in crossing, one should alwavs 
iave a definite object in view — an 
deal to work up to. Keep in 
nind the very best of the various 
tvpes now in existence — also their 
iefects, then go to work with a 



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HINTJLEY STREET. 



CHARLES nONES, Proprietor 
(Late of Theatre Royal Hotel). 

Good accommodation for Countrv 
♦isitorH. Tariff, 25/- per week ; 4/6 
per day. 
Beds, 1/6 per night. Meals 1/- 



F URNITURE ! 



Why pay high prices ? 

Buy from thoae who make it and sell 
from workshop to public direct. 

RENOVATIONS A SPECIALITY. 
Write, call, or 'phone— Central, 2403, ; 
Furniture Manufacturer*. 

Borthwick Reid & Harper, 

OAWLEB PLACE. 
(Between Flinders and Wakefield Sts.) 



determination to excel. The first 
requisite and one to be always 
kejrt in mind is a healthy, vigor 
ous constitution, that means dis- 
ease resisting ; next comes color, 
alwavs indispensable, for no mat- 
ter if all other points have been 
obtained and the color is undesir- 
able, the plant is only good fur 
re-crossing, because of its desir- 
able habits , then one must work 
for the necessary stem and strong 
calyx to hold the flower erect ; 
size, form, s ibstance and last but 
not least fragrance, must all be 
considered — fragrance I regard as 
indispensable. 

— Applying the Pollen. — 
One must study the various 

varieties to be used, and fine judg- 
ment is sometimes required to 
know when the flowers have 
reached the proper stage for the 
experiment. In some varieties the 
pollen is perfectlv ripe and ready 
for use as soon as the flower ex- 
pands, while in others it does not 
appear for several days after the 
bloom develops. On the ends of 
the stamens are the anthers, 
which, when they burst, produce 
the pollen. When ripe it is in the 
form of a powder. The stigma is 
the part to which the pollen is 
applied and as it reaches the pro- 
per stage for fertilization the 
upper surface assumes a rough, 
hairv appearance. It is now 
ready for crossing, and upon this 
surface the pollen should be 
spread, being careful that it is 
rronerlv ripe and dry, when it will 
be seen to adhere easily. If fer- 
tilization has taken place, the 
petals of the flower will wilt and 
fade within from one to two days, 
and often in a few hours, which is 
a sure indication that the opera- 
tion has been a success. 

— Gathering the Seed. — 

The seed pods should be picked 
with four to six inches of stem 
attached, carefully wrapped in 
paper, or enclosed in envelopes and 
allowed to drv thoroughly. This 
usually req uires about two weeks. 
The seed should then be carefully 
removed and planted at once. 

Flats thoroughly drained with a 
layer of one to two inches of 
ashes, over which a like quantity 
of sifted loam of a light sandy 
nature has been spread, makes an 
ideal compost. Level off carefully, 
press moderately firm, sow in 
rows one to two inches apart and 
%inch deep, which can be made by 
pressing a narrow strip of wood 
into the soil, cover carefully with 
about VAnch soil, water with a 
fine sprinkler and place upon a 
shell in a light situation otit of 
the reach of mice, which are ex- 



tremely fond of carnation seeds — 
one mouse, if he " gets busy " will 
destroy hundreds of seeds in a 
night. This happened to me one 
season when I had sown the seeds 
in 4-inch pots, which were placed 
on a bench, and I had omitted to 
cover them with a sheet of glass, 
as was my custom then. I lost 
almost an entire season's seeds by 
my neglect in one night, and I 
confess I did not feel very kindly 
toward that mouse next morning. 

— Care of the Seedlings. — 

Great care should be taken to 
keep the soil moderately moist. 
If the sun is warm a paper 
should be spread over the flats 
during the day, and removed to- 
wards evening. This prevents 
too rapid evaporation. The seed 
will usually germinate in from 
four to ten days, when all 
shading should be removed, and 
the flats kept in a light airy posi- 
tion free of draughts. It requires 
good judgment in watering to pre- 
vent damping off by excess of 
moisture, or injury by becoming 
too dry. When the seedlings 
have developed their second leaves, 
thev should be transplanted into 
small pots or flats ; I prefer the 
latter as there is less danger of a 
check by becoming too dry. They 
should be kept in a light, airy 
position to insure a compact 
growth. Plant out in rows simi- 
lar to general varieties. Those 
making a compact, bushy growth 
should not be stopped back but 
allowed to bloom, and determine 
whether it is worthy of a further 
test. Those inclined to run up 
with a single stein and no side 
growths should have the centres 
pinched out, so as to induce a 
bushv growth, so valuable later, 
should the variety prove an 
acquisition. The idea of encour- 
aging the seedlings to bloom early 
is to be able to select from the 
field those worthy of further 
trial. 



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Tom Steele, Acting Local Manager. 



98 



THE OA«i>T5N AND FIELD. 



Notes on Planting Roses. 



The Rose is partial (o soil that 
may be classed as *tilT that is to 
say, it approaches clay, and is not 
so loose and powdery as what is 
called a sandy loam. Hut very few 
of us can afford the expense of chang- 
ing our soil, so the tiext best thine- 
lias to be done— to imorove it as 
much as we can. and thus make the 
best of what Providence has given us. 

Dip out the soil for a snacc of 
two feet square and place it on one 
side. The with the fork, or. if 
necessary the pick, break up a lower 
layer of soil to a depth of twelve 
inches. This should privfl a tot >1 duith 
to the hole of from eighteen inches to 
two feet. Before returning the soil 
which was pat aside, place in the 
bottom a shovelful of the most anci'nt 
arid rottenest manure you can ge*. 
Cnw anil sheep manure are excellent 
for th ; s purpose, but if vou ce-'i 
possibly secure a load of rott'-n nig 
manure do not let the chance slin bv. 
for T think that that particular brand 
of manure is absolutely the best. 
Rut nicr manure is very difficult to 
get, and so is sheen, so one has 
generally to be content with cow or 
stable. To return, stir and stir 
again the manure with the soil and 
then return that which was taken out 
in the beginning'. 

T am verv fond of mixing with this 
top layer a proportion of the sifted 
earth obtained from the eompost 
heap. This is esneeiallv useful if you 
have bpen in the habit of occasiona'b- 
watering your comrost h°ao wHh 
linuid manure — a verv us°ful cus'om. 
and one that materially increases its 
value. * Let not vo ir spirit tire, but 
prepare every hoi? carefullv. fh e la 1 ;' 
as the first, even if you ar > nnH : n 
in a hundred — believe me, vol will be 
amply repaid in comint seasons. 

Tn a week's time turn the oround 
o' T »r again with the fork, and in an- 
other week's time repeat the o"era- 
tion. Don't be in too great a hurry 



to plant. Its ;l pood adage, " Hasten 
slowly," and no more solid advice 
can be given than to have the soil 
properly prepared before attempt : n • 
any planting. 

Rose plants must be kept out of the 
ground as short a time as possible, 
and until they are planted should le 
" heeled " in on the s >nth side of a 
wall or hadge and a wet wheat sack 
throwTi over their foliage. By " he"l- 
ing in " is meant scooping out a 
shallow hole in the ground [ar 
enough to eonta : n all the roots, and 
covering thm with t.h,i>e or four 
inches of soil, which should be 
watered in so that it will keep the 
air from the roots. 

— Pruning. — 

Young as they are and small as 
some of them will be, th'v will all 
require the knife or secciteurs nP'died 
tn them. Attend to the roots first. 
Cut out all unrioen d wood n"d 
shorten back the main liranches to 
five or aix beds, cutting to one point- 
ing outwards. The mnin br'«n-h"s 
l"ff should, if possible, be in such 
'positions as to f«rm a symmetrical 
head wlrn the bush PTOWB. When the 
ton is nruri'd. attend to t^e roots. 
Numbers of these will lv<ve been 
bruised, cut and in ;, i red when th™- 
were duir out of the nursery, and 
Ih -se without exception should be re- 
moved with a straight, clean cut 
immediatelv above the inairy — that 
is to sav, between the injury to the 
root and the stem of the nlant. Se<> 
that th° cut is made slantwavs and 
so that the surface fac -s down-w a'"ds. 

TTave prepared beforehand a keros'n ■ 
tin containing a mixture of water 
and earth ; n such r»-ooort'°ons that 
the earth has been concerted into a 
somewhat watery mud. Into this 
mud rlip the ro 0 ts of the "Rose, thus 
giving them a coating which will 
effectively- exclude the air from them — 
a noint that will materially heln them 
to take root in their new position. 
This done, place the Rose in the 
e^n+re of th<> hol°. and as dee", or 
oerhans a trifle deeper, sav en inch 
or two, than it was originally. 



Arrange each root separately so 
that it points straight outwards, and 
is incline! downwards, so .that when 
all are done they resemble the spokes 
of a wheel. A trowelful of sifted 
loam, prepared for the purpose before- 
hand, placed on each root as it is 
arranged in position, will retain it 
in its position whilst vou are doing 
th« others. This done satisfac- 
torily, return the soil until the hole 
is half full, then with the fo«t,. press 
the soil firmly down. As each Rose 
is planted give it a can of water, but 
do not fill th» rest of the soil in*o 
•he hole for quite an hour. 

— Herbaceous Perennials. — 
There is no doubt that, although 
annuals (flowers that bloom the first 
war and then die) give the nuickest 
and gavest return, they entail a great 
deal of lalior and attention more 
than most men in business can give 
them. What with the sowing of the 
seed, its successful raising, nricklin" 
it out, transplanting into beds, and 
then after flowering the clearing up 
of the old and the replanting of new. 
the work is evezlastin?. For the man 
who has not the time for all this the 
h-rbaeeous perennial will suit his 
purpose better. 

Bv herbaceous perennial is meant 
" plants which produce stems annu n '- 
Iv from a perennial root." Of this 
character are the following: — Phlox 
f Perennial) , Michaelmas Daisips Cycla- 
men. Lilies, Polyanthus, Primroses, 
Sobdago. Anemone iaponica. MusV 
Rudheckia (golden glow). Perennial 
Sunflowers, TroDoeolum Pentaphyllum, 
Delphinium. Paisv, Ranunculus, peren- 
nial Gaillardia, Arum Ti'li -s, Amii'egia 
Columbines), Ascleoias incarnata. 
Tritoma uvaria grandiflora, and 
Tuberoses. 

Prom this bst a garden may be set 
out which will last years, the work 
of the gardener consisting in diggino-. 
hoeing, weeding, manuring, and, with 
some of the plants mentioned, stak- 
ing and trying. Sometimes it will 
be fou'nd that some of the plants mav 
be spreading too far and taking up 



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The Largest and Best Stock of Roses in the Commonwealth. 

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A large stock of all the BEST NEW VARIETIES. 

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A Large Stock of SHRUBS, CLIMBERS, FRUIT TREES, FERNS, ZONALE PELARGONIUMS, 
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SEEDLING ANNUALS for present planting 2s. per 100, assorted ; 2s. 6d., post free. 



H. KEMP, Unley Park Nursery, ADELAIDE, S.A. 

Telephone, 1282. 



August, 1912 



THE GARDEN AND FIELD. 



9S 



more than its share of the bed. This 
will apply more especially to the 
Sunflowers. When this occurs, the 
gardener has only to raise the offend- 
ing root, divide it up into smaller 
portions, replant one, and throw th^ 
others on' the rubbish heap. 

— Propagation by Seed. — 
The following may be raised from 
seed :— Delphinium, Michaelmas Dasies, 
Lilies, Cyclamen, Ranunculus, Ane- 
mone, Musk, Dasies, Polvanthjus, Prim- 
roses, Perennial Phlox, Gailardias. 
The seed of the Delphinium may be 
put in now. Get the best. Don't 
keep it, plant it as soon as you get 
it. Its a poor seed to germinate if 
it is at all old. Sow in boxes and 
cover an eighth of an inch with sifted 
stable manure. When seedlings have 
four leaves, prick out into pots. 
Transplant during the wanner weather 
of Rent~»»»b - : n "-o-itions in the bed. 
They "r "rwe.s of everv shade of 
blue, and thrive eciually well on the 
hot Adelaide plains or the cooler 
temperatures of the h'TIs. south, and 
south-east. A bed of these se^n in 
full flower will be never forgotten ; 
they are so beautiful. 

Polyanthus. Primroses, Ranunculus, 
Anemone, and Oaillardias are all so 
easily raised from seed that it will 
suffice to say that the soil should be 
well drained and sandy, the seed 
covered according to their size — that 
is, the larger the seed the deeper vou 
must cover them, and keep watered, 
but not sodden. 

— Propagation by Division of Root. — 
They are all except the Cyclamen 
Panupculns, Anemone, increased bv 
the cutting uo of the root. This is 
best done with a stroncr and sharn 
prunm? knife. Each part must he so 
cut that it has roots adhering to it. 
Sometimes it is advisable as with the 
Polvan'hus Primroses, to nlant th'se 
divided nortions into a nursery bed 
first, and afterwards, when thev have 
p-ained size and strength, transplant 
thorn out. 

— Planting. — 
The arrangement of the plants is cf 
importance. How ridiculous it is to 
see. as we very often do. some dwarf 
growing nlant like the Polvanthus or 
:he Violet, nlantfd in th" middle of 
the bed, whilst the edge n-iar the foot 
path is occupifd by some t ill-growing 
thing like the Sunflower. The front 



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Established 1880. 



GEORGE LANDERS, 

Wholesale and Retail Saddler, 
251 & 253 RUNOLB STREET EBST. 

nDBLniOB, s.a. 

New Market, opposite Enrrlish and Scottish Bank 
and at No. 11 Ohappel Street, Norwood. 

If ANUF acturer of alt, kinds of leather 

GOODS. 

Harners, Saddlery, and Vehicles of every description. 
Plain and Fancy Leather Goods Stocked aod to Order. 
Se«ond-hand Harness and Vehiolea Bought, Sold, 

or Exchanged for Naw. 
All Orders and Repairs executed with dispatch. 
AH our Unas can be hired by tbs day or by the week 

at lowest rates 
A LARGE STOCK OF VEHICLES ALWAYS ON 
HAND. 

Hones aod Poniee for sale (with trial* 



of the bed, the part bordering G n the 
path, should be filled willi specimens 
of Polyanthus, Primroses, Cyclamens, 
Freesias, Hyacinths, Ranunculus, Ane- 
mone, Perennial Daisy, behind these 
will ]ie planted Gailardias, Anemone 
• Japonica, Tul>eroses, Perennial Phlox, 
Aquilegia. and behind these again Del- 
phiniums, Redbeckia, Arum Tillies. 
Michaelmas Daisies, Sunflowers, and 
that prettv little creeper, Tropoeolum 
Pentaohvllum. For this last a post, 
four or five feet high and having some 
wire netting wrapped round it, should 
be provided. It is one of the pretti- 
est little things imaginable, and will 
quickly cover the post. Later on, 
when it is covered with its curiouslv 
shaped and quaintly coloured flowers, 
it becomes quite a feature of the 
garden. 



Flowers and Foliage. 

" Why Trees Bloom Before They 
Make Theit Leaves " is the title of an 
interesting article in the " Christ- 
church Weekly Press," by " Hortus," 
and old correspondent of "The Aus- 
tralasian." He says the above is a 
pertinent question, and deserves a 
satisfactory answer. Just consider 
for a moment what flowering means 
to a plant, and what purpose it 
serves. The displav of (lowers which 
everywhere abounds in spring, both 
in flower and fruit garden, particu- 
larly in the latter, is a manifesta- 
tion of accumulated energy gathered 
up during last summer and autumn. 
During these busy growing months 
the banking accounts of these plants 
and trees was being added to and 
stored up with definite purpose of jiv- 
ing a wealth of bloom in the spring. 
And what purpose has this wealth of 
bloom in the plant's economy ? Just 
for that great design in Nature, viz., 
the perpetuation of the species by the 
bearing of fruit and seeds from which 
new plants will arise. We see, then, 
that the flowers of the present time 
are but manifestation of works done 
previously, and the flowering is but 
a continuance of the whole design. 
This work, however makes a con- 
siderable strain on the plant's enero- - 
and for it to take on the production 
of leaves at the same time would be 
but to make the strain greater. We 
at once see the; wisdom, of putting off 
the affoliation till after the flowering 
period of the plant, and the wisdom 
of Nature in the distribut ion of energ'' 
over a necessary lengthened period. 
But another important fact is worth 
noting — should many of these trees 
and plants have energy enough and to 
spare, so that the flowering period 
and the clothing with foiliage could 
go on at • the aaire time, this would 
not be advantageous, but would re- 
sult, in much loss of fruit and seed, 
owing to the fact that many of the 
flowers would be hidden bv the 
foliage, and so escape the visits of 
insects and the influence of the 
zephvrs which carrv the pollen, and 
thus miss pollenation, which is the 
essential factor in seed and fruit bear- 
ing. Speaking generally, it will be 
noticed that distribution of energy has 




t f f 

• • • 

HOUSES ! 

GARDENS ! 

FA RMS ! 



[f you want a House, Farm or 
Garden satisfaction will be guar 
anteed if you consult 

H. M. CHARL/CK, 

LAND & ESTATE AGENT. 



an important bearing on the question. 
This will be seen in the case of the 
evergreen shrubs, which almost in all 
cases make the growth at one sea=on 
of tin' year, and display their flowers 
at an other. The rhodadendron. 
camellia daphne, health, and Indian 
azalea are all examples. Among the 
bulqs, cochicums, nerines, belladonna 
lilies, etc., all of which are objected 
to by many people owing to their 
nakeness in the flowering sea 1 on, all 
prove how true the principle is. 

® 



Cattleya Citrina. 

Cattlpya citrina, or "' the Tulip 
Orchard." as it is often called, is 
quite distinct. Its beautiful lemon, 
sweet scented, waxy flowers as well as 
their peculiar habit of growing down- 
ward always attract attention. The 
best place to grow this cattleya in is 
a cool, airy house, such as one would 
grow primulas, cinerarias, azaleas and 
like plants in. In a house of this 
kind, Cattleya citrma will invariablv 
do well. It can be grown either in 
small pans or on blocks of wood 
with a little osrnunda fibre atteched 
to the block to which the plant is 
fastened with copper wire until the 
roots take hold of the block. 

The plants require very little water 
at any time of the year* but enjoy a 
cool moist atmosphere at all timjes. 
An occasional dip in weak liquid 
manure wafer will help to build up 
strong pseudo J bulbs and consequents 
a g'ood crop of flowers. Most orchids 
will go back after a few years of 
cultivation if they do not get the 
propei- care and food and this we can 
not always give them because we do 
not know what their particular re- 
quirements are ; but once in a while 
we hit upon the right course of treat- 
ment for certain species, be it ac- 
cidental or through experimenting and 
then the plants will go ahead and 
grow as well or nearly 30 as they did 
in their native home. —Horticulture. 



PaaHprc I Can you writ * us 

IlCdUCI a ■ something about 
your methods of breeding, rearing, 
and managing Live Stock ? Let 
us have it if it will only fill the 
baok of a Pttt card 



100 

Rose Pruning. 



— Object of Priming. — 

The main object of pruning is 
to gradually change old and worn- 
out wood, to direct and regulate 
a properly balanced supply of sap 
throughout the plant, and to form 
a symmetrical head, producing a 
quantity of line, well-formed 
blooms, evenly distributed above 
the foliage. 

— Dwarfs and Own Rooters. — 

In order to obtain this end it 
is necessary to commence on the 
young plants. In choosing the 
roses from the nursery, always se- 
lect healthy, well rooted, clean 
and up-tight growing specimens, 
Having secured such, the most im- 
portant step is to cut them back. 
The removal from the nursery 
destroys the greater portion of the 
roots, therefore the top should be 
reduced accordingly. The grower 
who neglects to do this, instead of 
having his vounj plants pushing 
out three or four strong shoots, 
which would produce some good 
blooms, will only grow a lot of 
weaklv twijrs, which will oiilv han- 
dicap their future well-doing. 

Having the roses thus properly 
started, I would let them bloom. 
I hold that these first flowers will 
not injure the plants at all, pro- 
vided that they are cut away as 
soon as they commence to fade 
and so prevent the formation of 
seed. The blooms should always 



THE GARDEN AND FIELD. 

be cut back to a healthy " rye," 
which, in its turn, should produce 
another flower. 

— Suppress Water Shoots. — 

Meanwhile, if the roses have 
Been planted in a good position, 
and particular attention given to 
draining, trenching, and manuring, 
some strong shoots from the base 
should begin to make their ap- 
pearance. These generally grow 
fast, and carry a lot of flower 
buds, which are seldom any good. 
These shoots ^re a great strain on 
the plants, and only those which 
are necessary to form the future 
head of the rose should be re- 
tained ; the others should be taken 
clean out of their " sockets." By 
the end of February, when summer 
pruning takes place, the retained 
shoots may be cut back to a good 
" eve." Bv such treatment those 
glorious autumn blooms, so dear 
to rosarians, will be produced: 

— Winter Pruning. — 

Bv following the above direc- 
tions in the principle, even if not 
to the letter, when the winter 
overhaul takes place, the operation 
of pruning will be greatly facili- 
tated and the shock to the roses 
considerably lessened. The best 
wav to proceed is to select the 
branches which are to be re- 
tained. I think three branches, 
starting from the base, are prefer- 
able to four, and four to five. 
Care should be taken to select 
well-rim ned shoots, vet not too 
old and hard. These shoots should 



August, 1912 



he as near as possible evenly dis- 
tributed around the plant ; ' then 
cut awav all the rest, and shorten 
tlie selected shoots bv about two- 
thirds of their length to a healthy 
" eye," pointing towards a clear 
space. Sometimes it happens 
that one of the selected branches 
lot be ripe enouo-h. In such 
case it is preferable not to cut it 
until it is properly matured, as I 
convinced that unripe shoots when 
cut back only produce weak 
growth and no flowers. 

— Climbing Roses. — 

The pruning of climbing roses is 
a more (.(implicated work. It all 
depends for what purpose they 
are to be trained. As a rule, they 
bear Bowers on the shoots of the 
previous season, which ought to 
be retained. If the climbers are 
grown on a wall or fence these 
shoots should be lightly shortened 
and neatly tied, fan-like, always 
placing the strongest horizontally 
and the weakest vertically. Three 
canes would be suflic?nt for a 
voting plant, say, two years old. 
Four, five, or six could be retained 
as the climbers became older and 
stronger. 

If trained on pillars or arches 
only, two or three strong canes 
should be allowed to grow. These 
would soon break into laterals, 
which should be cut back more or 
less at the grower's discretion. 

Where plenty of garden room is 
available climbing roses could be 
(rrown as bushes, many varieties 
being; suitable for the purpose. 
These should be treated a s ordin- 
ary dwarfs, any strong growth 
could be shortened at pleasure, so 
as to keep the bushes sym- 
metrical. 

— Pegging Down. — 
Perhaps the most fascinating 

way of growing climbing roses is 
to peg down the long canes on the 
lawn. A clever gardener could 
!>ive them any shape desired. Un- 
forttmatelv, very few of us have 
lawns suitable for the purpose. 

To obtain extra fine blooms 
from hybrid perpetuals hard prun- 
ing is absolutely indispensable ; 
but teas, hybrid teas, and noisettes 
should never be pruned too hard, 
as, from experience, I can safely 
sav that over-pruned tea roses, 
although producing larger blooms 
thev are apt to be coarse and dis- 
colored. 

The tools recptired for pruning 
are a pair of seccateurs, a thin 
flexible saw, and a good knife. 
These tools should be of the high- 
est quality obtainable, and should 
always be kept sharp and clean. 
Any large cut should be trimmed 



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Fit, Style, and Workmanship Guaranteed. 



August, 1912 



THE GAJLDEN AND FIELD. 



101 



with the knife. This causes the 
wound to heal quicker, and also 
prevents canker and other dis- 
eases. 

The most important work after 
pruning is to carefully collect and 
burn all prunings. This destroys 
all aphis and other pests. A 
light dressing of lime over the rose 
beds and a thorough syringing of 
the roses with strong kerosene 
emulsion would, at this stage, be 
exceedin"!v beneficial. 

While careful and judicious prun- 
ing is indispensable to produce 
extra fine blooms. yet rose 
lovers who do not thoroughly 
j,rasp the art of pruning need not 
become discouraged, because roses 
growing under favorable condi- 
tions, especially teas and other hy- 
brids, always reward rosarians 
with jjood cuts. 



Culture of Begonia Glorie de 
Lorraine. 

It is comparatively easy to pro- 
pagate, by taking leaf or top 
cuttings. By taking batches of 
cuttings at intervals it enables 
one to haye the fine specimens in 
8 and io-inch pans down to the 
smaller size of 4 and 5 inch pots. 
Afterx taking the cuttings insert 
them into clean, sharp sand in a 
temperature of 60 to 65, with a 
bottom heat of 5 to 10 degrees 
higher, and give them a good 
watering ; afterwards care must be 
taken not to keep them too wet 
until they are well rooted, which 
will take from six to eight weeks, 
at which time they are ready for 
first potting into 2 or 2'^inch pots, 
usinn a compost of one-third loam 
with a good sprinkling of good 
sharp sand. Do not pot them firm 
or there will be a great loss. 
After potting, place them on a 
shelf near the glass, partly shaded, 
in a temperature of 60 to 65 de- 
crees, taking <rreat care not to let 
them suffer for want of water, and 
svringe them on all favorable oc- 
casions. As they begin to fill 
their pots with roots, repot them 



into larger -pots, being careful not 
to overpot them. A good com- 
post is one part llaky leaf mold, 
two parts loam, with plenty of 
sharp sand ; when spacing give the 
plants plenty of room, so that 
they get all the air that's coming 
to them, for one good specimen 
plant is worth a dozen poor, 
weak-looking ones. A sprinkling 
of soot between the plants at in- 
tervals of every three or four 
weeks is very beneficial ; it not 
only keeps down slugs, insects 
and spot, but helps to give the 
foliage that rich, dark lustrous 
appearance of health. When they 
begin to make rapid growth and 
require spacing and repotting into 
their final pots, use a compost of 
one part good llaky leaf mold, 
one part loam, and one part 
well-rotted cow manure. Now that 
they are getting quite large they 
will require a few supports of thin 
wire, and bv using green silkaline 
they can be tied into attractive 
shape. A little stimulant will be 
very beneficial from now on. A 
little soot dissolved in some man- 
ure water is a very good stimu- 
lant. Two of the greatest secrets 
of successful begonia growing are : 
first, never to overpot them ; and 
second, never to pot them too 
firm.—" The Garden." 



The possibility of successful garden- 
ing, mainly through the efforts of 
enthusiasts, has been very much in 
evidence during the past few seasons, 
and the success which has thus fat- 
al tended them will doubtless prove a 
strong incentive to others who realise 
that a few flowers in and around their 
dwellings make them much more home- 
like but have not experimented at im- 
proving their surroundings in this 
direction. As the season is favourable 
as regards rain the present time is 
a good opportunity for making 
a beginning and a letter addressed 
to Mr. W. .). Smith,' of Clifton 
Nursery, Walkerville, will bring along 
all the needful information as to the 
correct time, soils, and method of 
planting, etc. .Mr. Smith is an e\- 
perienced gardener - having been, 
" Through the mill " as the saying 
is — and everything sent from his 
.Nursery is most-to-date and complete 
and may be absolutely relied on. 



MR A. T. D. McGRATH, 

SURGEON DENTIST, 

(Registered by Examination). 
Consultation and Advice Free. Hours: 9 to 5 (Saturdays included). 'Phone 3656. 

Painless Extractions by the latest Freezing process. Special arrangements for country 

patients. 

Commercial Chambers, Cilbert Place, ( Cur ^. st ) Adelaide. 

Rear of Bowman Areade, King William Street. 



Orders are already on hand for 
Orange, Lemon, and other Citrus trees 
and in order to be able to secure anv 
of the above lines our readers are ad- 
vised to send for particulars without 
delay. Included in his many Nursery 
lines the following specialities may be 
mentioned: — Palms, Shrubs, Climbers 
Carnations, Hedge plants, etc. All 
flowers and shrubs are growing at Mr. 
Smith's Nursery -with reallv great 
luxuriance which is typical of the 
surroundings, the situation being ad- 
mirably situated for such a purpose. 
Roses also form an important feature, 
and just at present Mr. Smith holds 
a very large stock which consists of 
many exceedingly beautiful varieties 
Included in the stock may be men- 
tioned the Cyclamen, of which he has 
many thousands to choose from. 
The Pelargonium has been made a 
speciality, and Mr. Smith has now a 
very superior show. It may be 
mentioned incidentally that this busi- 
ness has been established for over 61 
years. 



"DURING THE HOT FATIGUING SIM- 
MER OR CHANGEABLE WINTER 
MONTHS TAKE CLEMENTS TONIC." 

Mr. William Pagdin, of 213 Parra- 
matta road, Leichhardt, writes on 
7/7/11, he had always been compelled 
during' the summer months to seek 
doctors' aid, until he took Clements 
Tonic. Now he writes thus : — 

CLEMENTS TONIC, LTD. 

" For several years during the summer 
months I have had my system thorough- 
ly run down, and have been a martyr 
to dyspepsia. I have always been com- 
pelled during January and February to 
seek medical advice, and the doctor has 
always ordered absolute rest. I was 
told to take; Clements Tonic, and I took 
one bottle, and found great relief. After 
taking the third bottle I went about my 
work with renewed health and vigour. 
Previously I felt work a drudgery, and 
had not even energy to take recreation. 
Everything seemed a burden. I could 
not eat, and never felt refreshed aSter 
sleep, until I took Clements Tonic. I 
cannot speak too highly of the efficacy 
of this tonic, and have r?commended it 
to several friends, who also have derived 
great benefit. When I feel out of sorts 
I always use it." 

"(Signed WM. PAGDIN." 

The value of Clements Tonic cannot 
be over-estimated. In cases of Poor 
Wood, Wasting Weakness, Debility Loss 
of Sleep, Poor Appetite. Biliousness. 
Sick Headache, Low Spirits, Insomnia 
(caused through worry). Constipation, 
Liver or Kidney Ailments, it is most 
reliable. All chemists and stores sell 
it everywhere. Get it to-day. 

Pnorl Q»f) I Can you write us 
X^tJctUCrS ! something about 
your methods of breeding, rearing, 
and managing Live Stock ? L«t 
us have it if it will only fill r.he 
back of a Post card. 



102 THE GARDEN AND FIELD. 

The Flower Garden,. 



Summary of Operations for 
August. 

Finish digging all Uds as soon as 
soil will allow, and keep soil open 
and weeds down thereafter by 
perpetual hoeing ready for the wanner 
and dryer weather. 

Finish pruning Uo-es and shrubs. 
Hoses and other shrubs may still be 
transplanted. 

Propagate Penstemons, Verbenas, 
Pelargoniums (Zonale) by cut t inns. 

Prepare seed boxes for summer an- 
nuals and transplant, into l>ed« seed- 
ling plants ready in the boxes. 

A few early sowings may be made 
of Asters, iWina lobata, Capsicums 
(ornamentals). Balsams. 

Give liquid manure to Cineraria, 
Pansi.es, Stock, and others that are 
bursting in to Mower, or are showing 
vigorous grow t h, 

lake up Carinas and similar grow- 
perennials and divide. Manure well 
where they are replanted. 

Keep Daffodils, Hyacinths, etc., clear 
of weeds, and the ground loose and 
Open with the hoe. 

Remove all weeds and rubbish from 
paths and weeds that would oossibly 
form harbor for slugs snails, and other 
vermin. Don't be afraid to dust your 
beds with lime, for, besides killin^r th|i> 
slugs, it is great manure. 

Pruning. — If Roses and shrubs have 
not already been pruned, they should 
be attended to at once, for the quick- 
ly rising temperature will cause the 
sap to flow freely, and when that is 
so heavy pruning will do harm. In 
that case it will be preferable to only 
iouch them lightly with the knife by 
cutting out some of the branches 
crossing others, and thinning out the 
centre a little. 

Rose trees (standards or bushes), 
shrubs, and trees may still be 



planted out. Give theim every 
chance by doing it carefully — 'digging 
a hole large enough to contain all 
i he roots spread out, firmly pressing 
the soil on them, watering them 
when planted, staking to prevent dis- 
turbance by wind, and mulching with 
long manure, which last is rather un- 
tidy, but does not get so easily 
washed away by heavy rain. 

Verbenas. — Cuttings of Verbena 
that were struck in pots or the? 

opetl nursery " in the autumn have 
probably by this time made nice 
strong healthy plants, and if the 
beds have been already prepared may 
be transplanted into them at once. 
These ground trailers always show up 
best when placed in beds by them- 
selves. As it is difficult, and often 
impossible, to give the beds in which 
they are growing much cultivation 
during the season, it is most im- 
portant that the bed lie well dug arid 
manured before transplanting taxes 
place, so that if the beds are not 
ready, keep the young plants in the 
nursery a little longer, nipping back 
the points to prevent them getting 
straggly. 

Chrysanthemums. — The work in the 
Chrysanthemum beds during August 
will merely consist of keeping down 
the weeds in the nursery bed to pre- 
vent the young plants from being 
snrpthered. If the beds to contain the 
flowering plants for next season have 
not yet been prepared this should not 
be delayed any longer. 

Penstemons. — Seed of this perennial 
may be put in now, but boxes ex- 
posed to the •weather should lie pro- 
tected by glass, as heavy rain is 
likely- to wash away the seed or beat 
down the tiny seedlings. Cuttings of 
named sorts, that were rooted earlier, 
can be placed in their permanent 
positions. A well - grown plant of 
Penstemon takes up considerable 
room, and they should not be planted 
nearer to each other than two feet. 



August, 1012 



Few perennials strike more easily or 
root quicker than the Penstemon, and 
a few plants of the different varieties 
should be kept always on hand either 
to replace' misses or mishaps in your 
own garden, or to supply " the ripe 
wants of a friend." Make the cuttings 
of the young tops three inches long, 
anil cut just below a leaf. 

Plant Gladioli. — By putting in a few 
of these bulbs at fortnighly intervals, 
a succession of bloom is secured for 
the greater part of the twelve months. 
Seed of this bulb may also be sown. 
This will produce (lowering bulbs in 
two .years. 

Summer Annuals. — The general 
planting of summer llmvering annuals 
will be due next month, and seed 
boxes and pans must be got ready 
this month to receive them. When 
large quantities of seed are to be 
sown the cases that galvanised iron 
is imported are good and remove the 
sheet of tarred felt which will be 
found in the bottom of each of them. 
If it be left in there will be little or 
no drainage, and attempts to raise 
seed without it can only end in 
failure. 

When only a little seed is to be 
raised, the boxes in which the tins 
of mustard arrive in are very handy. 
The soil should be a nice sandy loam, 
which has been run through a fine 
sieve. Don't mix manure with it, but 
a little sifted stable manure may be 
used to cover the seeds with. 

Sow the seed in drills three inches 
apart, as this enables you better to 
keep the boxes clear of weeds — a 
consideration that must not be over- 
looked. Cover the seed according to 
its size. Some of the very minute 
seed will barely require any covering 
at all whilst some of the larger 
kinds may be covered from an 
eighth to a quarter of an in;h. Tbte 
old rule, " cover the seed to the 
depth of its diameter," is a pr.t.,, 
safe one to follow. 

With regard to the name of the 
varieties you have planted, don't 
trust to memory— it very often fails 
at a critical moment. Some amateurs 



SIXTY YEARS AGO 

SMITH'S Plants, Trees, Shrubs, Climbers, Roses, Hedge Plants, G um s 
Peppers, Palms, Ferns, Pelargoniums and Flowering Plants, etc., etc. were 
THE BEST and they still hold that reputation. A trial will convince you 

Catalogues Free, send for one. 

W J SMITH CLIFTON NURSERIES - 

' WALKERVILLE, SOUTH AUST 

ESTABLISHED 1851. 'PHONE 372. 



August, 1912 



THE GARDEN AND FIELD. 



103 



I wot of, have a habit of planting 
the whole packet, ami then, by way 
of a label, they slip the empty paper 
into a slit stick at the end of the 
drill. It scarcely need be said that 
the ink soon becomes unintelligible, 
and the label useless. A packet of 
a hundred neat wooden labels only 
cost a shilling, and are well worth 
the money. A smear of paint over 
the surface, and then written on with 
lead pencil is the most approved 
style of making. 

A calico shade will be needed to 
place over the boxes during bright 
days. These should be lightly made, 
of the width of the box, and half its 
length, so that two will be needed for 
each. When the seedling are up the 
shades should only be on during the 
hottest part of the day, in the morn- 
ing and towards evening remove them 
for if the plants be kept too close 
they are liable to become leggy and 
weak. 

Water with discretion. " The sur- 
face of the soil must not be allowed 
to get dry," but this does not mean 
that the soil is to be constantly in a 
state of puddle. One state is quite 
as bad as the other. 

— Carnations. — 

Beds manured with rotten cow or 
sheep manure and dug so deeply that 
they are practically trenched, that were, 
or should have been, prepared weeks 
ago, may be planted with young 
plants, a stock of which the careful 
gardener will always have by him. 
The old plants — that is, the two-year- 
olds, need not, and should not be 
thrown away, for with care they will 
give an early show of bloom, which, 
if not up to show- standard, will 

' come in extremely useful for house 
and table decoration. One of the 
best ways of treating them is to die: 
them up carefully, breaking as few 

f of the roots as possible, and remov- 
ing all soil from the roots by dipping 

- them in a bucket of water. 

Dig the bed in which they were, and 

- turn in some good food, and then re- 
plant them in their original positions, 

i but this time two or three inches 
deeper than they were before. Neatly 
stake the long branches and give each 
a can of water. By this means the 
noil is renewed, and the Carnation 
.plants will scarcely feel the check at 
^all. They will then give some fair 
blooms probably some weeks before 
thi! younger plants. 

— C annas. — 

■Like all plants with a similar growth 
they are abnormal feeders and quickly 
work out any soil if left too long in 
one position. Dig them right out and 
divide up the roots with a spade, 
leaving two shoots to each portion. 
Turn ia a liberal quantity of good 
manure, old stable stuff for preference, 
and then replant. In a large garden, 
with a supply of water, these grand 
looking plants make a telling dis- 
play in groups. Their broad dark 
green leaves and brilliant flowers 
•how up most effectively during our 
hottest, days, provided the are well 
■iippli<d with moisture and manure. 



— Tuberoses. — 

Tuberoses multiply very rapidly, 
and it becomes neccessary to raise 
them every second or third year and 
divide the clumps, or else they get so 
thick that they destroy each other. 
The present is the best time to do 
this, and when the bulbs are out of 
the bed, dig the ground over deeply 
and add manure before replanting. 

Those who have not already a 
clump or two of Tuberoses would do 
well to get one at once. Their cul- 
tivation is so simple, they take up 
such little space, the flowers are so 
beautiful, and their scent so ex- 
quisite that I don't think any on? 
knowing them would willingly be with- 
out one specimen at least in their 
garden. Fair-sized clumps which may 
often be divided into live or six 
smaller portions, can be procured for 
a shilling or eighteen pence. 

® 

Sowing Annuals in the Open. 

Practically all garden annuals can be 
sown and raised in the open with 
good results, providing a little care 
is exeercised when carrying out the 
work. In the lirst place we must de- 
termine for what purpose the plants 
are required, and then plan our opera- 
are required, and then plan ouropera- 
tions accordingly. Generally speak- 
ing, annuals are used for two purposes, 
namely, the tilling of beds and the 
tilling of blank spaces in borders. 
Taking the last-named purpose first, 
it is often convenient to sow the 
seeds where the plants are to flower, 
thinning the seedlings as soon as they 
are large enough to handle. Now the 
seeds of the majority of annual flowers 
are small, and to sow them in the 
open border with only ordinary pre- 
paration is, in most cases, a sure 
road to failure. In the majority of 
flower borders, especially where the 
soil is heavy, the ground is none too 



friable, and the following method 
should be adopted to ensure success. 

Mix up a barrow ful of good soil 
similar to that used for filling* seed 
boxes, two parts good loam and one 
part sand, with a good sprinkling' of 
leaf-soil if the latter is procurable, 
forming a good mixture. Pass this 
through a half-inch meshed sieve. 
Then with a spade scoop out the 
original soil of the border where it is 
desired to sow the annuals to a 
depth of 2 inches, and fill in the 
depression thus made with the pre- 
pared soil. Make this fairly firm 
and sow the seeds thinly on the sur- 
face, covering them very slight ly in 
the case of tiny seed and deeper in 
the case of comparatively large ones. 



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104 



THE GARDEN AND FIELD. 



Bordeaux and Burgundy Mixture 
Lime Sulphvir Spray. 



It may seem that the .subject of 
Bordeaux Mixture has been pretty 
thoroughly considered, but so 
tnany questions are constantly 
sent to experiment stations and 
publications in regards to its 

manufacture and use that a dis 
cussion may not be out of place, 
writes " Horticulture. " 

— Its Discovery. — 

In all bulletins and articles 
published on plant diseases, Hoi- 



In GARDEN 



dcaux Mixture plays a very im- 
portant part in the recommenda- 
tions for treatment. It was acci- 
dentally discovered in France in 
the little town of Bordeaux, about 
1.SS2, bv a man named Millardct. 
He was losing many of his grapes 
near the road from depredations of 
passers-by, so to protect them he 
covered the vines with a coating 
liiade oi 1 opper sulphate and lime. 
In the fall there was such a no- 
ticeable difference, in ainounlt of 



mildew, between those treated 
rows and the res.t of the field that 
he observed it. By further experi- 
menting, the value of Bordeaux 
Mixture was discovered. 

— Its Composition. — 
As ordinarily prepared, Bor- 
deaux Mixture is a thick, sluggish, 
bluish liquid composed of copper 
sulphate and lime carried in water. 
The fungicidal value comes from 
the copper, one-millionth part be- 
ing often sufficient to destro) 
plant life. If the copper sulphate 
(commonly called " biuestone ") 
is dissolved in water it will have 
the same effect as the mixture, 
but it has the disadvantage of be- 
ing cpiicklv washed off the trees, 
and furthermore, has a tenten., 
to burn the foliage, especially 
where large drops collect. The 
lime in the Bordeaux Mixture, on 
the other hand, forms compounds 
which act as carriers and re- 
tainers, liberating but a little of 
the copper at a time. As a very 
small quantity is all that is need- 
ed, a good coating will last 
through several very heavy, pro- 
longed rains. And the lime pre- 
vents burning, thus doing away 
with the second objection. 

An amateur flarusing technical 
bulletins dealing with this subject 
is very likely to become confused 
over the large number of formu- 
las, different ones often being 
mentioned for the same purpose. 

The 5-5-50 may be considered the 
basis of them all. This means 
five pounds of biuestone and five 
pounds of lime to fifty gallons of 
water. For different plants and 
different diseases this is changed 
to some extent. For instance, 
dormant trees can stand a heavier 
dose than those in full leaf. Thej 
peach is more liable to suffer from 
an ordinary formula than thej 
apple or pear, and the susceptibili- 
ty has to be taken into account. 
Some men overcome this by add- 
ing an excess of lime, others by 
using less basic material. And so 
it goes. A carefully made formu- 
la mav safely vary a little pro- 
vided there is an equal or excess 
amount of lime. A weak onfe care- 
fully made and well applied will 
give better results than a strong 
formula hastily put together and' 
carelessly squirted on. 

It seems a very easy matter to 
put copper sulphate and lime to- 
gether in water, but the actions 
which take place are very com- 
plex, and in fact, not well under- 
stood by the chemists. In gene- 
ral, the lime which is calcium 
hydroxide, has a stronger ailinitv 
for copper than the sulphuric acid, 
and when the two ingredients autt 



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FIELD. 

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FROM ALL AGENTS. 



THE ADELAIDE CHEMICAL AND 
FERTILIZER CO., LTD. 



August, l l J12 



THE GARDEN AND FIELD. 



105 



put together calcium copper hy- 
droxide comes down as a soft, 
light blue precipitate while some 
of the Hme is given up and unites 
with the acid to form calcium sul- 
phate. But there are a number 
of minor changes, especiallv with 
impure materials. A knowledge 
of these is not important, only in 
so much as they show the need 
of very thorough methods to in- 
sure a proper mixture. 

— Its Preparation. — 

The preparation of the 5-5-50 
formula will serve as an illustra- 
tion. Let us 1 suppose we are to 
make a hundred gallons of pre- 
pared spray. Good lumps of un- 
slaked lime are secured, the best 
coming from the centre of the 
barrel. Tens pounds is carefully 
weighed out (twice the amount 
called for in the formula, for the 
hundred gallons), and placed in a 
bucket or half barrel. It is then 
carefully slaked by adding water, 
using onlv enough to keep the 
mass dampened, and repeating 
frequentlv to prevent burning. 
When thoroughly slaked the lime 
should be pasty, a little rubbed 
between the thumb and finger giv- 
ing no sensation of grit or coarse- 
ness. When this is obtained, a 
very good Bordeaux can be made. 
Meanwhile the ten pounds of blue- 
stone should be dissolving. It can 
be put in the night before if so 
desired. A quick way is to put 
the bluestone in a burlap bag and 
suspend this in a barrel or tub. 
No metal receptacles will do, for 
the copper corrodes most of the 
common kinds. Hot water will 
also hasten dissolving. 

Just previous to using the Bor- 
deaux Mixture, one-half the lime 
is placed in a barrel and diluted 
with clean water to twenty-five 
gallons. One half the bluestone 
water is also brought up to 
twentv-five gallons in another 
barref. Then by pouring the lime 
water and bluestone solution 
simultaneously pail by pail 
through a sieve into a third bar- 
rel a complete Bordeaux 'Mixture 
will result, which will stay in 
suspension and give the best re- 
sults when sprayed on the trees. 
This scheme is for use when the 
receptacles are barrels. If the 
spray tank holds a hundred gal- 
lons, all the lime and bluestone 
Can be brought up to fiftv gallons 
each and then drawn directly into 
the tank. Stock solutions of 
lime and bluestone may 1>e kept 
on hand. 

— Its Lse. — 
In spraying, a nozzle which 
throws a very fine mist is the best 
such as the Bordeaux and Ver- 



morel. The material should be 
kept constantly stirred and driven 
through the pipes with a high, 
steadv pressure. 

When arsenicals are used, they 
may be carried in the Bordeaux 
Mixture without impairing it. 
If Paris green is used a slight ex- 
cess of lime 1 should be put into the 
original formula. 

Benefit in spraying will be in 
proportion to the care in prepar- 
ing the material, thoroughness in 
spraying, and time of application. 

— Its Limitations. — 

Bordeaux Mixture is a preven- 
tive and not a cure. The spores 
of a disease are carried by water, 
wind or insects to the plants. 
\\ hen these minute ' seeds ' ' come 
in contact with moisture they ger- 
minate, and, if nothing prevents 
them, enter the tissues of the 
plant. When Bordeaux Mixture is 
present the copper poisons the 
sprouting germs, causing tnem to 
shrivel up and die. Once within 
the host they are beyond reach, 
and so the spray must be on be- 
fore the germs start to grow. 
However, if infection has started 
further spraying will prevent dam- 
age on uninoculated parts. 

Whde not a panacea for all ills 
Bordeaux Mixture has a wide 
range of usefulness, and the grower 
of a few plants or trees troubled 
with disease can secure just as 
good results as the owner of acres. 

— Lime Water Bordeaux. — 

We have at various times re- 
ierred to the Woburn method oi 
preparing Bordeaux Mixture, and 
Mr. PicKering's recommendation 
that lime water (that is a solu- 
tion of lime in water) in place of 
mdkof lime (that is a suspension 
oi lime in water) be used in place 
of the ordinary method. Some 
vear or two ago Mr. Pickering re- 
ported satisfactory results in his 
practice for which he claims 
simplicity, certainty of result, 
and economy. The new formula 
does not appear to have been ex- 
tensively tried in Australia. One 
of the most recent references to 
it, which we have seen, is con- 
tained in the Januarv issue of the 
Agricultural Gazette of N.S.W., 
in which Mr. W. J. Allen 
writes : — 

" Some experiments have been 
made at Glen Innes Experimental 
Farm orchard to ascertain whether 
Bordeaux Mixture prepared in this 
way has anv practical advantage 
over the ordinary mixture, but the 
results have not been definite. The 

(Continued on page 106). 



A RECORD ! 

A U LP AN A 
WINES . . 

in competition against all 

AUSTRALIA 

at ADELAIDE WINE SHOWS. 



1904. CHAMPION CUP i*r 

HOCK 

1905 CHAMPION CUP for 

CLARET 

1906. CHAMPION CUP for 

SHERRY 

Besides also many 

FIRST PRIZES 

too numerous to mention 
Town Ofnee : 

Australasia Chambers, 
King Wm. St., Adelaide. 

Vineyard* aad Cellars. : 

Magill, South Australia 



106 



THE GARDEN AND FIELD. 



August, 1915 



Notes on Grafting. 



— An Old Practice. — 

Grafting is one of the oldest 
and most important operations in 
connection with the gardener's 
art. There are many ways of do- 
ing the work, each having some 
special application, but the prin- 
ciple is ever)' where the same. The 
operation consists in working one 
Variety of fruit tree or other plant 
on to another variety. It is by 
no means conlined to fruit trees or 
to hard wooded plants. Plants, 
like tomatoes or potatoes, can be 
and are grafted, and so can lorest 
trees, such as oaks, planes, or 
cedars. Some varieties oi plants 
can only be grown by this me- 
thod, or by striking cuttings, and 
the prdpagator usually selects the 
easier plan. In some cases gralt- 
ing is much more effective than 
striking cuttings, and is generally 
employed in the propagation ol 
some varieties of plants, such as 
variegated cedars and so lorth, 
which originated in the first place 
from sports, so that the subse- 
quent tree is really a portion oi 
the original sporting branch. 
Sometimes a variegated or pecu- 
liar foliaged branch or twig, called 
a sport, will be found on a given 
variety of tree, and the gardener, 
by taking this and grafting it on 
others trees, perpetuates the sport, 
and continues to produce it inde- 
finitely. 

— The Principle Involved. — 
In every case the principle con- 
trolling the work of grafting is 
the same. A portion of one plant 
is so tied to another that the cut 
surfaces are placed in close con- 
nection, the growing point of the 
two portions known as the cam- 
bium layers, or, in common lan- 
guage, "the layers of sap wood 
next to the bark being placed 
close to one another, so that when 
new cells are formed the two 
parts are united and form one. 

— Bud Grafting. — 
When only a bud, with its ac- 
companying bit of bark is used as 
a scion for grafting, the process 



is known as bud grafting, or 
simply budding. When a larger 
portion of a plant is used as a 
scion the process is known as 
grafting. 

Budding or bud grafting is used 
chieuy in connection with young 
wood and young trees, altnougn 
it is bv no means conlined to these 
circumstances, it is used almost 
entirely in many classes ol nur- 
serv work, such as in connection 
with the propagation of roses. 
G raiting is used more particularly 
in connection with the re-working 
of fruit trees and the production ol 
blight prooi stocks. It is also the 
process used in connection with 
the propagation of variegated 
cedars and such plants. 

It is impossible in the course ol 
a short article to deal with all 
the methods ol grafting, and lor 
the purpose of the " Garden and 
Field " it is not necessary, alauj' 
of the methods are more curious 
than useful, and others are only 
useful in special instances. 

— The Stock and Scion. — 

The tree or plant which is being 
operated upon is called tn. sco^.., 
the part which is grafted on to 
u»e stock is called the scion. 

— Application. — 
Although grafting is applied to 
a very great number oi plants, it 
is only particularly successful 
when used in connection with 
trees either of the same variety 
or closely related. thus appte 
scions should be grafted on apple 
trees, although they will take on 
pears and tne hawthorn. Pear 
scions should be grafted on to 
pear stocks, except when it is 
required to obtain dwarf trees, 
when quince stocks are used. 
Peaches usually do best on peach 
stocks, although they will take, 
and in some cases thrive equally 
well or better on some other stone 
fruits, such as the almond or the 
apricot. The apricot is best 
grown on the apricot stock, but it 
will sometimes thrive on plums, 
almonds, or peaches. Cherries 
should be worked on special 
cherry stocks, and so on. Trees 



or plants of different genera can 
rarely be grafted ; thus you can- 
not grow apples or pears ou stone 
fruit stocks, and you cannot graft 
oaks on gum trees, or walnuts on 
willows. 

— Influence of Stock a nd Scion. — 
There is much yet to learn about 
the relative iniluence of the stock 
on the scion and the scion on the 
stock. Sometimes no apparent 
iniluence can be seen at all ; for 
example, the ordinary varieties of 
apples do not appear to be influ- 
enced by the kind of apple stock 
upon which they are grafted. 
Thus, we might take six scions 
lrom one apple tree and graft 
them on six different trees, and 
get apples which possess the true 
character of their variety, and can- 
not be distinguished one from the 
other. But on one stock we might 
get a distinct variation. The 
scion of an ordinary apple, say 
the Jonathan, graited on to a 
Paradise stock, will produce J ona- 
than apples of the ordinary type, 
but the tree will be dwarfed, 
l/sing quince stock for pears 
dwarfs the resulting trees, but in 
most instances does not apparent- 
ly produce any difference in the 
character of the fruit. All vari- 
eties of pears, however, will not 
thrive on quince stocks, neither 
will all varieties of apples do on 
the Paradise stock. 

Grafting may be done at any 
season of the year, but there are 
certain times which are particu- 
larly favorable for certain kinds 
of grafting. For example, bud 
grafting is best done when the sap 
is moving freely, whereas the or- 
dinary grafting of deciduous trees 
is best done when the sap is just 
rising. speaking generally, when 
a piece of wood is used for the 
graft, it is best applied to the 
stock in a dormant condition in 
the spring, just before the grow- 
in * eriod. This applies not onlv 
to appears, pears, peaches, plums, 
and such deciduous trees, but also 
to oranges, lemons, olives, the 
carob, and so forth. 

In every orchard there are trees 
which produce fruit of compara- 
tively little value. If such trees 
are vigorous and healthy, it is 
desirable to rework them with 
scions from productive, valueaible 
sorts. 

To do so chop the top of the 
tree off about i8in. or 2ft. from 
the ground, then make a clean cut 
with the saw gin. or a foot from 
the ground. The object of chop- 
ping the to]> off first is to pre- 
vent the trunk from splitting 
where it is intended to insert the 
grafts. (Jf course, if care be ex- 



ALBERT O. PIKE, 

(Late GAMEAU BROTHERS). 

Clairville Nursery, Hectorville. 

All kinds of fruit treea for sale, Citru s trees, Lemons and Oranges a special- 
ity. Send for illustrated catalogue. 
Telegraphic Address— Pike, Hectorville , Payneham. Telephone— Central 2768. 



August, 11)12 



THE GARDEN AND FIELD. 



107 



ercised the tree can be taken 
down in one operation ; but it is 
important that the surface where 
the grafts are to be inserted 
shoidd be uninjured. With a prun- 
Log knife, draw knife, or spoke- 
shave, smooth off the top of the 
stock where you intend to put the 
grafts, and space, so that there 
shall be a graft not more than 
jin. apart all round. 

The method of cutting the bark 
of the stock is to make a vertical 
slit down the bark for an inch 
or an inch and a half, so that the 
bar a on each side can be lifted. 

The scion, which should of course 
have been secured while the parent 
tree was dormant, is cut either 
with a shoulder, or with a slant- 
ing cut, which is much quicker, 
answers the purpose admirably, 
and always makes a good union. 

Une or two eyes or buds, are left 
on each scion. If two the upper 
bud will point inwards, and will 
grow strongest, and it should be 
pinched oft when it has reached a 
tew inches in length, and must be 
kept pinched to force the growth 
into the lower bud, which grows 
outwards, and, therefore, tends to 
form an open centred tree. If this 
is not done, it is preferable to 
have only one bud on the gralt, 
and have that bud point out- 
fever. In having two buds, how- 
ever, two growing points are pro- 
vided for each scion, and the 
chances of failure are proportion- 
ately lessened. 

The bark of the stock being lift- 
ed, the scion can be easily pushed 



OLD WASH WAYS ARE GOOD 

but the 

GLEANSO WAY IS BETTER. 

The old washing ways had to be tho- 
roughly tested before they could really 
be called GOOD. If you do the same 
with COX' GLEANSO— give it a tho- 
rough test, use it according to the 
instructions on each bottle (n«t using 
too much) there is only one conclu- 
Bion you can come to, and that is, 
that it is far better than the old way 
of rubbing with a lot of soap, for 

CLEANSO saves half your time, 

CLEANSO saves a good deal of soap 
CLEANSO dispenses with the need 
of a washboard. 

CLEANSO obviates all tiresome rub- 
bing and scrubbing ; aatd there- 
fore clothes last much longer. 

CLEANSO cleanses THOROUGHLY 

CLEANSO is non-injurious to even 
the most delicate fabrics and 
lacs*. 

EVERY GROCER SELLS CLEANSO. 



down into place, so that the 
whole cut surface of the scion lits 
closely against the sap wood of 
the stock. As the scion is fre- 
quently as thick as a lead penc 1, 
it will naturally lift up the edges 
of the bark of the stock. The 
operator then takes a sharp knife 
and quickly- and neatly trims off 
the edge of the bark, so that it 
will fit close to the scion. 

Having inserted all the scions 
and fitted the bark, they are all 
tied tightly in with a piece of 
binder twine or similar bandage. 
Tie as tightly as possible, in 
order to keep the scions close to 
the* stock, and to prevent the bark 
from lifting and forming cavities. 

When the grafts are m position 
and have been bandaged, a good 
coat of grafting wax is applied 
to the whole cut surface, and 
down the side of each slit, in 
order to keep out the air. In- 
serted in this way, and treated as 
described, there should not be 5 
per cent, of failure of scions. 
Although a new tree can be 
formed from one shoot, any one 
who knows how difficult it is to get 
the bark to heal over the wound 
will realise the importance of hav- 
ing as many healing points at re- 
gular intervals as possible. At the 
point of insertion of each graft, 
new tissue is formed, and the 



UNLEY PARK PRESERVED 
FRUITS & JAMS 

iCHAb. TERRY, Manufacturer). 

Made from locally grown fruit ol 

best selected quality. 
Erery tin guaranteed. Pure and 
unadulterated. 
Storekeepers supplied direct from the 
FACTORY, UNLEY PARK, or from 
E. F. DEANS, distributing Agent, 
Waymouth Street, Adelaide. 

ri WILL PAY FRUIT GROWERS TO 
TRY UNLEY PARK WHEN 
SELLING. 



healing process goes on perfectly 
regularly all the way round the 
stock, however thick it may be. 
Whereas if one scion dies out, 
there is a weak place there, and 
the healing is uneven. It is a 
wise precaution to shade the north 
side of the stock. 

When the grafts have taken, 
shoots which are not wanted to 
produce permanent branches should 
be stopped back 3 ms. from the 
stock, and kept stopped. As long 
as there are several leaves on 
them, the healing of" the wound 
will go on, and the main strength 
will go into the permanent 
branches. 

Goldfinches and other nesting 
birds are very destructive to most 
binding materials. Raffia is found 
to be the best naterial to circum- 
vent their wicked designs. 



ADELAIDE SEWING MACHINE EXCHANGE. 

All makes Sewing Machines Stocked. Singers, almost new, £3 10/ ; Drop 
Heads, £4 10/- ; Wertheim's, £2. Ot her makes less, all guaranteed te« 
years. Terms arranged. Machines Bought. Repairs guaranteed for five 
years. 

MALONEY, 

23, Adelaide Arcade, and 1, Carrm gton Street (Opp. King's Theatre). 



1 STAND STILL MY STEED ! 



q[ THIS IS THE PLACE ! ^ 

W 
W 

Let me review the scene. vt/ 

J For the sum of £2 Cash we will deliver to the Adelaide Railway Station the following goods 

jj carefully packed. It you want them put on board boat at Port Adelaide, add V- extra. Jj? 

|\ Bag best White Sugar, iA, 66 lbs., at one penny per lb. ... . O 5 6 ^ 

ft 1 handy ;-'crul> Brush, 3d. 1 bar No. 1 Soap, 3d. ... ... ... O O 6 <i> 

ft 4 tins Jam, J/- 1 tin Kippered Herrings, 3d. ... ... O 1 3 <)> 

ft 2 lbs. best Currants, 6d. 1 lb. best Raisins, 3d. ... ... ... O O 9 iU 

ft 1 lb. White Starch, 3d. 1 lb. Candles, 3d ... O O 6 

ft 1 lb. tin Baking Powder, 3d. 1 doz. Matches, Id. ... ... ... O O 4 yfj 

ft 1 lb. Extract Soap, 2d. 2 packets Mixed Spice, Id. ... ... O O 3 

ft i lb. Lemon Peel, Id 2 tins Fresh Herrings, 6d. ... ... O 0 7 t 

ft Mb. tin Alkali for Scrubbing, 2d. 1 lb. Mixed Lollies. 2d. ... ... ... O O 4 <i, 

ti 20 1b. tin gross weight Our 2/- Tea reduced to buyers of this parcel for .. 1 IP O <l> 

IS £2 O O vt> 

h A £1 parcel may be arranged by taking half quantities of the larger items, others will be added <I* 

ft to make up the amount. Customers desiring may have goods of equal value not mentioned in Vt* 

tl this list substituted in place of any of the smaller lines not wished for. When goods are intended tt> 

h for prepaid rail sidings or ports, it will prevent delay if cost of carriage or freight is added. W 

tl Special Lines — Winks, Choice Vintages, a dozen varieties to choose from, 1/3 bottle; Ale and \l> 

ft Stout 8/- doz. ; Aerated Watf-rs. 5/- ; Tonic Aies and Hop Beer, 5/6 doz. ; English Ale, qrts., 13/9 ; <J> 

K Guinness' Stout, quarts, 13;!) ; Brandy, 25/- gallon ; Dry Gin, 20/- ; Whisky, 22/- ; Rum, 20/- ; <l> 

fc Old Tom Gin. 20/- Assorted Jam, 4 doz. case, 24/-. Assorted Fruits, !//. doz. vli 1 

l> Seasonable Fresh Fruits and Vegetables supplied. vj> 

I HENDERSON BROS., 236 and 288 Rundle Street, Adelaide. $ 

In Return a copy of this Advertisement with Order. JL 



108 



I UK GAJtDfiJN AND riKLO. 



August, 1912 



(Continued from page 105). 

tests have been made against 
apple mildew — a foliage fungus, and 
it has been very diincult to say 
whether either oi the mixtures 
has been beneficial, the orchard- 
lst, i\ir. W, Le bay Bereton, sug- 
gests that experiments* be earried 
out in a loeal'it'y where apple 
black spot is prevalent, as results 
can then be measured by count- 
ing the fruit. 

In the first trial, the lime water 
was made by slaving 3 lbs. of 
fresh lime in a little water, and 
stirring it well into 120 gallons oi 
water. This was allowed to settle 
until the water was quite clear. 
Such a method would require al- 
most all the lime to entirely dis- 
solve in order to give a saturated 
solution. ft was found that 8b 
gallons of the lime water would 
not neutralise all the copper sul- 
phate (61bs. 6/ 2 ozs. dissolved in' 3 
gallons of water). Air. F. B. 
Guthrie, chemist oi the Depart- 
ment, recommended that the lime 
water be made as is done for medi- 
cinal purposes, by allowing a good 
excess of lime to stand in contact 
with water. Put iozs. of sfacked 
lime into a stoppered (.or corked) 
bottle, containing 1 gallon oi 
water (rain water for preference); 
shake well for two or three min- 
utes, and allow to stand for 12 
hours. The excess of fime will 
have settled out, leaving a satur- 
ated solution of lime water, which 
may be poured or syphoned off as 
required. 

When the experiments were re- 
peated this year, check blocks were 
treated with ordinary Bordeaux 
mixture in two different strengths, 
b-5-40 and 5-5-50 respectively. The 
difference between the results from 
Pickering Bordeaux mixture and 
the other mixtures used were so 
slight and inconsistent in checking 
powdery mildew on apple trees 
that it is impossible to draw any 
definite conclusions. In some cases 
the results were slightly in favour 
of Pickering's mixture, in others 
slightly in favour of ordinary 
Bordeaux mixture." 

— Bordeaux Paste. — 
For amateurs and growers of few 
trees only, there is little doubt 
that Bordeaux Paste, which is 
Standard Bordeaux in concen- 
trated form, is a means of saving 
both time and trouble. Mr. Quinn 
has reported favourably on its use 
at the Blackwood Experimental 
Orchards. As far as our own ex- 
perience goes we have found Bick- 
iord's Bordeaux Paste quite elec- 
tive in checking curl leaf in 
peaches, and other diseases such 



as Shotholc and Rust in stone 
fruit. 

— Burgundy Mixture. — 
Burgundy Mixture has never been 
as popular a remedy as the Bor- 
deaux. It may, however, be used 
as a substitute with full couli- 
dence, it is more easily prepared, 
and there is less liability to error 
than in the use of lime. The 
method of making Burgundy, or 
the Copper Soda Spray, as it is 
sometimes called, is to dissolve 8 
lbs. washing soda in 25 gallons 
water, 61bs. bluestone in 25 gallons 
water, and mix the two solutions 
together. The mixture is then 
ready for use. . 

— Lime Sulphur. — 

In America the lime sulphur 
spray is becoming very popular as 
a cure for curl leaf, and other 
fungus deseases. We notice that 
Mr. Allen the N. S. W. Fruit Ex- 
pect, is also recommaiiding its 
use. Originally lime sulphur was 
considered to be useful principally 
as an insecticide. 

<S> 

Concentrated Lime-Sulphur. 

The making of the lime sulphur 
is a somewhat tedious process, and 
this has led to the manufacture of 
a concentrated form, which is be- 
ing very largely used, even by 
large growers in the L'.S.A. This 
preparation was not obtainable, we 
believe, until quite recently when 
Messrs. E. & W. Hackett informed 
us that they had made arrange- 
ments to accept the agency for 
one of the most largely used 
brands. To anyone who may for 
any reason have been dissatisfied 
with results from Bordeaux, we 
should recommend a trial of this 
new preparation. 



NOW IS THE TIME TO SPKAY 
with 

Red Spraying 
Oil 

for SAN JOSE SCALE, 
RED SPIDER, 
and PEACH APHIS. 

Sole Agents — 

Charles Atkins & Co. 

LIMITED. 
97, CURRIE STREET, ADELAIDE. 



Orchard Notes for August 

finish planting and pruning de 

ciduous trees. 

draft apple stocks, and prepare t« 
graft other trees as the sap rises. 

Cut and preserve scions from bred 
which have been proved to 'be healthy 
growers and prolific croppers. 

The Ixjst time to graft is when tht 
sap of the stock has commenced to 
rise, so that the bark separates readily 
If the scion be dormant it usually 
takes under such conditions. 

Cultivation. — If the orchard was no 
ploughed in early winter, it should be 
done before the weeds get too high t<* 
beproperly buried. The surface shoulc 
then bo worked smooth, and the weedi 
kept down by cultivation. 

Codlin Moth. — The trunks of trees, 
and all harbor, ahould be carefully 
cleaned, and the scrapings burnt. 
Cood and early cultivation up to the 
stem of the tree will be a help in 
destroying any stray grubs. 

Worthless Varieties of Fruit. — Of 
course, 1 do not mean absolute* 
worthless, for the very worst is good 
pigs' food, but many varieties ar»J 
quite unprofitable to grow for market,' 
and are, therefore, from a commercial 
point of view, worthless. Yet they 
take space and require as much 
labor as the best sorts, especially ini 
the gathering. All such trees should, 
be pruned with an axe, and if the 
stocks are good, be grafted or budded 
to good sorts. It the stocks are not, 
good, the pickaxe must be used, and 
the tree dug out to make room foi! 
something better. 

* 

Mr. Hones has bee'n catering for the 
public for the past 20 years in West 
and South Australia (10 years at' 
Victoria Hotel, Kalgoorlie, and three 
years at Mandurah, W. A.). Mr. 
Hones has just vacated. Theatre 
Poya] Hotel, where he ran a first-clasE 
Cafe, and would be pleased to see 
old faces at the Kalgoorlie Hotel. 
He has now the advantage of being 
able to give every satisfaction as re- 
gards accommodation and convenience. 
The Kalgoorlie has just recently been 
rebuilt, the bedrooms are spacious und 
well ventilated, bath rooms and 
lavatories on every lloor, and generw 
ly every thing up-to-date. Mr. 
Hones prides himself on not only 
supplying everything of the best ati 
the table, but he endeavors to supply 
his patrons with all the best br a nds 
of liquids, and it is still his boast at 
the Kalgoorlie — as it has l>een at the j 
Theatre Royal — that all liquor is true 
to the label on the bottle. Conse- 
quently he does not keep the best 
brands, but ■ ha does better — " He sells 
them." Mr. Hones has the contraot; 
for the catering at the Royal Agri- 
cultural and Horticultural Society* 
show, and this in itself should be a| 
sullicient guarantee of his ability as f| 
caterer. 



August, 1912 



THE GARDEN AND FIELD. 



109 



lighting of Country Towns. 



an inexpensive illuminant. 
Installation at drysdale. 

Extract from " The Age." 

Drysdale, Tuesday. 
(By our special reporter.) 

After having served this little town- 
tip faithfully, if not well, for over 
t wars, the kerosene lamp has been 
anished, as far as the lighting of 
lie streets is concerned. In the place 
f the old time glimmer, the main 
loroughfare is now aglow with the 
»test development in illuminating 
tjencies — " air gas." This light, al- 
iough comparatively little known in 
Ids part of the warld, is in great 
ogue on the Continent. So far it 
as been installed in about 1-50 towns, 
a several of them its use is now so 
eneral that over ten miles of pipes 
ave been laid. Its' rooularity is 
ow raoidlv spreading to many towns 
i England. 

Drysdale enioys the distinction of 
erog the first town in the Common- 
ealth to use the gas as its lighting 
ledium.and the experiment has been 
decided success. The new proc°ss 
ives a steadv and brilliant white 
eht. and its illuminating nower 
Boears to be just as hioh at th° 
oint farthest from which ft is gener- 
ted. This station, it may be re- 
larked. is merelv a small shed in 
hir-h the maehinerv is enclosed, with 
rt-'oimnfir tower 37 feet in he>eht. 
he (/as is a uniform mixture of air 
nd netrol vanour. The nereenta^e 
f n»trol vaoour, however, is very 
ma'l "ir being the cb'ef constituent, 
ne odour is not d^aT"* aMe and 
be gas is elaimrd to b* r>on-evnlosiv». 
he oroduetion is carried out in an 
Otomatie and self -contained machine, 
riven be weights which requires no 
tfen'ion beyond keeping- it clean 
rinding up the wei edits and fillin" 
rith netrol. a duty wh'"h occupies a 
tw minute^ onlv ench dav. The 
pnerafion is affect 'd by nrvans of 
>rfain ounntities of netrol becoming 
anorised in a chamber of a'r "artlv 
ndr-r pressure. Tn this chamber, or 
ir^nretter. is a four-cyI»nd*r nnmp 
orking in a rec>'>f acl" nartlv filled 
ith wat-T. \ ir is introduced th^u-' 1 
m "lotion chamber of 'he rmmn. a^d 
t the petrol cn'"r.< d'-on by dron 
W is instantlv formed. A ST'cia' 
mature of the ::r>" >ra'u is th it the 
Qmn is so arranged that an even 
mneratiire is alwrivs maintained, so 
hat freezing due to evaporation is 
fltirelv obviated. By means of the 
Otomatie feeder the amount of netrol 
itroduced into the carburetter is al- 
ays in exact proportion to the 
mount of air. which denends on th° 
mount of gas being used, so that a 
niforrn mixture is always oroduc' - 1 
i sufficient ouantity to feed the 
umber of lights in use. the machine 
orking quicklv when the gas con- 
"Wnotion is large, and -lowinc down 
% less gas is consumed, or stopping 
'together when no eras is required, 
he aetion is continuous and auto- 



matic, so that the quality of the gas 
never varies. 

Naturally, the chief point of interest 
to the residents of the township and 
others similarly situated is that of 
cost. ' The installation was completed 
about a fortnight ago, but it was not 
till to-night that anything in the 
nature of an official ceremony was 
held. To mark the occasion, at the 
invitation of Messrs. Philips and Pike, 
agents for the Aerogen Gas Machine 
Co. Pty Ltd., representatives of the 
Ceelong City Council and the Colac, 
Bellarine and Winchelsea shires made 
an inspection of the plant and the 
light. The engineer in charge reported 
that during the past fourteen days 
twelve 70-candle power lights had 
been burned for 5k hours each night 
on a consumption of 8 gallons of 
petrol. 

The value was 13/4. An examina- 
tion had, he said, been made of the 
pipes, and the gas had proved to be 
absolutely non-condensing. All of 
those present were unanimous regard- 
ing the value of the light to small 
towns unable to afford the more ex- 
pensive installation of an electric 
plant . 

Th" company responsible for the 
introduction into the Commonwealth 
of this new mode of street illumina- 
tion claims that, with petrol at 1/6 
per gallon, a 40-candle power lamp 
can be burned for one hour at the 
small cost of one-tenth of a pennv. 
It contends that to give the same 
amount of ligrht coal gas would cost 
one-sixth of a penny, kerosene 0£d. ; 
acetylene ;gas, with carbide at 2d. per 
lb.. Oid. ; and electric light, at fid. per 
unit, three-tenths of a nenny. Citizens 
of Melbourne will perhaps better ap- 
preciate the comparison when it is 
stated that the cost per thousand 
feet amounts to onlv 3/9, compared 
with the extortionate amount of 5/- 
which they are compelled to pay. 

After the inspection the visitors ad- 
iourned to Cooney's Buck's Head 
Hotel, where a number of toasts were 
honoured. Cr. W. Gray (acting Presi- 
dent of the Bellarine Shire) presided. 
Crs. R. Williams (Mayor of Geelong'*, 
J. Cairns, Baffev and Harvey, con- 
gratulated th" Bellarine Shire on its 
forward movement, put) on the im- 
orovement that had been effected in 
the lighting in the town. 

Mr. L. Bridge in responding to the 
toast of "The Aerogen Gas Company " 
said that it was the intention of the 
Shire to shortly supply householders. 
The company was making arrange- 



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take lessons at once by the NEW 
PATENTED METHOD. 

Miss NELLIE LEAK guarantees to 
teach any person to play in S weeks. 

You can become an expert Pianist 
without going through the drudgery 
of learning the old style of music. 
You btgin playing tunes right off. 

Tnis method has been thoroughly 
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Write for particulars and terms to 
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All Classes of Music Published. 
Music for Pupils Transposed to Order 
from any favorite Song, Hymn, or 
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ments to light towns in New South 
Wales and other States. 

Melbourne, 29/1/12. 

Agents for South Australia — Charles 
Atkins & Co., Ltd., Currie Street, 
Adelaide. 

<g> 

'Propagating English Walnuts. 

There is no better wav of increasing 
the English Walnut than by sowing 
the nuts. Kept moist from the time 
of collecting them until spring they 
are fairlv sure to grow, and thev 
soon make good growth and in dam 1 " 
deep soil the seedlings make a 
long tap root, but it is claimed, and 
looks reasonable, that in light soil 
there is much less tap root and more 
fibrous ones, and this is said to be 
true of all nut tree seedlings. It is 
worth trying, as the lack of fibres is 
what makes the transplanting of these 
seedlings so difficult. The thin shelled 
and other varietal forms of the Eng- 
lish Walnut cannot be relied on to 
come quite true when grown froan 
nuts, and grafting has to be done to 
increase them. The common English 
is used for stocks, although it is 
claimed that the black Walnut makes 
a good stock for them. The grafting 
is done by scraping the soil from 
around the stocks and graftinsg them 
well into the crown of the plants. 
This would be a good time to make 
a trial of it, as with scions cut now 
and held back a week or two, it 
would find the sap rising in the 
stocks. — " New York Florists' Ex- 
change." 




Aridmw: Flinders St, Comer Hyde St., Adelaide. 



R. CORRELL, 

MUSICSELLER & IMPORTER ef 

Brass Band Instruments. 

Violins, Flutes, Piecoloe, Aooord»«na. 
all kinds of M«sie, Latest Sonfjs, efce. 



Sole Asrent Boosey & Co.'s 

Companaatintr Piston Rraaa Baad Ta- 
Rtmmant*. "Oorrell'' Oornats from 
(S V Boaasy Coraate froai £5 10s, 



110 



THE GARDEN AND FIELD. 



II 

To Keep Your Orchard 



Free from Pests 



1 



STOP ! ! ! 
LOOK ! ! 
LISTEN ! 



The 



USE 



Crude 



Petroleum 



THE MOST EFFECTIVE 
SPRAYING OIL KNOWN 

For 

MUSSEL SCALE, WOOLLY 
APHIS, ETC., ETC 

Packed in barrels containing 42 gallons 
and in 8 gallon and 4 gallon Drums. 

COSTS ONLY ONE THIRD OF ANY 
OTHER SPRAYING OIL. 

Healthy Trees and Clean Fruit are the 
results of spraying with Crude Petroleum 



SHELL " SPIRIT 



for Motors 

It is the Most Economical, therefore it 

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British Imperial Oil Co. Ltd. 



Union Bank Chambers, Kins William 
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AND THROUGHOUT AUSTRALASIA. 



August, 1912 



THE GARDEN AND FIELD. 



Ill 



Use of Explosives in Fruit 
Growing. 

Bv Kenneth B. Quinar, General 
Manager, Cape Explosives Works, 
in The Agricultural Journal of 
South Africa. 

In one of your late issues a cor- 
respondent askes for information 
regarding the use of explosives for 
ditching, etc. As the subject is 
naturallv one which greatly in- 
terests me, I offer the following 
observations in the hope that they 
mav afford vour correspondent 
some information, or at least 
prove of passing interest to some 
of your readers. In fact I shall 
use his letter as an excuse to 
brine before the farming public a 
wav of increasing the profit of 
their farms by the use of explo- 
sives. 

Few people realize the variety of 
wavs in which dynamite can be 
made to serve the farmer. Unfor- 
tunatelv farmers in this country, 
even more so than lav persons, 
rive to dvnamite of everv descrin- 
tion a very wide berth. In 
America, on the other hand, dvna- 
mite is regarded as the farmer's 
best friend, and the demand for 
dvnamite for a<rricultural purposes 
has srrown in the oast few vear's 
from practicallv nil to manv mil- 
lions of Pounds ; indeed, at the 
present time, it is thought that 
this market for explosives will 
shortb- be of more importance 
than is the mining industry. 

I Explosives are now used bv the 
up-to-date farmer for tree plant- 
ing, sub-soilinp. ditching, stump- 
in'/ f removing old tree stumps), 
bowlder blasting-, road makine, 
and for a thousand and on° other 
pumoses which space will not 
permit me here to enumerate. 
The three first-mentioned uses are 
those most likely to prove of in- 
terest to South African farmers, 
and to these T will confine my re- 
marks. 



A. R. CRESWICK, 

DENTIST 

(T.ate with Eskell fr Tattersallb 
VICTORIA SQUARE W.. ADELAIDE 
(N*ar Po«t Office). 

AT J, WOKE GUARANTEED 
Artificial T««<»tVi made and misfitt.?"" 
TWf.n r»model1pd. Teeth Scaled, "top 
Ped and Extracted. Lanjrhine Caa ad 
roirViortoroH. Painlena Extraction. 
Consultation and Advice Eree 
Conntrv districts visited regularly 
See dailies for date*. 



— Tree Planting. — 

Our South African orchards and 
vineyards are planted in a great 
variety of soils, from the deep al- 
luvial of the kloofs and valleys to 
the shallow (surface) soil of the 
hillsides. The former are usually 
more or less permeable to water, 
and are easily penetrated by the 
plant rootlets in their search for 
food. The latter are, 0 n the other 
hand, usually underlaid by a 
hardpan, or if not a true hard- 
pan, b-> r a subsoil which is verv 
compact, hard, and difficult of 
penetration bv the plant rootlets. 
A tree planted in the deep allu- 
vial will establish itself in time 
and develop to normal propor- 
tions, even when planted in the in- 
adequate hand-dug hole usual 
even amongst progressive far- 
mers. But a tree planted in soil 
underlaid by hardpan cannot so 
develop, as the rootlets are unable 
to penetrate the compacted sub- 
soil- Such trees rarelv, if ever, 
have anvthing approaching a tap 
root, and are confined to the thin 
laver of surface soil for their food 
supolv — a supplv often only too 
raoidlv exhausted. 

In manv cases the subsoil is rich 
in plant food, i.e., potash, phos- 
phorous, lime, etc., but as the 
water is the vehicle or carrier of 
these essentials to the plant, and 
it cannot penetrate compacted 
subsoils or hard'pans, these store- 
houses of plant food an? not avail- 
able to the trees, and the farmer 
is oMio-pd to provide food in the 
share of fertili7f>rs^ — trulv a casp of 
" carrving coals to Newcastle." 

Agricultural experimenters in' the 
"United States have shown that it 
is freonentlv the case, in soils 
underLid wi+h hardnau. that th» 
surface or tilled laver upou which" 
the tree depends for food will 
contain onlv 005 per cent, and 
0.7 r-er cent, of nhosnhorus and 
potash respectively, whereas 3 or 
i feet below the surface the sub- 
soil contains o.T.S and T.2 per cent, 
rosoectivelv. « 

Now to turn to the role olaved 
W dvnamite in scientific tree 
culture. 

A hole, 4 or s feet deep and, 
say, I 1 / o"r" yV- inches in diameter 
is nnnched or drilled on the exact 
snot to be occupied bv the tree. 
At the bottom of this hole is 
placed a cartridge of suitable dv- 
namite provided with the usual 
letonator and fuse, when the hole 
is carefnllv filled with moist earth 
and tamped with a wooden rod. 

Upon exnlodinc the cartridge of 
dvnamite the surface of the earth 
is seen to rise a few inches and 
subside ; then, after several min- 



utes have elapsed, fine wisps of 
smoke may be seen rising from 
manv small cracks radiating from 
the original hole. If now the 
ground, loosened bv the explosion, 
is removed with a shovel it will 
be found that a " pot hole " has 
formed at the point where the 
cartridge lay, and upon closely 
examining the walls of this " pot 
hole " it will be seen that num- 
berless fissures extend far back 
into the surrounding subsoil, while 
above the " pot hole " the ground 
is quite disintegrated, even in the 
most refractory cases. 

In this hole the tree is planted 
in the usual manner, and the 
beneficial effects of the blast 
quickly become naticeable, for ex- 
perience has shown that trees 
planted in this way are, after two 
vears' growth, practically double 
the size of those planted in the 
ordinary wav in spade-dug holes. 
The reason for ■ this is not far to 
seek ; it is only necessary to dig 
up a tree planted in hardpan, ac- 
cording to each of the two sys- 
tems, when it will be noticed that 
in the case of the tree planted in 
the hole prepared by dvnamite 
the roots are not onlv very much 
more numerous, but longer and 
more vigorous than in the case of 
the tree planted in the ordinary 
hand-due hole. In other words, 
the roots are free to spread in all 
directions, not only through the 
surface soil but also through the 
subsoil which has been thorough- 
ly fissured, and which is rich in 
plant food. Or to view the feffect 
of the blast from another point ; 
it becomes possible for water to 
permeate the soil and bring into 
solution the constituents necessary 
for plant life, thus rendering them 
readilv accessible to the roots. 
Last, but not least, there is the 
point that a larger reservoir for 
moisture is formed right under 
each tree, lyv reason of which 
''' dyna...ited " trees promise to be 
practicallv drought-resisting ; the 
rainfall, however slight, will be 
taken up : bv the soil instead of 
running to waste. 

The extraordinary feature of this 
method of preparing the ground 
for tree planting is that after the 
blast it would be quite impossible 
to tell from the surface of the soil 
that so important a change of 
condition had taken place. 

This method of soil treatment 
seems advantageous for practically 
all soils and for practicallv all 
tvpes of trees and plants. Very 
ereat increases in productivity 
have been observed to follow this 
treatment. Apple trees which had 
ceased to bear as a result of 
age and impoverished soil were 



112 



made to yield fine crops by ex- 
ploding, say, 7 or 8 feet below 
them, a single stick of a certain 
explosive. Bearing orchards are 
often treated with advantage, es- 
pecially in cases of exceptionally 
refractory hardpan. 

Apply the same reasoning to the 
vine problem. Obviously, the 
better the soil the better the crop, 
finder present average conditions 
the fanner delves his ground be- 
fore planting his sticks, if lie be 
progressive, or contents himself 
with simple ploughing, if he be 
conservative, and to this latter 
class, unfortunately, belong the 
threat majority. If the sail has 
been delved it will be opened to a 
depth of, sav, 18 inches, or at 
most 24 inches, and if ploughed 
to a depth of, say, 9 inches, or 
possibly 12 inches. Soil treated 
with dynamite, however, is opened 
to a depth of 3 feet f> inches to 
4 feet, and that at less cost per 
acre for delving to half the depth. 
To punch a hole 4 feet 6 inches to 
s feet deen will take two farm bovs 
ten minutes all told ; to load and 
fire it perhaps a farther five min- 
utes will be required, and it is 
estimated that the total cost per 
acre treated will be between £2 
10/- and £5, depending upon the 
nature of the soil' and the number 
of trees to be planted per acre. 

This being the case, it is in my 
opinion a sine qua non that ex- 
isting vinevards— especially those 
on hillsides underlaid bv hardpan 
— will benefit enormously bv dyna- 
mite plou<rhinf. M\- idea would 
be to punch holes in the centres of 
the rows, say, 6 feet or more 
apart, and, sav, * feet fi inches to 
4 feet deep, and in these would be 
exploded a small quantity of cer- 
tain dvnamTtp. This would have 
the effect of Assuring- the hardpan 
and allowing the vine roots access 
to fresh food supplies, and this 
without losing a season or injur- 
in - n vine. 

For lasting good, low initial 
cost of treatment, and enduring 
nature of improvement effected, 
dvnamite ploughing will take the 
leaf! in Africa as it has in 
America. 

Before leaving the subject of 
tree planting for the moment it 
will be well to mention that it has 
been found that in places where 
fruit trees have been killed bv cut 
worms and fungus in the soil, 
and these dead trees have been 
taken out and dynamite used to 
prepare holes for fresh trees, the 
new trees have not been troubled 
in anv wav bv the fundus, the ex- 
plosion of the dvnamite having rid 
the soil of the pests. 



THE GARDEN AND FIELD. 



— Sul)-Soiling for Cereals, 
Forage, Etc. — 

Where large tracts of land are 
to be treated for the culture of 
cereals, etc., the procedure is the 
same, excepting that the holes are 
not so close together. Holes from 
15 to 25 feet centres, depending 
upon conditions, are the ride for 
this type of work, and it is 
claimed that verv great increases 
in yield of oats and forage follow 
treatment of the soil in this 
fashion. It has been arranged to 
conduct experiments this winter. 

The attention of lucerne growers 
is especially invited to the fore- 
going, for it is believed that this 
treatment will rejuvenate a lucerne 
patch which has become compact- 
ed and hard, and on which the 
yield shows signs of falling off, 
and this without interfering with 
the growing crop. The quantity 
which it js necessary to explode 
in order thoroughly to disin- 
tegrate the subsoil under the lu- 
cerne is so small that not a plant 
should be disturbed, nor should a 
pebble or lump of earth be thrown 
a foot bv the explosion. 

« 

The Jerusalem Artichoke. 

Though this is an excellent and 
easily-grown vegetable, yet, strange 
to say, it is only cultivated to a 
very limited extent in the Australian 
States. It is a very handy plant and 
may be cultivated successfully in anv 
fairly good soil in all excepting the 
most arid regions. It thrives, how- 
ever, to the greatest perfection in 
moderately rich, sandy loam, with a 
moderately amount of moisture. 
Though the favorable conditions for 
cultivating this vegetable exist in 
most gardens, yet in many it is never 
seen. It is true it may be obtained 
in the principal vegetable markets, 
but in limited quantities, and at 
prices that only few can offord to 
give. As compared with the potato, 
the Jerusalem artichoke yields about 
double the quantity of nutritive mat- 
ter. In fact, its value as a food is 
equal to the cereal grains. Another 
advantage possessed by this vegetable 
is that it is more easily digested unci 
not so liable to cause flatulency as 
the potato, and consequently may be 
eaten safely by delicate persons. In- 
dependent of its value as a vegetable, 
the Jerusalem artichoke is an ■ ex- 
cellent and profitable crop for feeding 
swine, which thrive remarkably well 
upon thp tubers. When grown for this 
purpose, when the crop is mature and 
the pigs are ready for fattening turn 
them in and let them root up the 
tubers. Not the least recommenda- 
tion is the prolific'ness of this plant- 
when growing under ordinary favor 
able conditions.— Exchange. 



August, 11)12 



WANTED TO SELL 



INCUBATORS AND BROODERS 
Simplex, awarded first price (silver 
medal) Adelaide Exhibition, 1910. 
Agent for Cort's Patent Cooler-safe, 
a boon in summer. Send for price 
list.— D. LA NY ON. Manufacturer, 48 
Morth Terrace, Kent Town. 6-12. 



Brussels Sprouts. 



The first condition of success with 
lirussels sprouts like that of early 
all other vegetables is the right soil. 
The best soil is a rather sandy loam, 
not less than 12 inches deep, the sub- 
soil under which should be sandy or 
gravel. A clay or stiff sub-soil is 
uncongenial, and, unless drained arti- 
ficially or naturally by sandy or 
gravel sub-soil, success is impossible. 
The best manure is half stable and 
cow mixed together, and always bear 
in mind that the more thoroughly 
rotten and disintegrated manure can 
be had, the better will be th-> result. 

After planting, it is needless to sav 
that the soil should be kept con- 
tinually stirred around the roots, and 
all weeds kept down, 'D.uring very 
dry weather they should get plenty o 
water. 

* 

We have received from the pub- 
lishers (New South Wales Book- 
stall Co., Svdney) a copy of 
their valuable publication, " Aus- 
tralian Bungalow and Cottage 
Home Designs." 

The booklet deals principally 
with the modern bungalow and 
cottage home, which are becom- 
ing very popular throughout Aus- 
tralia. The drawings have been 
prepared bv Mr. Reginald A. Pre- 
vost, who possesses a verv envi- 
able reputation as an architect in 
the eastern States. Altogether 
there are about 7S designs and 
ground plans for the prospective 
builder to choose from, each de- 
sign having a short descriptive 
note, together with the approxi- 
mate cost of same, ranging from 
the vers- modest sum of £250 up 
to £1,250. That the bungalow 
has come to stay is proved by she 
large number of such houses that 
have been erected within the last 
vear or so in the various States, 
and the enterprising firm that 
have just produced the . work under 
review, thereby giving the indivi- 
dual builder an opportunity of se- 
curing a house of his own must 
be commended for their enterprise, 
and we have no doubt but that 
thev will experience a ready sale 
for their well got-up publication. 



August, 1912 



THE GARDEN AND FIELD. 



113 



Vegetable Notes for August. 

In the early districts no time should 
be lost in getting out the tonatoes, 
of course, protecting them ; and fresh 
sowings should be made of seeds in 
the hot bed. The following is a 
summary of seasonable operations : — 

Artichoke, Globe.— It is not too 1st? 
even in early districts to plant out 
suckers, and in late districts any 
time this month will do. 

Jerusalem Artichokes. — Plant at 
once in very early districts, anv tirne 
in August will do for the Adelaide 
plains, and September is early enough 
for the hills. Work the land deeply, 
manure well with stable manure, add- 
ing 1 lb. sulphate of potash and 4 
lb. superphosphates to the rod. Top- 
dress with sulphate of ammonia when 



CURLEW BRANDY. 




For years the Only Brandy used 
in the Adelaide Hospital. 

Sole Agents — 

DOWNER A 00. 

Wine and Spirit Merchants and 
Aerated Water Manufacturers. 

*7 WAYMOUTH ST., ADELAIDE 



the plants are growing. They need 
moisture. 

Asparagus. — Keep old beds clean, 
and the surface loose and mulched. If 
not done, apply "2 lb. sulphate potash 
4 lb. superiiosphate to the rod, and 
fork it in. To make new beds, 
thoroughly prepare the land add 
plenty of manure. Plant two-year-old 
plants in rows IS inches apart, and 
from one foot to 18 inches in the 
rows. Seed beds may be sown for 
plants to be set out two vears hence, 
•but it is usually best to buy the 
plants. 

Beans. — It is late now for broad 
beans in early districts, but not in 
hills. 

In early localities it is well to becin 
to make successive sowings of dwarf 
French beans at intervals of a fort- 
nigh. This is one of the most useful 
kitchen garden crops, and one which 
can be grown almost everywhere . In 
the warmer, sandy places if sown now 
early crops will be obtained without 
water, and wherever water is avail- 
able, by making successive sowings, 
a supply can be kept up until May. 

Beet.— Thin out and hoe previously 
sown beds, and if desired make fresh 
sowings of red and silver beet. It is 
an excellent plan to have a bed of 
white beet, for it will grow all 
through the summer with water, and 
apart from its use as a vegetable, it 
is about the best, green stuff to give 
fowls in the sutrjmer. 

Broccoli. — Set out pants if ir has 

not been already done. In favorable 
localities a sowing of seed should be 
made. 

Tape Gooseberry. — Sow seed in 

warm beds under glass the same as 
tomatoes. 

Capsicums — . Sow the same as 
tomatoes. 

Carrot. — I find that carrots and 
parsnips will do very well in many 
localities on the plains if sown now 
and fiven a little water as the ground 
gets "dryer. Sow in rows 18 in. 
aoart, and thin out as required. In 
the hills sow liberally at the end of 
the month. 

Cauliflower. — Sow seed beds in the 
hills. It is too late to attempt to 
grow this crop on the pla ; ns. 

Celery.— Sow seed l>eds in the hills 
and earth up, and water plants as 
required on the plains. 

Chicory. — Sow in the hills. Light, 
deep, sandy soil is necessary for good 
crops. 

Cucumber. — Those planted in hot 
beds last month must be carefullv at- 
tended to and kept growing. Make 
successive sowings in the hot beds. 
Tn favarable earlv localities sowiags 
mav be attempted in the open at the 
end of the month, especially if a 
hole, say 2 ft. across and a foot 
deep, be dug and nearly filled with 
fresh BtaWe manure. Cover with 4 in. 



of light soil, and plant the seeds. 
Put in pegs 6 in. high all round and 
throw a bag over until the seeds com- 
mence to come up, and every night 
after until the weather gets warmer. 
It is, of course, still better to make 
a few frames of flooring board or 
palings the size of the bed, and sti tch 
calico over the top. These are put 
on at nights in cold weather and 
taken off in warm weather. 

Endive. — Tie up those ready for 
blanching, and in the hills make sow- 
ings of seed. 

Kohl-Rabi.— This is a turnip-rooted 
cabbage, and may be sown now in 
eeed beds in the cooler districts. It 
is late for the plains. 

Leek. — Plant out in trenches similar 
to celery. 

Lettuce, Cress, Mustard, and other 
salad plants should be sown succes- 
sively. 

Melons. — What was said of cucum- 
bers will equally apply to this crop. 
It is questionable whether it really 
Pays to try and get plants up early. 
If, however, it be done, it is im- 
portant that such care be taken that 
the plants do not receive a check. 

Onions. — Seed beds for the main 
crop in the color districts mav be 
sown at once. Beds may still be 
planted out on the plains, especiallv 
whsre water is available. 

Parsley. — This is best sown in 
edginrs. Seed may be put in now. 

Peas. — Spring crops may be sown 
now of quick-growing sorts. It is 
however, late for warm localities. 
Make good sowings in the cooler 
districts, and keep on at intervals of 
a fortnight. 

Potatoes. — Good plantings may be 
trade at once, and if the. seed be well 
sprouted and the soil good, the crop 
will be ready in November. 



Schmidt & Catctilove 

105 Angas Street, Adelaide. 

GENERAL ENGINEERS. 



Makers of all classes of PUMPS. 
Specialists in Oil, Gas, and Petrol 
ENGINES. 



Repair Works and Tool Makers 
'Phone 3161. 

T. EI. LEES 

191 GRENFELL STREET 

(opp. Naw Market). 

Trolly, Dray, and Buggy Builder, 
Wheelwright and General Smith. 
Tyring done daily. Hones Shod. 

A TRIAL SOLICITED. 



114 



Extracts from "' Notes on the 
Orange in California, by R. A. 
Davis, Government Horticulturist 
(Transvaal), in South African 
Agricultural Journal. 

These notes were collected from 
personal observation as far as all 
particulars with regard to actual 
culture of tin' citrus family and 
its general ommereial handling 
are concerned. Information re co- 
operative marketing, was kindly 
supplied by various officials, or by 
Mr. Harold Powell, secretary of 
the Citrus Protection League). 
They have a direct bearing on 
the budding citrus industry of 
South Africa in that, • although 
actual orchard practice such as 
one finds in our\best tended groves 
is little behind that which exists 
in California, we may learn a 
very great deal by studying their 
methods of handling the crop from 
the moment it is gathered from 
the tree. It is here that we are 
in the greatest need of help. 




THE GARDEN AND FIELD. 



To begin at the beginning, one 
finds that oranges are budded 
(and not grafted, under any cir- 
cumstances) on either sweet or 
sour stocks, the latter being more 
generally in demand. Hitter Seville 
is the favourite, but, in addition, 
Florida sour and rough lemon are 
used. Neither of these is as sus- 
ceptible to gum diseases as is the 
sweat orange stock, and it is 
somewhat surprising to find that 
quite a large number of trees 
worked on this root are produced 
.mkI sold annual!} . There exists 
a belief that certain soils are bet- 
ter suited to sweet stocks, and 
that in such soils gum disease 
will not appear. This does not 
seem to be borne out by facts, for 
the writer saw hundreds of seed- 
ling trees and others grafted on 
sweet stocks in the last stage of 
gyun disease. 

The growing of the trees in the 
nurserv is conducted on the most 
careful lines. Each tree is staked 
and trained to a single stem onlv. 
From the time the voung buds 
have a few leaves until the tree is 
about three feet high and the time 
for heading back comes, the ap- 
pearance of each new leaf is the 
occasion for a raffia ligature; thus 
a voung nurserv tree appears to 
be bound to the stake everv couple 
of inches. Such works calls for a 
verv larpe amount of labour, and 
during the growing periods it is 
customary to see a number of 
vouths and men busily engaged at 
this work. A good Washington 
Navel tree sells as },/-, whilst epc- 
tra fine ones fetch 4/- and 5/- 
each. They are almost in every 
case sent out from the nurseries 
" balled," that is, with a ball of 
earth round the roots. The sys- 
tem requires the trees to be 
planted a little further apart in 
the rows than usual, but is found 
quite satisfactory. Trees removed 
with care, set in a shady place 
and watered, scarcely wilt ; they 
will travel well for Ion? distances, 
and as the ball of . earth, tied up 
in sacking to keep it a compact 
mass, weighs much less than a 
paraffin tin full of soil does, this 
method is suggested to our nur- 
serymen for trial. 

— Planting. — 

Orange trees sent out in this 
way mav be planted without re- 
moval of the sack ; with the ad- 
dition of the water which is indis- 
pensable at planting time the can- 
vas soon rots. It was noticeable 
that shallow planting has many 



August, 1912 

adherents, and there is no doubt 
but that citrus trees of all kinds 
are more satisfactory and less 
liable to gum disease when set 
out in this way. The bud should 
be at least fVin. abov« the level of 
the ground after it is set. 

— Training. — 

Systems differ just as much in 
California as they do in South 
Africa with regard to the train- 
ing of voung orange trees. Some 
orchards were seen where the old 
svstem of allowing the branches 
to sweep the ground is still ad- 
hered ; various reasons were given 
for permitting this with which 
most readers are familiar, but the 
main factor in allowing a young 
tree to grow up in this way 
proved to be that larger returns 
were secured in the earlier stages 
of growth. Thus a four-vear-old 
tree is expected to yield a box of 
or an pes j whilst under the svstem 
of trimming the limbs higher and 
kee':in<r them off the ground, less 
fruit would he secured. In manv 
cases the lower limbs had been al- 
low ed to come down until the tree 
was six or seven years old, but 
after that age they had been re- 
moved and the tree encouraged to 
assume the correct shape, that is, 
well branched and perfectly bal- 
anced, with the lowest outside 
limbs trimmed so that no leaves 
come within i8in. of the ground. 
It is a question whether it pavs 
to get every possible penny of in- 
come out 'of a tree bv encouraging 
heavy bearing in its youth, but 
there are undoubtedly occasions 
where immediate income aptoears 
of naramount importance, and this 
will probably alwavs be so. 

— Prunine. — 

Many proves appear to have 
had very little done, and, indeed, 
the oransre does not require so 
much attention in this direction 
as most trees. The practice gener- 
ally observed is to clean out all 
small dead wood in the inside of 
the tree, together with all suckers 
or water sprouts with anv 
^ranches which may appear super- 
fluous. 

Fruiting in the interior of the 
tree is encouraged, and to ac- 
complish this it is necessary that 
branches should be fewer than 
formerly when the idea prevailed 
that an orange tree should pre- 
sent a dense wall of foliage from 
top to bottom. 

Most of the pruning is done from 
inside the tree ; that is, the 
workman does not stand outside 
as in ordinary pruning, but en- 
sconces himself amongst the 
branches where, in the case of 



The Cultivation and Marketing of 
the Orange. 



August, 1912 



THE GARDEN AND FIELD. 



115 



large trees, he is completely hid- 
den, and effects the necessary 
ihmning, etc. In some instances 
the primings are allowed to accu- 
mulate under the trees for two or 
three years before thev are re- 
moved, but this only happens 
where the branches of the trees 
sweep the ground and so hide the 
unsight'- heaps, which can do no 
f^ood and only serve as a -breeding 
place for insects. 

— Soils and Climate. — 

In very few instances did the 
writer see anything as good for 
orange culture as are to be found 
in South Africa. The rich, deep, 
red loams which abound here are 
comparatively- few and hard to 
find. On the oth r h md many 
thousands of trees are planted 
a nd thriving in grey loam of 
varying depth. Occasionally one 
finds an excess of lime has in- 
jured the trees — an occurrence not 
likely to happen in South Africa. 
Naturally, the orchards cling to 
the foothills on account of the 
warmth secured. In favoured dis- 
tricts, such as Lindsay and Port- 
erville, there is a tendency to 
plant lower down in the valleys. 
Although in many orange-growing 
portions of the State summer tem- 
cerature is exceedingly high and 
the sun so fierce as sometimes to 
injure the oranges, in winter there 
is scarcely anv portion of the 
country where pineapples and 
bananas can be grown commerci- 
ally on account of the low night 
temperature prevailing. Thus in 
some districts preparations are 
made well in advance of winter 
for raising the temperature in the 
groves by means of fires and so 
saving a crop. It is hardly ne- 
cessary to point out that this is 
quite a costly proceeding, and it 
should emphasize the necessity of 
planting only on a site which is 
free or nearly so from frost. 
Rainfall takes place during the 
winter months and may be, in 
the southern citrus belt, anything 
under 18 inches, very rarely over, 
and occasionally less than to. 
This renders irrigation a necessi- 
ty, and the provisions for it are 
verv complete. Water is obtained, 
<*em rally speaking, either from a 
furrow owned bv an irrigation 
canal company, which disposes of 
water at so much per acre per 
annum, or' bv means of pumping. 

In those districts which have no 
water furrow, of course the pump 
is resorted to, and in most cases 
all groves of twenty acres and 
over have their own pumping 
station. Bore holes are put down, 
generally of eight inches in 
diameter, and a powerful pump 



installed ; those in use are nearly 
all plunger pumps; the centrifugal 
being almost entirely replaced by 
them. Electric power is obtained 
from some one of the many power 
companies at a moderate cost. It 
w ill be seen how comparatively 
simple the water question is as 
compared with our own. 

An excellent system of irriga- 
tion is in vogue at Lindsay, where 
pumping is general. The watei 
is pumped up into a small wood 
or cement reservoir fixed some 6ft. 
above the highest level of the 
ground. From there it is con- 
ducted bv gravitation through a 
cement pipe-line placed some i.sin. 
under the surface. These pipes 
vary from 12 to i> c in. in diameter, 
according to requirements. Be- 
tween every alternate row of trees 
a smaller cement pipe connects 
vertically with the large one be- 
low ground, and the water is ad- 
mitted into this bv a valve easily 
turned bv hand. In these vertical 
pipep are four holes, each iin. in 
diameter, and through these the 
water is allowed to start on its 
beneficial career. 

This is almost as perfect a sys- 
tem for the delivery of water as 
can be devised — it admits of exact 
measurement, and either slow or 
quick flow as required. It is dis- 
tributed amongst the trees by 
either what is known as the fur- 
row or the check system, the for- 
mer being mostly used. Furrows 
are made mostly by the addition 
of a furrowing attachment to a 
cultivator frame, and a " fur- 
rower " was secured for use at one 
of the experimental stations, 
where it will also demonstrate its 



suitability for the purpose to far- 
irters and other visitors. 

The natural sequence to irriga- 
tion is cultivation, and litre the 
mode adopted was most perfect. 

As soon as a team could get on 
the land, the sloping-toothed har- 
row was called into use ; this 
made a good job of the levelling, 
although there is an implement 
which does better work, having 
been specially designed for the 
purpose. In order to defer the 
next irrigation as long as pos- 
sible, the cultivator is then em- 
ployed. Evaporation, however, 
is extremelv rapid, owing to the 
intense heat of the sun, conse- 
quentb- irrigation is resorted to 
more frequently than is generally 
the case here. Cutaway harrows 
are generally favoured. 

— Fertilizing. — 

Cover crops of some kind of 
legume, principally beans, are in 
general use in order to afford a 
supfdv of humus and nitrogen. 
The latter is also applied in the 
form of nitrate of soda and dried 
blood — the former of these has 
lar'-elv displaced sulphate of am- 
monia as a source of nitrogen. 
It acts quickly, whereas the dried 
blood gets more slowly to wjork. 
The sulphate of potash is almost 
exclusively resorted to for a 
supply of this material, whilst 
steamed bones are favoured as 
yielding phosphoric acid and a cer- 
tain amount of nitrogen also. 

Kxperiments are being conduct- 
ed at the University of California, 
Southern Experimental Station, 
for the purpose of deciding what 



FRUIT TREES. 

By far the Largest Stock in Australia. 
200 Acres— Clean, Healthy, Well-Grown, and Free from Insect Pests. 

Inspection Invited. 

CATALOGUES FREE BY POST. 

C. A. NOBELIUS, 

Gem brook [Nurseries, 

Emerald (Vic), Australia. 



llfi 



THE GARDEN AND FIELD. 



August, 1912 



fertiliz>ers axe best suited to Cali- 
fornian soils, hut as the latter 
vary as much as our own, it is 
apparent that no one formula can 
he laid down as being par excel- 
lence the correct thing to use. 

It is customary with the ma- 
jority »f growers to use a large 
suivdv of fertilizer annually, as 
much as £-15 to £20 per acre be- 
ing freely spent ; it is therefore a 
matter of the first importance 
that no mistake be made in the 
application of any one ingredient 
which may be unnecessary, and it 
will he seen that a properly bal- 
anced formula is of the utmost 
importance. 

It must be conceded that Cali- 
fornia fruitgrowers conduct their 
operations on strictly business 
lines, so that the expenditure 
named must be justified bv results 
before it would l>e so regularly un- 
dertaken. That this is undoubted- 
ly the case is borne out bv the 
prices obtained for both unim- 
proved land and bearinsr proves. 
Near Lindsay, land suitable for 
orange crowing is worth and 
realizes from £80 to £110 per 
acre ; there are no facilities for 
watering, and boring must be re- 
sorted to. 

Just previous to the writer's 
visit, the following transactions 
took place. One orchard of Wash- 
iof^on Navel oranges, six years 
old, sold for £320 per acre ; one 
of eight years for £400, and a 
little 5-acre plot of Thompson's 
Improved Navel, 6 years old, 
fetched £240 per acre. 

Varieties of oransres planted now 
are almost entirely confined to 
Washington Navel or Valencia 
Late. Occasionally one finds other 
types of Navel, such as Thomp- 
son's Improved or Navelencia, but 
the oTi<rinal Navel is par excellence 
the one to plant. A good many 
old se^'dl'np proves are still found 
dotted about the country, but the 
fruit from these realizes compara- 



tively low prices as against the 
varieties' named. 

During August a few packing 
houses were still running on 
Valencia Lates, and a good many 
orchards were seen where the 
fruit was still hanginir. As this 
month corresponds with February 
here, it will be seen that this was 
exceedingly late, and the trees 
were none the better for ^their 
lone-sustained burden. The fruit, 
too, had not the juice or flavour 
which it possessed earlier in the 
season. However, prices were 
high, and as long as they hold, 
there will be no difficulty in find- 
ing growers to pick late even 
should their trees suffer. 

— Insect Pests and Diseases. — 

California can boast of even 
more insect pests affecting the 
orange than South Africa. It 
possesses all the species present 
here and others besides. During 
the writer's visit a campaign was 
beinsr waged acainst the Orange 
Thrip, which has dime much dam- 
age recently. It attacks both 
young, tender foliage and fruit 
The U.S. Aericultural Department 
had detailed an entomologist to 
deail specially with this pest, and 
under him was working one of the 
students sent bv the Transvaal 
Government to Cornell University. 
As previously stated, gum disease 
is extremely prevalent. 

(To be Continued | . 

<|> 

Dental Surgery is one of the pro- 
fessions in which there is no standino- 
still, and it is gratifying to kno^' 
that Australian dentists are second to 
none the world over as regards the 
adoption of the very latest methods. 
Britten's Registered Dentistry, 20 
Carrie Street Adelaide, go further 
than this, as not only are the 
Surgeries thoroughly tip-to-date, but 
th» nronrietors have adopted the 
liberal plan of easy weekly oavments. 
This, it must be readily understood . 
often proves a great convenience to 



E. A. LASSCOCK, 

I/OCKLEYS NURSERY. 
LOCKLEYS. 



FLOWER SEEDLINGS, Present plant- 
ing, 2/- per 100 ; postage 6d. 
extra. Best strains. Assorted 
colours. DELPHINIUMS. Strong 
plants, 1/6 per dozen. PETUNIA 
GRANDI FLORA, 1/- per dozen. 

Good assortment of Ferns at reason- 
able prices. Bazaars and Fetes 
supplied at wholesale rates. 

Catalogues Free. 



Telephone No. 34. Henley Bwiob.. 



EXECUTOR TRUSTEE 

AID AGENCY CO., OF S.A., LTD. 

Subscribed Capital - - £75,000 
Amount at Credit of Estates, Trusts, 
and Clients, £2,388,695 Is. 7d. 

DIRECTORS. — W. J. Maftarey fCh»irman), W. 
Herbert Phillipps, Esq., L. A. Jesgop, H. 0. E. 
Muecke, Richard Smith. E. W. van Senrlen, Esq. 

The Company transacts all classes of business as 
Executor, Trustee, Attorney and Agent. When 
winding up an estate only one charge is made (or 
realization. 

MONEY TO LEND AT CURRENT RATES. 

The Company's SAFE DEPOSIT provides ab- 
solute security for the storage, under Depositor's 
sole control, of CA8H, DEEDS, JEWELLERY 
SCRIP, PLATE, and other VALUABLES. 

YEARLY RENTALS OF SAFES, from £1 Is. 
W. W. CARTER. Manager. 

Offices, 22 Grenfell Street. 



clients, and the offer is. we under- 
stand, being largely availed of. All 
kinds of dental work is carried out 
at the surgeries, and it should 
be noted that the rooms are otxen 
daily from 9 to 5. 30 ; Saturdays, 9 
to 1 aid 7 to 9 p.m. — The location 
it may be added, is directly opposite 
the Savings Bank, and the proprie- 
tors wish it to be clearly understood 
that this is the only address. 



H. wicks $ Riverside & Balhannah Nurseries 

FRUIT TREES— All the Leading Varieties, Hardy and Well-Rooted. 

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H. WICKS, RIVERSIDE AND BALHANNAH NURSERIES. 
Postal Address : PAYNEHAM, SOUTH AUSTRALIA. 



August, 1912. 



THB GiAJLD&N AND FIELD. 



® The Farm ® 



Bacon Curing on the Farm. 



By R. J. Terry, Poultry and Pig 
Expert of Tasmania, writes on the 
above subject as follows : — 

A safe cure for farmers curing 
hams or shoulders of bacon 
ior home use is as follows : 
— Two ounces oi laiely-pulver- 
lsed saltpetre are well rubbed 
over each Hitch, especiaily care be- 
ing taken to apply a larger quan- 
tity to the parts whence the ham 
and the shoulder have been re- 
moved. The mtches are then 
placed during 10 or 12 hours upon 
the salting board, and a mixture oi 
jibs, of salt and 2ibs. of coarse 
moist sugar is heated in a frying 
pan, and so stirred as to attain 
a uniform temperature. The 
mtches are rubbed all over with 
this mixture in as hot a state as 
the hand can bear it. They are 
then placed the one upon the other 
in a salting pan or trough, when 
the brine immediatelv oegins to 
form. They are well basted and 
rubbed with the brine and turned 
twice a week ; the under ilitch be- 
ing placed uppermost at every 
turning, and at the end of four 
weeks they are hung up to dry. 
The two hams are cured simul- 
taneously with the Hitches. Each 
ham, like each flitch is well rubbed 



with 2ozs. of finely -pulverised salt- 
petre. It is then placed during 
10 or 12 hours in a separate dish, 
with rind or bac* part downward. 
It is next rubbed with a hot mix- 
ture of salt and sugar, in the same 
manner as the Hitches, with the 
simple difference that only 4lbs. 
of salt are mixed with the 2lbs. 
of sugar for the hams. It is niext 
put into a salting pan to make 
its own brine, is rubbed and bast- 
ed with the brine, and turned 
every day for five weeKs, and is 
then hung up to dry. Note — the 
sugar used should be coarse brown. 

— Brine Curing. — 

More or less makeshift appli- 
ances can be used in dry salting, 
but in brine curing, tanks, or at 
least one tank, is necessary; two 
or three are more convenient if 
much pork ' is to be cured. The 
tanks may be made of wood, 
cement, or brick cemented over ; 
the two latter materials are best. 
Une correspondent wanted size of 
tanks. My advice is err on the 
large size. Roughly, a tank, say, 
2ft. 4ins. by ift. 3ins. by i6ins. 
will be sufficient for one pig ; 4ft. 
4ins. 'bv 2ft. 3ins. by 18 or 191ns. 
is a useful size for the farmer salt- 
ing two pigs. If the tanks are 
of wood, thoroughly soak to make 
watertight, then scrub clean. If 




Drink 

COOPER'S 

PURE BEER. 

Orders to the Brewery, 
Upper Kensington. 



the weather is cool and the keep- 
ing oi the meat quite safe i prater 
that the buK of saltpetre be used 
on the meat previous to being put 
in brine. 

— Making the Brine. — 

This may vary somewhat to 
meet individual or customers' 
tastes as to the quantity of sugar 
used, or if spices are to be added ; 
if the latter, they must be in a 
muslin bag, not loose. 1 do not 
recommend use of spices for bacon. 
2lbs. of :salt to every gallon of 
water is right ; but salt varies in 
quality, and the brine should be 
tested by it being just strong 
enough to float a fresh egg or 
potato- To every gallon oi the 
liquor add 3% to 4lbs. of soft 
brown sugar, 2ozs. sal prunella, 
and 2ozs. saltpetre ; reduce quan- 
tity of two latter if saltpetre has 
been used prior to placing meat in 
brine. Thre pickle should be 
boiled and skimmed, then allowed 
to cool. Then mix sufficient salt 
with about one-twentieth of its 
weight of saltpetre. A thin layer 
is sprinkled on the bottom of the 
tank, the hams first rubbed well 
with the mixture, and then packed 
with flesh side ' upwards. Plenty 
of the mixture is packed on top, 
especially about the exposed bone. 
The sides and Hitches are similar- 
ly treated and packed in layers 
with flesh side upwards, except 
that the top lay is reversed. The 
sides and corners of the tank may 
lie filled with pieces of pork. Keep 
layers as even as possible. Place 
boards on top and weight or bat- 
ten down. Fill tank to above 
level of meat with cool brine. The 
meat should be either turned or 
replaced in the other tank every 
two days. The time the meat 
should remain in the tanks of 
course varies with the weight of 
the pigs being^ cured, but for far- 
mers' cure about 10 clays would 
be safe. 

— Washing. — 

Too little attention is paid to 
washing and trimming the sides 

re ious to drying and smoking. 
The side should not be just rinsed 



US 



THE GARDEN AND FIELD. 



August, 1911 



CROWN «Sc ANCHOK HOTEL, 

GRENFELL STREET (adjoining East End Market). 
A MIERS Proprietor 

(late of Old Queen's Arms, Wright Street). 

wishes to intimate that he is now in possession of the above hotel, and 
hopes to merit a share of public sup port. Ample stabling. Ostler in 
attendance day and night. Terms moderate. A trial solicited. 



in water, but placed in hot water 
(say, in which one can comfort- 
ably bear one's hands), and 
brushed all over with a brush, 
removing all slime, loose pieces of 
fat, salt, etc. The cured meat 
should then lie Soaked in clean 
cold water for a day and night. 
There will not be any uglj crust 
of white slime and salt (as is so 
often seen at some countrj shows 
in this State) on the bacon treat- 
ed in this manner. Rjetrim if the 
bacon is lor sale, and hang up to 
dry. 

— Drying. — 

Dry the hams and sides in a 
slight current of air if possible 
(not a wind). If this is not 
practicable hang in a well- ventil- 
ated room or building. Under 
very favourable conditions the 
bacon may lie lit lor Smoking in 
live davs, but the probability is it 
will take much longer. The fac- 
tory has a great advantage over 
the farmer in this respect, having 
I. ins and hearting arrangements. 

— Smoking. — 

How the farmer smokes his 
bacon and hams will depend to a 
great extent on how he is situ- 
ated. One can hardly expect him 
to build a smokehouse for curing 
one or two pigs each year. A 
large case or barrel may be util- 
ised in those circumstances. Hut 
the farmer who sells his products 
should have a smokehouse, which 
need not be elaborate : A hut 8 
or 9 feet square, composed of 
rough timber, with stout beams to 
hang the bacon on. The roof can 
be almost flat, with a very small 
opening to let the smoke out ; a 
slide would be an improvement. 
Cover the floor with 6 or 7 inches 
of hardwood sawdust, and light at 
both ends ; it will smoulder, but 



not . burst into tlaine, if the uoor 
is Kept shut. The period of smok- 
ing is a matter of taste. Do not 
overdo it. 

— Conclusions. — 

I have tried to make the above 
directions simple, and to deal with 
the sub.,ect from a farmer's point 
of view. If the directions are 
well and faithfully followed, and 
tlie feeding of the pigs has 
been correct, I can -assure readers 
a really good article will be the 
result. Factory curing is a some- 
what different matter. The prin- 
cipal feature of curing is the ma- 
chinery. There must be a lull 
complement of mechanical appli- 
ances, and the principal of these 
is the refrigerating machine, upon 
which the temperatures in tlie 
chill-room and cellars absolutely 
depend- A constant temperature 
is what is wanted, and constant 
curinp conditions can only be ob- 
tained by the construction of 
suitable rooms, the atmosphere of 
which is under the control of me- 
chanical refrigeration. The rea- 
son of this is that the public taste 
nowadays is for mild-cured meats, 
and it is quite impossible to cure 
meat in a mild way except in a 
constantl- cooled atmosphere. The 
mild-cured meat may not be ac- 
ceptable to all, but it is certainly 
more nutritious than meat which 
is heavily salted. The heavier the 
salting, and the longer meat re- 



mains in salt, the less nutritious 
it becomes. Therefore, cure at the 
factory il possible. 

$ 

Tree-Planting on the Farm. 



From the Agricultural Gazette of 
Tasmania. 

The season for sowing seeds or 
planting young trees for shade and 
shelter is close to hand. It is a 
very great pity that so little 
knowledge is abroad in this re- 
spect. Like most works of per- 
majient beauty and utility it is 
only a close study which enables 
their virtues to be perceived. 
Apart from the discomfort and 
the general toll levied by wind 
and frost upon stock and crop, 
the unsightliness of a bare home- 
stead can only be perceived when 
the owner is educated in sylvan 
beauties and the graceful habits of 
irrowth of the different varieties of 
trees. If this borders on the 
sentimental, the saving of both 
stock and crop from properly- 
planted shelter belts and [ wind 
breaks does certainly not do so, 
and the aggregated, unnoticed 
losses from a lack of this pro-vi- 
sion throughout the State rises 
to gigantic proportions. 

If what were urged involved the 
farmer in considerable expenditure 
then the stand taken up could be 
objected to with good reason ; but 
when it is grasped that thousands 
of seedlings can be raised on a 
plot of ground 40 square feet in 
area, and only a little exertion is 
needed, with one's neighbours' per- 
mission t<j gather seed, the apathy 
is lamentable, and a standing 
charge not only against the far- 
mer's lack of taste, but worse 
still, his banking account. 

To procure seeds from such trees 
as the pine family all that is 
necessary is to wrench off the 
brown cones from trees of a fair 
age and then immerse the same in 
hot water for two minutes. The 
heat will release the bracts, and 
if the cones are placed in the sun 
or a warm place for a few days 
the seeds will drop out on giving 
the cones a tap on the table or 



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and Licensed Land Brokers. 

Managing Directors — George W. Bagot, John Lewie 
Wool Managers — George Howling. George Jeffory. 

Land Manager— Alfred C. Catt. 
Inspector of Branches — James Wilkinson. 

Sales of fat and store stock, land, and farm clearing sales conducted in 
ifiy part of the State. 

All station and farm requisites supplied ; large estates disposed of for 
Closer Settlement ; advice given as to best means of realisation ; plans pr<»- 
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Head Office: 18 King William Street, Adelaide. 



August, 1912. 



THE GARDEN AND FIELD. 



119 



iloor. A good many of the seeds 
in each cone contain no kernel, 
and are, of course, useless for ger- 
minating purposes. The empty 
shells can easily be distinguisned 
by their whitish-grey colour, 
whereas the good seeds are dark 
in colour. It is a good plan be- 
fore sowing, to save time .and vex- 
ation, to crack a few of the seeds 
until one with a kernel is found. 
Trees grown on dry banks ar^ 
frequently precocious, and produce 
cones at an early age, but it ty 
no means follows that the seeds 
are anvthing but empty shells. 

Having procured the seed the 
next move is to prepare the plot 
of ground for its reception. . The 
site of the plot should be in a 
sheltered .place, where the sod will 
not get baked on the surface. The 
ground should be prepared similar- 
ly to that tor any ordinary gar- 
den seeds, and the sowing- can take 
the form of dibbling the seeds in 
or they can be scattered broad- 
cast and a little sod thrown over 
afterwards. 

If the sowing is done in August 
germination should have occurred, 
and the seeds through the ground 
n\ September. The only thing 
now to do for a, whde is to watch 
that any weeds that come 
through are removed and the seed : 
;in s a-lowed the sole occupancv ol 
the plot. 

A wonderful difference in the rate 
of growth will now be observed in 
the different varieties of\ trees. 
Amongst the pine family the Re- 
markable, or Jlonterey Pine will 
race awav, so much so that in the 
autumn it will be big enough to 
plant out permanently. The prac- 
tice of wrenching , the young plants 
is found useful in ensuring a suc- 
cessful growth after transplanting. 
This is a process of inserting the 
spade down a few inches from the 
trees and sufficiently, at right 
angles, to cut the tap roots, or 
bearin" suilicientlv on the spade 
handle to move the soil and break 
the root. The youngsters take 
this treatment sulkily sometimes, 
and look sickly for a few days, 
but vigorous seedlings soon make 
fibrous roots, which allow of their 
being transplanted with success. 

Another method of securing 
fibrous roots and ensuring trans- 
planting at a distance from seed 
plot is " mossing." A few weeks 
after wrenching the seedlings are 
dug up and the plants handled 
singly, but by no means must the 
sun or wind get at the rootlets, 
even for a few minutes, otherwise 
disaster will follow. As many 
plants as can be handled fairly 



quickly arj dag up and conveyed 
to a sneuer sued. rvacn plant in 
l urn ' is nanuiea, ana tne cap root 
ana any ouicr rootlets aoUDieu 
uaCo. ana a Handful ol aamp nios^ 
is wra^ eu rouna and the buncn 
Lied wicii SLiing or snip ol 1,1 few 
^ealanci nemp. u hen a lew do^en 
lia\e been dealt witn in ims way 
a furrow is made outside m tue 
ground, and the " mossed trees 
placed siue by side in a row. Hie 
sod is tnen turneu bacK. on 10 
tlie '• mossed roots, ana wen 
patted down with the spade, The 
sod moisture will penetrate tne 
moss, and in a lew weeks it will 
be a mass of fioroas roots. When 
rcauy for transhipment tne sod is 
spaaed away and the mossed trees 
just as they are can oe packed 
in a box and sent any distance. 
Un receipt at their destination the 
trees are planted where they are 
to permanently remain without in 
any way touching the moss. If 
the soil has been properly pre- 
pared where they are to grow the 
young rootlets will soon penetrate 
the moss and search for lood sup- 
plies in the soil. 

" Puddling," as it is called, is 
another method of ensuring 
against loss on transplanting from 
the seed bed. We will suppose a 
farmer has grown a few hundred 
seedlings for placing out on his 
own farm. If the seedlings were 
dug up and carried round in a 
parcel for even a few minutes 
there is danger of loss through the 
roots drying out. To guard 
iigainst this, as soon as the trees 
are dug from the nursery they are 
immersed in a bucket of water 
which contains enough soil in it to 
make it the consistency of cream. 

Transplanting from the nursery 
tan be thus carried on with safety, 
by me;nis of the bucket with the 
puddled water. The soil particles 
adhering when a seedling is re- 
moved from the bucket and placed 
in the ground hold moisture, and 
no doubt yield a modicum of sus- 
tenance until the young roots 



adapt themselves to their neiw 
environment. 

The sowing of seeds can be done 
in boxes, which some may prefer. 
The removal of the box with the 
seedlings should a change of resi- 
dence be necessary is, of course, 
eminently satisfactory. All that 
is necessary is to see that' the box 
has good drainage, and it may be 
necessary to give the seedlings a 
sprinkling of water during dry 
spells, but this must be done with 
some judgment. It is by no 
means desirable to keep the soil 
saturated with moisture, other- 
wise " damping off " will occur, 
which is a fungus trouble caused 
by. excess of moisture. 

As a guide to the depth at 
which to sow seeds it is a safe 
plan never to plant them deeper 
than their own diameter. If the 
voung plumule or future stem does 
not reach the light before the 
store of food provided naturally in 
the seed is exhausted the plant 
dies. 

As to what varieties to select to 
grow will depend upon . a number 
of circumstances. The question of 
ornament or utility and the 
amount of space at the disposal 
of the owner will be the deciding 
factors. 



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(15 years with Stevenson Bros.) 
57 GOUGER STREET, ADELAIDE. 



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Established in 1885. 

Hindmarsh Square, Adelaide. 



120 



AugulH, IB 12. 



Home Remedies for Live Stock. 



Bj Thomas H. Dale, M.R.C.Y.S., 
Government Veterinary Officer, in 
Agricultural Journal of South 
Africa. 



The average farmer is often 
laughed at by the " superior per- 
son " or those more fortunately 
placed for the, what appears 
to them, extraordinary remedies 
which are often pressed into ser- 
vice when an\' ol the live stock 
of the farm fall sick, but serious 
consideration of the question will 
force the individual to womder 
what he would do in similar cir- 
cumstances, the nearest store 
probably ten miles away and the 
nearest chemist nearer fifty. 
There is also the fact that for 
generations the fanner has had to 
fall back on his own resources, 
retaining with almost sacred re- 
verence the lore bequeathed to him 
bv his sires, and making the 
pantry or the cart shed his dis- 
pensarv. One can see him at his 
wits end what to do ; how he 
he casts his eve around until it 
alights on coffee or cart grease, 
vinegar or sheep dip, and he re- 
members that his grandfather 
once cured an ox of gall-sickness 
with a mixture of these, so the 
different ingredients are dulv mea- 
sured out, mixed, well shaken, and 
poured down the throat of the 
unwilling beast, one dose usually 
being", considered sufficient, my eff- 
perienee tells me that it often is, 
and the expectant hearts of the 
attendant Kaffirs are thereby 



gladdened, and a " meat h :i . 
which was last developing is 
assuaged, the farmer expressing 
his conviction that it is a new 
form of gall-sickness, quite differ- 
ent to what his father had to deal 
with, and then the slight commo- 
tion thus raised subsides, dies out, 
and there is nothing leit to tell 
the tale ; but a sun-dried hide 
which will some day be made into 
reims. Still there are many i re- 
medies of the home, which if pro- 
perly used and with discretion 
may often be pressed into service, 
and it is proposed to enumerate a 
lew- of these, to give their actions 
and uses, and include any hints 
which practical experience may 
dictate. 

— Dop, Whisky, Brand}-, and Cape 
Wines. — 

Now although it is unusual to 
find any ol these displayed on the 
sideboard of most farm houses, it 
is generally found that on emer- 
gency a little, especially of the 
first or last, may lie unearthed, 
and on occasion a better stimu- 
lant cannot be found. There are 
many times when a horse has 
been overdriven, or * driven over 
his water" so called,, he stands 
dejectedly in his stall with a cold 
sweat, quickening breathing, and 
possibly trembling all over, a 
quarter of a bottle of " dop " or 
similar spirit with the rest of the 
bottle filled up with warm water, 
well shaken, and given by the 
mouth, will often stimulate the 
animal to look for food withir 



twenty minutes, when a nice hot 
bran mash will complete the cure, 
and he will be all right in the 
morning, a serious illness having 
possibly been averted. Beer or 
stout may be given as it is, 01 
warmed in a saucepan with, a lit- 
tle powdered ginger added, but 
spirits of any kind must be di- 
luted wi'h three times their bulk 
of water, or milk, for it must be 
remembered that a horse hasn't 
got a tin throat. The above re- 
marks apply equally to cattle 
where a stimdlant is required. 
When a cow has a difficult calving, 
assistance, although well meant, 
was probably roughly rendered, 
and after the birth the cow is 
unable to rise, a good stimulant 
given every four hours will often 
be all that is required, and within 
the twenty-four hours she will be 
milking freely and feeding well ; in 
other words, whenever a general 
stimulant is required no harm will 
be done, and much good may 
accrue if any of the spirits named 
are given in the doses indicated. 

— Turpentine. — 

Turpentine is probably found in 
every farm house, and is used in- 
discriminately for every disease 
and condition under the sun, con- 
sequentlv the results achieved are 
varied, and this explains why it 
is condemned by some and extolled 
by others, but if used where its 
special action is indicated it is 
most useful and can be depended 
on. For killing worms and other 
internal parasites it is one of the 
most useful home remedies that 
can be applied, and in cases of 
colic in horses and hoven in cattle 
it is a very reliable, remedy, and 
in conjunction with other home 
remedies which are usually found 
on the farm will usually effect a 
cure in a very short time. One 
of the commonest '" worries " of 
the farmer is worms in calves, 
and in these cases the administra- 
tion of turpentine (mixed with raw 
linseed oil or milk) in doses of a 
tablespoonful and a teaspoonful 
for lambs and kids generally pro- 
duces the desired effect, but not 
always ; some cases are most in- 
tractable, but in these we can for- 
forsake our household dispensary 
and obtain from the chemist some 
extract of male shield fern, which 
can be administered in doses of i 
drachm with half a dose of tur- 
pentine and the usual a...ount of 
linseed oil, this mixture invariably 
producing the desired result. In 
colic in horses or hoven in cattle 
it is recommended that 2 ounces 
of turpentine and 1 pint of raw 
linseed oil be put into - a whisky 
bottle, 1 well shaken until thorough- 
ly mixed, and then the bottle 



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August, 1912 



THE GARDEN AND FIELD. 



121 



tilled up with dop, whisky, or 
other spirit, again well shaken, 
and carefully bottled down the 
animal by the mouth. This 
usually gives relief, but if. it does 
not witnin an hour, a third of a 
bottle of whisky, dop, or other 
spirit filled up with warm water 
may be administered, or if kept 
in the house, 2 ounces of chloro- 
dyne may be given diluted in a 
bottle of cold water. Should there 
be no raw linseed oil in the house 
it will be found that turpentine 
mixes well with milk, and al- 
though this is not so good, as the 
od has a laxative enect on the 
bowel which the milk has not, it 
is a means of administering the 
turpentine which will not mix 
with water. 

— L-inseed Oil. — 

As will have been already seen 
under " Turpentine," linseed oil 
is of very great service and gene- 
ral use, but when using this for 
animals care must be taken that 
it is the raw oil which is used and 
not the " boiled " oil which is 
used for paints and varnishes, as 
this in its preparation has lost 
its active principle and is apt to 
produce the opposite eiteet to that 
expected. Linseed oil has many 
uses ; in small doses it is very 
feeding. Like cod-liver oil, butter, 
lard, and fats of all sorts, it can 
be used as a vehicle far the ad- 
ministration of the more potent 
drugs, and in large doses is a very 
valuable purgative that can be de- 
pended on and has not the violent 
properties of croton oil and other 
drastic purges which often gripe, 
and unless given with some car- 
minative may cause colicky 
pains and much distress. For deli- 
cate and light fleshed animals i 
ounce in a bran mash twice a day 
will often work wonders and bring 
them into a sleek and healthy con- 
dition which is often permanent. 
But it is as a purgative that it is 
so valuable in this country where 
aloes is so often unreliable. One 
pint usuallv ensures profuse purga- 
tion in horses. For cattle epsom 



salts are better, but if these are 
not available two pints of oil 
may be given, shaken up with the 
same quantity of treacle, gruel, 
milK, or spirits and water, but 
there is no doubt that epsom 
salts is the very best purgative 
for cattle, and ought to be a 
household remedy on every farm 
if already not so. Although cas- 
tor oil is better for calves, sheep, 
and pigs, linseed oil can be given 
in the following doeses : — Calves 
from 4 to lo ounces, according to 
age ; sheep and pigs 6 to lo 
ounces ; dogs may be given i to 2 
ounces, according to size. 

— Castor Oil. — 
Castor oil has very much the 
same action as raw linseed oil, 
but for calves, sheep, and pigs is 
preferable. Both foals and calves 
soon after birth often experience 
difficulty in passing anvthing. 
There is no drug which has a bet- 
ter effect than castor . oil, and if 
enemas of warm soap and water 
are giv en the little animal will re- 
ceive relief in a v ery short time. 
Sheep and pigs can be given 2 to 
4 ounces, according to age and 
size. 

— Salad Oil and Sweet Oil. — 

Should there be no linseed or 
castor oil in the house, either of 
the above may be used and will 
be found a fair substitute. 

Lard may be used as a substi- 
tute for lanoline, vaseline, etc., in 
making ointments such as sulphur 
ointment, zinc ointment, and tar 
ointment. 

— Paraffin. — 

I'. i ratlin is found in every home- 
stead, which is probably the reason 
it is more used than any other re- 
medy ; and although all sorts of 
virtues are claimed for it its 
medicinal properties are not very 
marked, and it is verv question- 
able whether it is of much assist- 
ance in combating the numerous 
diseases and conditions to which 
it is applied, and a s it has an ir- 
ritant effect on the digestive tract 



it should not be given to horses 
or cattle in larger doses than I 
ounce. Externally, however, it 
can be used with advantage to 
cure mange in horses and cattle 
and to kill lice, a convenient mix- 
ture being made as follows : — Rub 
up some soap in hot water until 
it is all dissolved, then stir in an 
eq'ual quantity of linseed oil, and 
when this is well mixed add grad- 
ually an equal quantity of 
paraffin (that is equal quantities 
ol paraffin, linseed oil, and soap 
water). Rub this well into the 
skin, especially into the mane and 
tail, on three days in succession. 
Leave this on for a week, and 
then wash off with warm water 
and soap. A cure is generally ef- 
fected, but if not quite cured re- 
peat the process. 

— Sulphur. — 

Sulphur is found on most farms, 
and amongst other things is used 
for dusting vines to destroy rust 
and fungi and to make lime and 
sulphur dip for the cure of scab 
in sheep. But it can' also be used 
internallv with advantage in 
many cases and externally as an 
ointment. Many unthrifty ani- 
mals are benefited by giving small 
doses . of sulphur for ten days or a 
fortnight in their food, this especi- 
ally applying to unthrifty pigs. 
The doses are : — Horses, % ounce ; 
cattle, I ounce ; sheep and pigs, 
i to 2 drachms ; dogs, 30 to 60 
grains. Should it be found to be 
necessary to bottle it down an 
animal, it will dissolve in milk or 
it can be given suspended in gruel; 
it will not dissolve in water. 
Rock sulphur is commonly seen in 
drinking water supplied to dogs, 
but as it is insoluble, the dog 
does not get any of it and there- 
fore derives no benefit, but he will 
usuallv readily take it dissolved in 
milk. The Howers of sulphur are 
often used in mixtures for the cure 
of mange in horses, mixed with 
any bland oil, fat, or lard — either 
alone or with paraffin added. 
Mange in dogs can often be cured 
with simple sulphur ointment. 



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122 



TEDS OAJLDBN AND FIEU). 



August, 1912 



One part of sulphur with four 

parts of lard, well mixed and 

rubbed in after the animal has 

been well washed with soap and 

water, to remove the scales and 
scabs. 

— Chlorodyne. — 

Chlorodvue is a remedy much 
used in the home lor mam ol the 
ills that human flesh is heir to, 
and it can equally well be used 
for the animals on the farm. In 
cases of colic in horses 2 ounces 
can be given in a bottle of water 
half an noun after turpentine and 
linseed oil have been given if neliel 
has not been obtained, but chloro- 
dyne does not remove the cause 
of the colic, it only relieves the 
pain ; it is therefore necessary to 
give oil to clear out the offending 
material whatever it may be. 
Chlorodyne can always be given 
where great pain is evidenced, but 
care must be .taken not to repeat 
the dose at too close an interval. 

— LCpsom Salts. — 

Epsom Salts should be to hand 
on every farm, it is a very valu- 
able laxative for all stock and a 
long way the best for cattle. 
Roughly, the dose mav be said to 
be i ounce for every month of the 
animal's age up,to lib., but large 
oxen and bulls may require up to 
i%lbs. Sheep take 3 to 6 ounces, 
according to size. in every case 
all the salt must be dissolved in 
water, and if available it is best 
dissolved in warm water. If sdf- 
ficient epsom salts cannot be ob- 
tained half the quantity mav be 
riven and the other half of the 
dose made up with common salt, 
which some maintain acts better 
than the epsom salts alone. 



— Uther Remedies. — 
Horses suffering irom biliary 
fever may be given 2 ounces ol 
epsom salts in their drinking 
water twice a day with advan- 
tage, the medicine reducing the 
fever and keeping the bowels in 
nice order without purging the 
animal. 

Common Salt may be used if 
epsom sales are not to hand, but 
the dose should be sligliuy less ; 
Vi to liu. being suilicieut for a 
lull-grown beast. 

Carbonate and Bicarbonate of 
Soda are often of use in cases of 
indigestion and llatulence or 
hoven, especially in calves which 
are often relieved by 1 or 2 
drachms of bicarbonate of soda 
dissolved in each, meal if they are 
being fed by hand. Doses : 
Horses and cattle take 2 to 3 
ounces, sheep and pigs 30 grains 
to 2 drachms. 

\ inegar is in high repute as a 
cure for almost everything from 
gall-sickness to imaginary loose 
teeth, but it is very questionable 
whether it has any curative action 
whatever. There is a very com- 
mon belief that it has the pro- 
perty of dissolving the hard con- 
tents of the third or leaf stomach 
(blaarpens), but any action it has 
in this respect is more probably 
due to its stimulant action or to 
other stimulants with which it is 
often combined, such as mustard 
<>r pepper. 

Bluestone is a very good worm 
medicine but requires great "care 
in its administration and in mea- 
suring and mixing the drug so 
that the proper strength which 



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experience has shown to be safe 
may be obtained. Or. Hutcheon 
recommended it for wire worm 
(haarworm) in sheep, lib. of blue- 
stone to be dissolved in sixty 
bottles of water, and that 14 I 
ounces to 5 ounces of the solution I 
be given to lambs and sheep, ac- , 
cording to age. Three to six I 
months old lambs getting i'/ 2 
ounces and so on until 5 ounces • 
for those eighteen months old and 
over. It is always best to mix 
the quantity required for the \ 
whole lot and then dose a few to ;] 
try the effect, picking out the \ 
weakest for the experiment. Like ; 
all worm medicines the best re- 
sults are attained when the sheep 
have been fasted for twenty-four 
to thirty hours and being kept 
away from water for the rest of ' 
the day on which the sheep are I 
dosed. It is not safe to leave 
the dosing to anyone as great : 
care is required, for if a little only 
gets into the lungs inllammation 
of the lungs will be set up and 
may cause the death of the ani- 
mal. 

— Stockholm Tar. — 

The writer has had success in 
the treatment of wire worm in 
sheep by administration of Stock- 
holm tar. The dose is one to 
two tablespoons on the tongue, 
repeated two or three times with 
intervals of four or five days be- 
tween the doses, and where sheep 
have got too weak to stand blue- 
stone, Stockholm tar will be found 
a safer remedy to use. 

Calomel is often given in cases 
of gall-sickness and is a very 
useful remedy for this complaint. 
Cattle take I drachm or 60 grains, 
and it is best given dry on the 
tongue as it will not dissolve in 
water, and if put into a bottle of 
water and well shaken up it will 
be found that the beast gets the 
water and the calomel all sticks 
around the inside of the bottle. 
A better plan is to, place it dry "< 
on the back of the tongue, it can £ 
then be washed down with a bot- 




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August, 1912 



THE GARDEN AND FIELD. 



tie of water, eight hours after- 
wards give lib. epsom salts dis- 
solved in six bottles of water, 
the action of the salts being hast- 
ened if the water is warm. 
Calomel can also be given to dogs 
in io grain doses for biliary 
fever, it can also be used for the 
inflammation of the eyes which is 
so common in this country ' 
amongst cattle. A little of the 
urv powder either being blown in- 
to the eye or placed inside the 
lower lid, it will often clear up 
the so-called film in a few days. 
A little applied as a dry powder 
to saddle galls and sores quickly 
dries them up. 

Cooper's Dip can be used as a 
very effective medicine if care is 
used in its administration, but as 
it contains arsenic it must be re- 
membered that it is very easy to 
poison stock with it unless reason- 
able care is used, It is a very 
good worm and blood medicine, 
and is also a preventive ot 
gedziekte in sheep. It is usually 
given dry mixed with common 
salt in the proportion of one part 
of dip powder to ten of salt, the 
dose of the mixture for a sheep 
Dting one teaspoonlul. 

J eye's Fluid, Little's Dip, Kerol, 
and dips of this type may be 
given internally, but small doses, 
Say, up to half an ounce, are 
quite sufficient, and although very 
much larger doses may be given 
without appearing to do any 
injury, the desired result is at- 
tained with the smaller dose. In 
cases of chronic indigestion in 
which the animal frequently be- 
comes ho%en, any of these dips 
are effectual in checking undue 
fermentation and acidity ; for 
animals with sore mouths or 
injuries to the tongue or lips, a 
solution makes a nice gargle or 
wash. As a dressing for wounds 
and for syringing out abscesses 
they are hard to beat, but of 
course must be used in weak 
solution, and in the treatment of 
strangles (nieuweziekte) in horses 
a little placed into some boiling 
water at the bottom of a bucket, 
then some hay, straw, or similar 
material placed on top so that the 
animal cannot scald his nose, and 
the bucket placed at the bottom 
<of a sack with its mouth tied to 
the noseband of the headstall, will 
enable the animal to inhale the 
steam which arises, and will 
bring away any discharge and 
help to bring matters to a head 
very much quicker than without 
the treatment. 

. Coffee and Tea.— Both these con- 
tain an active principle which is 
now considered to be identical. 
Strong solutions of coffee and tea 



are stimulants and may be given 
warm in cases where a better and 
more prompt stimulant cannot be 
obtained, but they require to be 
made strong and to be given in 
considerable quantity. 

Lime-water is very easy to make 
and should be more used than it 
is, as it is very useful in the 
treatment of indigestion and 
diarrhoea in all classes of patients. 
Lalves which are being fed by the 
bucket often cannot assimilate un- 
diluted milk, and benefit is almost 
always derived by mixing the milk 
with one-fourth to one-third lime- 
water, which prevents acidity and 
also the coagulation of the milk 
into large tough indigestible 
masses. Lime-water is prepared 
bv adding 2 ounces of slaked lime 
to six bottles of water, stirring 
briskly, allowing the undissolved 
matter to subside, and after a few 
hours pouring off the clear solu- 
tions which is to be used. 

Uil of Eucalyptus is found iu 
most houses and can be used in 
most cases where turpentine 
would be used, but the dose must 
not be more than half an ounce 
ior horses or cattle, and it must 
be given in either a bottle of weak 
dop and water or in a bottle of 
milk. 

Mustard, although not much 
used internally, is of very great 
service as a blister ; a paste is 
made with cold water (not hot) 
and rubbed well into the part, 
left on for twenty minutes, and 
then washed off or it is apt to 
leave a blemish ; as an illustration 
of where it may be used it cau 
with advantage be applied to any 
slowly forming abscess that it is 
desired to bring to a head, such 
as the one between the lower jaws 
which usually develops in strangles 
(nieuwezietke). Two or three 
dressings well rubbed in will either 
cause it to burst naturally or will 
make it so ripe that it may be 
opened with a pocket knife, after- 
wards syringing out with a weak 
solution of dip. 

Ginger and Cinnamon may be 
given with epsom salts to check 
undue griping, or with bicarbon- 
ate of soda for indigestion, or 
with stimulants or turpentine and 
oil in cases of colic in doses of one 
ounce each for horses and two 
ounces for cattle. 

Chillies, Cayenne, and Black and 
White Peppers may also be used 
in a similar manner if so desired, 
but not more than one drachm 
should be given to horses or two 
drachms to cattle as large doses 
irritate. 

Dogs can be conveniently treat- 
ed by using many of the [rills 



which are in common use, such as 
Beech am 's, Carter's Little I.iver 
Pills, Blaud's tonic pills, etc. ; 
the actions are the same as for 
human beings and the dose for a 
very large dog being about the 
same as for a full-grown person, 
a small terrier taking about the 
same dose as a young child. 

In this article when a " bottle " 
is used as a measure an empty 
whisky bottle is meant, and as no 
proper measures may be available, 
the following domestic utensils 
may be used. Common tumblers 
contain from eight to ten iluid 
ounces, teacups five to seven fluid 
ounces, wine glasses two fluid 
ounces, tablespoons half a fluid 
ounce, dessertspoons two fluid 
drachms, teaspoons one to two 
fluid drachms, a drachm being 
sixty drops or minims. 

In conclusion, do as little "doc- 
toring " as possible; don't use 
powerful drugs, always give lluid 
medicines by the mouth, not by 
the nose, trust more to good 
nursing than doctoring, tempt 
vour patient to eat by giving a 
little and often, always remove the 
remains of the last feed. If it is 
necessary to bottle food or liquid 
down the animal remember there 
are such things as milk, milk and 
lime water, well made gruel, milk 
with a little dop or whisky, tea 
made by pouring boiling water on 
to lucerne hay and allowing it to 
cool, etc., and either move the ani- 
mal into the shade or build a 
temporary shelter of sacks over 
it ; if unable to stand do not let 
it lie on one side for long, turn It 
over or prop it up with sacks 
filled with sand, and don't take 
the advice of ten people at once — 
try one a t a time. 



ELDER'S TRUSTEE 

AND EXECUTOR CO., LIMITED. 



Oflice of ELDER, SMITH & Co., Ltd. 
Currie St., Adelaide, pro tern. 

AUTHORISED CAPITAL ... £500,000 
SUBSCRIBED CAPITAL ... £100.000 



Directors— T. E. BARR SMITH, T. L. 
BROWNE, G. H. PROSSER, A. J. 
MURRAY, and PETER WAITE. 



The Company, having been duly 
registered, is prepared to act aa 
Trustees, Administrators, and Execu- 
tors. 

A. E. FRYER, Acting Sec. 



124 



August, 191 2 



Butter Making 



By Edwin H. Webster, Chief the 
Dairy Division, United States De- 
partment of Agriculture, in Farm- 
ers' Bulletin No. 241. 



(Continued from March Issue.) 
— The Principles of Separation. i— 

The force that is used to separ- 
ate the milk is known as cent n 
lugal force. This force may be 
described as the pull that is felt 
when a weight attached to a 
strong is whirled about the hand. 
It is the pull outward, and the 
faster the weight is whirled the 
stronger the pull becomes. In the 
old system of creaming, the separ- 
ation is caused by the action of 
gravity. The fat globules, being 
lighter than the other portions of 
the milk, are forced to the top ; 
that is, gravity acts stronger or 
pulls harder on the heavier por- 
tions than it does on the lighter, 
and the milk is gradually arranged 
in layers, the lighter portion at 
the top and the heavier portion 
at the bottom. The force acting 
in the separator has precisely the 
same action on the milk, but acts 
outward from the centre of the 



bowl the same as gravity acts 
downward from the surface, only 
many thousand times stronger, 
accomplishing in a few moments 
and far more completely what it 
takes gravity several hours' to do. 

As the milk goes into the bowl 
it is at once thrown to the outer- 
most parts and tills the bowl com- 
pletely until an opening .is reached 
where it will How out again. The 
surface of the milk is on a line 
parallel with the centre, or axis, 
of the bowl, and is exactly in line 
with the cream outlet. A cross- 
section through the bowl from the 
surface to the outside presents 
much the same appearance as 
would a pan of milk after the 
cream has raised by gravity. The 
cream is on the surface, which 
might be called the top, and the 
heavier portions of the milk at 
the point farthest from the cen- 
tre, which would represent the 
bottom. 

With this understanding of the 
arrangement of the milk in the 
bowl there are a number of things 
to be observed which influence the 
separation. The difference in 



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length of time it takes to separ- 
ate cream by gravity and by cen- 
trifugal force shows plainly that 
the time varies with thel amount 
of force applied. The shorter the 
time the greater the force must 
be. Skim milk, from the separa- 
tor contains less fat than that 
secured bv the gravity system, 
" showing that the greater force 
causes more perfect separation. 

From the above statements the 
following conclusions regarding the 
use of the separator may be 
drawn: (.1) If the amount of milk 
that passes through the separator 
111 a given time is a fixed quanti- 
ty, any increase in the speed of 
the macliine will tend to cause 
closer skimming because oi the 
greater force exerted ; (2). if the 
amount of milk that passes 
through in a given time is in- 
creased and the speed remains the 
same the skimming will not be so 
perfect, for the centrifugal force is 
not exerted on the milk so long 
a time. It is evident, therefore, 
that the closeness of snimming is 
the result of two factors— 'time 
and force. If either of these is 
decreased, the result will , be poorer 
work. If either is increased, bet- 
ter work will result. 

— Common Krrors in Operating 

Separators. — 

Two errors are made in operat- 
ing separators because of ignor- 
ance of the facts just stated. The 
first consists in allowing too much 
milk to pass through the machine. 
As there is a limit to the prac- 
tical speed at which the machine 
can be safely run, it is not good 
practice to try to overcome the 
error referred to by increasing 
the speed beyond the safe point. 
The feed outlet is usually fixed so 
that too much milk will not run 
through, but cases have been 
known where operators, anxious 
to shorten the time of separation, 
have enlarged the opening, allow- 
ing- too much milk to pass. This 
error is not so common as the 
second, which is to allow the speed 
of the machine to become too 
slow. The slow speed does not 
generate enough force to skim 
1 roperlv, and the result is loss of 
butter fat in the skim milk. The 
number of revolutions per minute 
required by a machine is usually 
indicated on the machine or in the 
instruction bdok belonging to it, 
and this should be strictly fol- 
lowed. 

— Best Temperature of Milk for 

Separating. — 

All liquids flow more readily 
when warm than cold. This is 



August. 1912 



THE GARDEN AND FIELD. 



125 



not as noticeable with milk as it 
tnav be with molasses, but the 
principle holds just as true, and 
is readilv shown in the separation 
af milk. Even' one has observed 
that cold cream does not flow as 
readily as warm cream. As cream 
is one of the products of separa- 
tion, and has to flow from the ma- 
chine through a small opening or 
jutlet, it is seen that the warmer 
t is the more readilv it will flow. 
If the flow of cream is checked, 
more milk will be forced out of 
:he skim milk outlet, and if the 
jbstruction to the flow becomes 
:oo great, butter fat will go out 
yith the skim milk, because it 
:annot move fast enough through 
:he cream outlet. For this rea- 
son, the nearer the temperature 
if the milk approaches the animal 
leat the better will be the separa- 
ian. While some machines are 
iiipposed to skim milk a s cold as 
■rtv-five degrees F., it is not 
"nod practice, because the skim- 
ning will not be so close. The 
nilk should be at a temperature 
)f ei^htv decrees or higher. It 
urill be seen, therefore, that a 
Jhird factor, in addition to rate 
>f feed and speed of machine — 
lameb-, the temperature of the 
nil 1 ? — has a direct bearing on se- 
rration, and it mav be accepted 
»s true that t?he warmer the milk 
:he better the work. 

— Retulatinc the Flow. — 

,All separators are supplied with 
lome device for regulating the pro- 
>ortion of cream to skim milk. 
r n some this is done bv aduistiu'r 
:he cream outlet, while in others 
Jie adjustment is in the outlet 
or skim milk. The principle on 
vhich the adjustment is based is 
lot difficult to understand. In the 
Lrrantrement of the outlets the dif- 
erence of specific gravity of the 
Team and skim milk has to be 
:aken into account. To use agafin 
the illustration of the string and 
the weight, it mav be observed 
Jiat the farther the weight is 
ilaced from the hand the harder 
KComes the pull on the string if 
the same sneed is maintained, and, 
•imibirb'. the heavier the weight 
the harder the null. Tf two weights 
ire taken, one a little heavier 
than the other, and both are 
whirled about the hand, it is ob- 
lerved that the lighter weight 
would have to be farther out on 
ta strin"- to exert the same pull 
W the heavier weight. 

Tn the separator bowl the out- 
let for cream and the oufl-t for 
Aim milk have to be nearlv the 
lame distance from the centre in 
irder to retain the milk in the 



bowl lone enough to allow the 
separation to take place. Cream 
is lighter than the skim milk, 
else thpre could be no separation, 
and this fact makes it necessary 
to place the cream outlet a little 
nearer the centre than the outlet 
for skim milk. The skim milk is 
taken out at a point farthest 
aw, iv from the centre of the bowl 
by means of tubes or a disk of 
some kind. The skim milk is the 
heavier, and if the outlets were 
the same distance from the cen- 
tre would force most of the con- 
tents of the bowl through the 
cream outlet. Tn order to over- 
come this effect the skim milk 
outlet is placed a short distance 
farther from the centre of the bowl 
than the outlet for the cream. 
This balances the two nortions, 
so that the division of crcnm and 
skim milk is near the desired pro- 
portion. 

From this it can be seen that 
?nv chano-e in the relative oosition 
of these outlets chancres this bal- 
ance. Tf the cream outlet is 
moved nearer the centre of the 
bowk more milk is forced out of 
the skim milk onening. Tf it is 
removed farther from the centre 
of the howl, more milk is forced 
through the cream owning. Tf the 
adjustment is made in the skim 
milk outlet preciselv the same 
thine occurs. Tf the outlet for 
skim tm'lk is moved nearer th^ 
centre of the bowl it forces more 
cream through the cream outlet, 
and as it is moved awav from 
th<» centre of the bowl less cream 
will be forced through the cream 
ontlp + . When l°ss cream is de- 
livered it contains a greater per- 
centage of fat than when a larger 
nnantit-"- is delivered. This is d"~ 
to th= fact that the skim milk is 
t~Ven from the extreme out°r ed"-e 
of the bowl. Arrann-inp- the out- 
lets so that creater or less "jrtan- 
titifs r>ass over this ooint to th° 
sHrn milk outlet do°s not chann-o 
♦ he character of the skim milk, 
but does change th° iitalititv that 
is loft to pass out with the cre^m. 
m-^inc more or less cream, which 
wi 1 ! test aceordint.lv. 

Sometimes dirt is allowed to ac- 
cumulate in the skim milk tubes 
or in the cream outlet. Anv ac- 
cumulation of this kind will cbonce 
the Percentage of butter fat in 
the cream and the proportion! of 
sMm milk to cream exactly as if 
there had been a chance made in 
the position of the cream or skim 
milk screws. 

4) 

The various internal devices 
used in separators serve two pur- 
poses^ — they cause the milk to 




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IMPLEMENT MAKER. 
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DENNIS' PATENT 
STEEL BTJCKSCRAPER AND STLT 

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Write for Illustrated Catalogue and 
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flow through the bowl in a uni- 
form steady stream, and serve 
to divide or distribute it so that 
a greater surface is exposed at one 
time to the centrifugal action. The 
more evenly the distribution is 
made throughout the bowl and the 
quieter the currents of milk flow 
the greater will be the capacity 
and efficiency of the machine. 

— Summary of Points to be 
Observed. — i 

To summarize, the points in the 
operation of a separator, given in 
their order of importance as bear- 
ing on the quality of the work, 
are as follows : — 

First — The speed of the separa- 
tor must be uniform and up to 
the standard required by the 
makers of that particular ma- 
chine. 

Second. — The temnerature of the 
milk should be such as will make 
it How readilv ; the warmer it is 
the more perfect will be the se- 
paration. 

Third. — The amount of milk that 
is run through the machine would 
remain constant, and should not 
be increased over that which is 
intended for the machine. 

Fourth. — The machine should be 
set on a solid base or foundation, 
so that there will be no jar or 
shak ; " - about as it is turned, such 
as would tend to interfere with 
the even flow of the milk through 
the bowl, and thus destroy its 
efficiency in skimming. 

Fifth. — The separator must be 
kept thoroughly and scrupulously 



126 



clean, particular care being taken 
that none of the tubes through 
which tlie milk Hows become ob- 
structed in anv way. 

Sixth.— The test of the cream 
can be readily changed bv chang- 
ing either the cream outlet or the 
skim milk outlet. 

In the mechanical operation ot 
a machine none but the best oil 
should he used, and this should 
not be allowed to gum or hecome 
dirty on the bearings. It is good 
practice to Hush the bearings with 
kerosene occasionally by making a 
run 1 wilth kerosene in the oil cups. 
This will serve to cut out anv 
-mm or dust that has accumu- 
lated in the bearing's and will 
make the machine run much freer 
and easier, thus greatly increasing 
the length of time that it will last 
and do perfect work. 

— Separating the Milk. — 
The milk should be separated as 
soon as possible after milking, 
while it still contains the animal 
heat. 

— Use of Strainers. — 
If milk has been handled in a 
cleanh- wav during- milking it can 
be poured directlv into the supply 
can of the separator without 
straining. The dairyman who de- 
pends upon the strainer to clean 
the milk rather than using clean- 



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JAMES ALSTON, 

Pmenf ■ f nod Manufacturer, 
QOKKN"' HHl DO' -rTT-w M rr [ , HOH R N B 

Sol* Agents for South Australia- — 

H. C. RICHARDS 

6 and 8, Bljth Str««t, Adelaide:. 
,il»6e Oebernt wd Oe. 



ly methods of milking is the one 
who makes the poorer butter. 
If it is necessary to strain the 
milk a very fine wire strainer 
should l>e used. It is very diffi- 
cult to keep a cloth strainer in 
good condition, and if not kept in 
a good condition it is a seed-bed 
for trouble. When a strainer cloth 
becomes yellow it rarely ever 
smells clean, indicating that de- 
composition is going on and that it 
is not fit to use. For this rea- 
son it is best to discard strainer 
cloths entirely. If a strainer 
other than wire is used, it is best 
tc emplov some material such as 
absorbent cotton that can be 
thrown awav at the end of each 
milking. 

— Operating the Machine.- — 

Before starting the separator 
the operator should look carefully 
alter the tarings or wearing 
parts, putting a drop or two of 
oil on each and noting whether 
the oil-cups are dropping properly. 
Instructions for care and oiling 
come with each machine and they 
should be heeded. The makers 
haye studied this problem and are 
bound for their own protection to 
give proper instructions for opera- 
tion. In the winter time, when 
the separator bowl and parts are 
cold, it is best to pour a quart 
or so of hot weather through the 
machine just as it is started. This 
warms up the surfaces and pre- 
vents the milk from sticking, as 
it would if cold. It also makes 
the cleaning of the separator 
much easier and prevents its 
clogging lip at the start. 

Bring the machine gradually vp 
to its normal speed and then turn 
the milk in slowly until the vahe 
is wide open. Keep a constantly 
uniform motion of the handle dur- 
ing the entire run. When all of 
the milk has passed from the 
supply can a quart or so of the 
skim milk should be caught and 
poured through to flush out the 
cream that will remain in the 
bowl. Unless this is done some 
of the butter fat will adhere to 
the surfaces and a small amount 
remain in the centre of the bowl, 
not being able to get out , of the 
machine because there is no more 
milk flowing in to force it through. 
Pouring- in the skim forces it all 
out. Warm water may be used 
for this purpose, but usually it is 
not so convenient. 

— Care of Cream after 
Separation. — 

The first work on %>mpletion of 
the separation should be the care 
of the cream. It is the product 
for which all of the previous work 



has been performed and it is 
worse than folly to neglect it 
now it is secured. The cream must 
be cooled at once, to check the 
growth of bacteria. The best me- 
thod for doing this is to place it 
in a deep, narrow pail immersed 
in cold water just pumped from 
the well, and then stir it gently 
until it is brought down to nearly 
the temperature of the water. 
A good dairy thermometer must 
be a part of the equipment of 
everv dairy, and all temperatures 
should be taken with it — not by 
guess. It will take but a few 
minutes to cool the cream down 
in the manner described. As soon 
as it is cooled cover the pail in 
such a way that it can be entire- 
ly submerged in the water. The 
ordinary shotgun can, as it is 
commonly called, having a cover 
that fits over the outside, coming 
down about two inches, with 
catches to hold it in place, is the 
l>est kind of vessel for cooling and 
holding cream. When a can is 
entirelv submerged it is protected 
from the heat of summer, the cold 
of winter, and the contaminating 
odors that may be in the air; and 
the surlace.is effectually kept from 
drying, leaving the cream in as 
fine physical condition as when 
separated. 

(To be Continued.) 



A. P. TELPER. 

Produce and General 

House and Land Agent. 



SANTO BLDGS., WAYMOUTH ST. 



H. H. MANSFIELD. 

THE RELIABLE GROCERY STORE, 

For Purity and Quality. 

The first requisite with us is quality 
and Purity. Why not give to us 
your grocer y trade and be one of our 
big list of satisfied customers? There 
is much to study in conducting a suc- 
cessful grocery business. Not only 
must the stock be kept that every- 
one requires, but also those things 
that people are familiar with. Out 
style of conducting a grocery business 
is progressive and reliable. We have 
all the new goods, but we make sure 
of value and purity before we make a 
purchase or write a price tag.' Maybe 
you are hard to please, but you will 
have no fault to find if you place 
your orders in the hands of 

H. H. MANSFIELD, 

Grocer, Draper, and Ironmonger, 

UNLEY ROAD, TJNLEY CITY. 



127 



The Wool Clip. 



— Annual Review and Statistics 
Compiled bv Dalgety & Company, 

Limited. — 

We have received a eopv of Dal- 
retv's Annual Wool Review for 
\ustralasia for the past season, 
an Wished by Dalgety & Companv, 
Limited, which is now in its four- 
:eenth vear of issue, and, as eus- 
iomary, appears to have been 
Erefnllv written, while the statis- 
tfes which relate to the whole of 
the Australasian sales are com- 
pete and comprehensive. There 
ire a number of interesting facts 
riven in the publication, the most 
>rominent of which probablv is 
that the value of the past sea- 
»on's wool production in Austra- 
ia and New Zealand, for export, 
»'as millions sterling, as com- 
Jared with 31^ millions sterling 
or the previous season, the differ- 
:nce in the value of the two clips 
being accounted for bv the aver- 
age value per bale in 1911-12-hav- 
ng been £11 15/5, and in 1910-n, 
fcl2 10/4. 

— A Record Clip. — 
As was forecasted in Dalgety' s 
ast year's Annual Review, the 
Australian clip exceeded that of the 
irevious year, which stood at the 
ligh water mark and was above 
the general average of excellence. 

Actual oversea shipments of wool 
luring the past twelve months 
iave amounted to 2,020,547 bales 
for 662.845.q07 lbs.), from the 
Commonwealth, and 491,368 bales 
r or 169 915,939 ft>s.) from New 
Zealand, a total of no less than 
|5I3,9I5 bales, or 832,761,846 lbs., 
ralued at £29,591,874. 

The total value of the 1,926,926 
lales sold in Australasia has been 
G22,682,o9o, as against £23,346,602 
« 1910-11. 

— Australian Sheep Numbers. — 

The flocks in Australia and 
few Zealand now total 117,011,645, 
taving increased since last vear's 
■eturns were published by the 
:omparatively small number of 
)77,48t head. Sheen numbers have 
•etnained practically stationary 
luring the past three vears, but 
:he figures are higher than during 
My period of the past 18 vears, 
the previous record having been in 
r89T. when the total reached 
124,991,920 head. 

The smallness of the increase in 
recent vears is largelv attributable 
:o the verv large numbers which 
iave been slaughtered for export 
ind local consumption, and it is 
rignificant that the opinion- is 



generally held that sheep numbers 
were, prior to the drought, quite 
as high as could safetv be carried 
in normal seasons. 

There has been a general all 
round improvement in the larger 
llocks, and a verv high standard 
has been reached, especially in re- 
spect to merinos, a fact which will 
be a^nreciated when it is remem- 
bered that though there were many 
more sheen to shear, sav 20 years 
ago, the clip shorn during the past 
season eclipses all previous re- 
cords, while the w^eisrht cut per 
head is greater than in any coun- 
try in the world without any de- 
terioration in the wool, which 
comes an easy first, though it 
mav not be so fine in quality as 
formerly. 

— Future Prospects. — 

As regards the future, Dalgetv 
and Companv, Limited, sav that 
tli ere are several factors which are 
likely to have an important bear- 
ing on the course of the wool 
market during the ensuing twelve 
month*, the first of these being 
the certainty of diminished Aus- 
tralian wool production owing to 
the severe, though short, drought 
recently experienced throughout 
most of the woolgro*ving districts 
of the Commonwealth. \nother 
is the neat probability of a re- 
vision of thp American wool tariff 
in favor of oversea woolTowers, 
some pronouncement in resoect to 
which may be expected after the 
Presi-len+itil election in November 
"ext. The third is the fact of 
fa^'O'TaWe trade conditions "ener- 
alb-, nr .^ticalK- onlv affected at 
the nresent time bv industrial 
troubles. 

Sumrru'no- up the Position, as it 
affects wool nroducers, thev are 
of opinion that the ensuing Aus^ 
tr;ib'sian clip will come on to a 
favourable market, and that them 
will be a stronor demand from all 
sections of hm-prs at prices show- 
; «rr o-n im»rnvptnetit on the rates 
'« force in th« oast season. The 
din ; ,s a whole cannot he equal, 
pitber in duality or condition, to 
its nre^e^essor, in addition to 
which it is inevitable that there 
"ill be n lighter cut ner sheep, so 
th"t the enhanced vines which it 
seems wry HWIy will rule should 
eomnenspt^ growers to some ex- 
tent for the drawbacks which we 
fear most praters will experience. 



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Read what Mrs. Webster says about 
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A TRIAL SOLICITED 



128 



THE GARDEN AND FIEU). 



Auguit, 1912. 




A Galrunizad-Iron Roof is the best 
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Sheep-Breeding in Australia. 



It is difficult to imagine that 
little more than a century ago 
sheep-breeding was an unknown 
pursuit in Australia. According 
to an interesting account of the 
early history of pastoral farm'ing 
in Australia -in the Melbourne 
Argus, in the first return of live- 
stock published in 1788 the total 
number of sheep in Australia was 
onlv twenty-nine, so that the pas- 
toral pursuit which to-day is so 
prominent and important a fea- 
ture in the welfare of Australia 
may be said to extend over only 
a single century. The first in- 
troductions of sheep were made 
from the Cape of Good Hope, and, 
as might be expected, the animals 
were of an inferior description, 
and jrave such a poor account of 
themselves that the conditions in 
Australia were officially described 
as unsuitable for sheep, and led 
to the opinion being formed that 
the stock-breeding resources of the 
country would depend upon cattle. 
Three years later a consignment 
of lift'- ewes and one ram, also 
from Capetown, was landed ; but 
this, apparently, gave no l>etter 
results than the earlier arrivals, 
and it is possible that but for 
an incident which will ever be as- 
sociated with the agricultural 
prosperity of the antipodes, sheep- 
breeding in this country would 
not have been established upon a 
substantial footing till a later 
date than the closing years of the 
eighteenth centxiry. The writer 
in question gives an interesting ac- 
count of the arrival in Australia 
in 1790 of voung Lieutenant Mac- 
Arthur and his wife, his petition 
to the Governor of New South 
Wales for grants of land, and Ms 
earlv endeavoiirs to stock his 
possessions with sheep from differ- 
ent soxirces. He commenced with 
fiftv Bengal ewes and six or seven 
rams of mixed Rnglish and Span- 
ish descent, and from this small 
beginning his stock-breeding enter- 
prise steadily developed and im- 
proved, until he found himself the 
owner of a flock which at that 
time was regarded as extensive. 
Macarthur must have been a man 
of shrewd foresight, as well as of 
srreat energy and daring, for al- 
though several of his purchases 
and exploits seemed to court dis- 
aster, everything turned out suc- 
cesshillv, and to him is attributed 
the distinction of havine laid the 
foundation of sheep-breeding as a 
national pursuit in the great 
Australian colonies. Like most 
pioneers of industry Macarthur 
had manv obstacles to contend 
with, and not a few exciting ad- 



ventures with superior officers and 
politicians, but he seems to have 
met his critics and detractors 
without fear. On one occasion he 
was sent to London to be tried 
for some unexplained offence, but 
the officials at the War Office 
refused to try him, owing to the 
absence of witnesses, and practic- 
ally advised the King to overlook 
the case. The involuntary trip to 
his native country was turned to 
good account, as he brought back 
with him in 1804 pure-bred merino 
rams and one ewe, and this con- 
signment, which cost him 
had a most impressive influence 
upon the quality of his flock. He 
must have made good use of the 
imported blood, for in 1820 he as- 
tonished his neighbours by obtain- 
ing as much as 10/4 per pound 
for a bale of wool. This price 
made his success, as there natur- 
ally resulted such a keen demand 
for rams from his llock that prices 
up to £300 were paid. 



Lime and Its Uses. 



It is said that farmers as a 
class . are rather neglecting the use 
of lime ; they are depending too 
much on chemical manures, and 
omitting to give the soil a dressing 
of such a necessary constituent of 
lime. If so, this is a matter of 
regret, because the crops will 
suffer in health and quality. 
Some chemical manures, such as 
sulphate of ammonia and kainit, 
use iip the lime in the soil, and 
all fertilisers, bv increasing the 
crop, increase also the consump- 
tion of lime. It is therefore the 
part of a good farmer to see that 
the soil of his farm is well sup- 
plied. The action of lime hastens 
the decav of vegetable matter and 
sweetens sour lands which mav 
have been more or less submerged. 
It increases the capillary condi- 
tion of soil, prevents fungoid dis- 



eases, and promotes the growth of 
more nutritive herbage in pas- 
tures ; it also decomposes miner- 
ids in the soil, containing potash 
and other food constituents, and 
renders them available for the ; 
needs of the plants. Further, it 
decomposes organic matter and ' 
promotes the important process , 
which is so much in evidence at 
present — " nitrification." Thus, to 
sum up, lime may be said to have 
a mechanical, chemical, and bio- 
logical action, and the importance 
of a systematic application of this 
invaluable fertiliser to lands which 
are at present in lack of it should 
be apparent to all agriculturists. 
When this need is supplied many of 
the ailments from which stock 
suffer from lack of this very neces- 
sary substance in plant food will 
be avoided. Aciditv of the 
stomach, so frequently met with 
amongst cattle, is attributable to 
want of alkaline matter in the 
food supply. Malformations at 
birth, particularly with foals and 
lambs, can also be traced to the 
same cause. The lengthened 
anaemic period on light country, 
has the same cause of origin. 



HOUSE, LAND, AND ESTATE AGENCY. 
257, GRENEELL STREET (opp. New Market!. 
Properties of all descriptions — City and Suburban — for investment. Acres 
near Morphettville. just suit gardeners for nursery work, especially adapted 
for it — real good honest bargains. Plans forwarded on application. A 
first class Separator small size, as good as new, for sale at half_ price. 
Note address— 257, Grenfell Street. 



BRITTEN'S REGISTERED DENTISTRY. 

ARTTETCIAL TEETTT ON EASY WEEKLY PAYMENTS. 
Painless Extractions One Shillinrr. Gold Fillings. Crown and Rridge 
work. Only Addres* — 

20, CURRIE STREET (Opposite Savings Bank). 

Open Saturday Evonintro 7 to 9 p.m. Daily, 9 to 5.30. Saturday, 9 to 1. 



August, 1912 



THE GARDEN AND FIELD. 



129 



Dairy Notes. 



Every time you scrap* a tin 
dairy vessel with a knife or spoon, 
or anything hard, you take off a 
little of the tin and make it so 
much easier for rust to get its 
claws on the spot. 

The folks who buy milk want 
pure milk, and the puritv of the 
milk is entirelv within the control 
of the ones who milk and handle 
the milk. The milking should be 
cleanly, and the milk utensils 
must be faithfullv washed, scald- 
ed and aired everv dav, even if 
other duties and pleasures have to 
be sidetracked. 

It will mean- a loss to the far- 
mer to have the cow afraid of 
him. Tt is a loss every time she 
is frightened. To run a cow to 
pasture is like throwing monev 
away. A cow in anv wav worried 
will not do her best. The cow- 
that is made a pet of will make 
monev for her owner. The milk 
of a frightened or abused cow is 
unwholesome. 

Lndoubtedlv one cause of much 
trouble with milk in summer is 
allowing cows to have access to 
foul, stagnant water. Such water 
is teeming with all kinds of im- 
pure organisms, which attach 
themselves to the cows' udders 
and flanks bv means of the mud 
with which the cows cover them- 
selves. Such water is further en- 
tirely unfit for cows to drink. 
Cows need clean water as well as 
man. 

The development of competent 
dairvmen is just as important as 
the development of cows. These 
hiphlv specialised cows require 
hid5cious and kindly treatment. 
Nepleet will not onlv be reflected 
in the churn, but disastrous and 
costlv deterioration will quickly 
follow. A veneration of neglect 
will practicallv undo the work of 



K. BECHTEL, 

SADDLER, TRUSS & BANDAGE 
MAKER. 

59 O'Connell Street. 

NORTH ADELAIDE. 

Patent Attachable and Detachable 
R'»GTETy. Spring r ar t. Yankee, and C»h 
Saddles. 

Tm 

Jackets. Shoulder Straus, etc.. Made 
to Order, and nent to all part* of tfc P 
r >/mtnoii wealth Fit Guaranteed. 



LADY IN ATTENDANCE 



a centurv. The culmination of the 
breeder's art must be supplement- 
ed with correct methods of feeding 
and proper handling. 

The dairy business is one that 
requires as much careful attention 
as anv other business. The pro- 
prietor of a dairv should know 
how much profit each and every 
cow is producing. Why should 
he feed and milk a cow that does 
not produce an ample profit ? Why 
should he keen twenty cows in- 
stead of ten, when the profit is the 
same ? The onlv reason for a 
man's doin°- this is that he does 
not know which cows are the poor 
doers and which are the profitable 
ones. 

The real foundation of farm 
dairying is good stock, and right 
there is where we find room for 
the greatest improvement. Ths 
average farmer seems to be con- 
tented with cows " like pap had." 
Dairv products are selling at a 
srood price, and the farmer should 
endeavour to increase the yield of 
his cows, and the cows should 
not be what are called dual pur- 
pose cows. They should be bred 
for dairv cows alone. 

To keep milk and cream sweet 
and free from taints during hot 
weather is not a difficult matter, 
provided a reasonable amount of 
care is taken to keep the milk 
clean and cold. Bv spending a few 
extra minutes each dav brushing 
off the loose dirt on the cow's 
udder and flanks before milking, a 
Jar'7? -"'rcentage of the dirt and 
bacteria that ordinarily i>et into 
the milk will be eliminated. Every 
Particle of dirt or dust that gets 
into the milk carries with it hun- 
dreds and even thousands of bac- 
teria, and it is these bacteria, 
more than the dirt itself, that 
sour and taint the milk and 
cream. 

One of the grestcst needs on the 
a vera ere farm at present is a bet- 
ter class of herd bull. The notent 
influence which the bull exerts on 
the quality of the herd should 
make him a matter of first im- 
portance with everv dairvthan. It 
is a commons sa'-nxr that "the 
bull is half the herd." TJpuaHv he 
is more than half the herd. Where 
a pure-bred bnll is used with 
Ta'de cows, the offspring will tak" 
largely after the bull, because of 
h<'s a-rentcr urenotencv. While a 
hifh <lass bull costs n-rhaos twr> 
or three times n s much as one of 
the common run. we do no* know 
of anything in the dairv line that 
brinpr.s ^renter returns for monev 
invested than that invested in a 
first class bull. 



TO ADVERTISERS.— Alteration of ad- 
vertisement! should be In our hands not 
later than the 15th of the month. 



One might easily lose 25 per 
cent, of his milk returns (writes 
G. F. C. in " New Zealand Far- 
mer ") by neolected sore teats. 
The sores should be checked at the 
onset, and ointment be used un- 
stintinglv, when they appear. A 
very nervous cow— and are they 
not all nervous ?— will easily hold 
up a pint of milk each milking, 
probably increasing the amount 
withheld as the sores grow worse. 
It is false economy therefore not 
to use the ointment. We have 
used acetic acid on the teats for 
sores and cuts, and find it the 
best thing of the half-dozen we 
have tried. The action of the 
acid mentioned is peculiarly suited 
to the teats, as, instead of creat- 
ing a scab, which comes off every 
milking, it heals up the Sore 
quickly and cleanly, and is pain- 
less. 

Dairying has made wonderful 
progress throughout the world 
since the advent of the factory 
system of butter making. The 
customer of butter has not only 
been benefited bv beano- furnished 
a more wholesome and Palatable 
article of food, but the wife in the 
farm has been relieved of the 
drudoerv of making butter on the 
farm. ^ Where formerly the cre a m 
was ripened and churned into but- 
ter under conditions not conducive 
to fine aualitv in the finished pro- 
duct, and the majority of cases by 
unskilled hands, now the milk or 
cream .is delivered to a modern 
fact on- where conditions are suit- 
ed to the purpose of making but- 
ter, and the result has been a 
wonderful improvement in the 
"ii a 1ft„ nf our dairv products. As 
the cmality has improved, con- 
sumption has increased, and the 
- r*~~~^ 0 f dairy,-,,,,. nas been rp _ 

markable during the past decade. 



FURNITURE ! 



Why pav high prices ? 

Buv from thoae who make it' f ,nd sell 
from workshop to public direct. 

EENOVATTONS A SPECIALITY. 
Write, call, or 'phone— Central. 2(03, ; 
Furniture Manufacturers. 

Borthwfnk Rflfri ft Harper, 

PTBTE ST. ADELAIDE. fnext t a 
" Army " Citadel.) 



130 THE GARDEN AND FIELD. August, 1912 



Reliable Saddlery and 
Harness. 



Hood reliable harness is essential to 
(he man on the land, hut, unfortun- 
ately, in harness, as in the case of 
other- manufactured articles, " things 

are not always what they seem," and 
it is, therefore, only adopting a wise 
precaution to procure such from a 

maker of established reputation — 
the man who has a record of manv 
vears of honourable and straight 
business methods at his hack, Indeed, 
there is so much " shoddy Material 
on the market and so well is th B 
material "got up" as far as nP- 
I)earance is concerned, that the method 
indicated is, nowadays, the onlv re- 
liable one open to the purchaser who 
desires honest value. In regard to 
harness, in particular, the buyer must 

he able to rely not only on the 
quality of the material but on the 
work put into the same — either is 
useless without the other. TTere, we 
mav remark, that those who send 
their orders to Mr. C. TT. Lehmann 
Adelaide's progressive saddler and 
harness. maker, have the satisfaction of 
knowing that both these important 
points may be relied on. Tt is mam- 
years since Mr. l^ehmann commenced 



business, but when he did so he de- 
cided (o build up his establishment on 
sound lines and deal with his patrons 
as he would himself be done by. now- 
well he has succeeded is best demon- 
strated by his steadily increasing con- 
nection, the most satisfactory feature 
of which is the large proportion of 
old customers. Experience has shown 
Mr. Lehmann that, give the public a 
good thing, and they will show their 
appreciation in a practical manner, 
that is by becoming regular customers 

and this, indeed, is the only wav in 

which any business can be satisfac- 
torily maintained and extended. Of 
course in , addition to duality of 
material and workmanship good value 
a9 regards price is also essential, but 
excellent value has always been a 
special feature of the goods supplied 
by Mr. l>hmann. Prices, it is true, 
are slightly in advance of what thev 
were a year or two aero, but this ad- 
vance when considered in connection 
wTth the great advance that has taken 
place not only in regard to raw 
material but also wages is verv 
trilling. Tt is, indeed, only through 
a large turnover and by adopting the 
latest methods () f manufacture that 
such values are still practicable. The 
disastrous fire which occurred so(me 
eighteen months ago at the corner of 
Grenfell Street and TT'mdmarsh Square 



A. G. TOYNE 

Practical Saddle, Harness and 

Collar Maker and Repairer . . . 

wishes to notify the public that he has removed 
from 20 Franklin Street to 

Corner Pulteney and Flinders Streets 

and respectfully solicits the continua"oe of 
your patronu^e. All kinds of New and 
Second-hand SADDLERY. Harness and 

Stable Requisites atooked. 
All Orders promptly attended to. Repairs 
a Speciality. Old Harness taken ss part 
payment for New, and full value allowed. 
All work guaranteed and the most reasonable 
prices ch:ircred. Price-list free on application. 
Buy dnect from the Maker. 



T. W. INGHAM, 

Manufacturer of Plaster and Cement 
Ornaments, Fibrous Ceilings, Cornices 
and Arches a Specialty. 

His Workmanship in the principal 
Villas around- Adelaide and in the 
Country Townships, has given him a 
reputatior for the most up-to-date 
Artistic Work or Fibrous Ceilings. 

They are non-conductors of heat, 
cold, sound, dust, and fireproof, and 
give deep relief and under-cut, there- 
fore stand out well with straight and 
sharp harresses. 50 designs to select 
from. Estimates Given. 

WORKSHOP AND SHOWROOMS- 
VICTORIA PLACE, at Back of Govt. 
Offices, Adelaide. 



necessitated Mr. Lehmann's securing 
temporary premises for the time be- 
ing. He is, however, now thoroughly 
settled again in his old location, but 
w ith greatly improved premises, where 
he will be pleased to see anv friends 
when in town, specially during show 
time. Mr. Lehmann, it may be added, 
is something more than a manu- 
facturer of the every-day lines used 
in his business, for he is an inven- 
tor of no mean ability, as it proved 
by his patent automatic horse collar, 
now used by the principal Fire 
Brigades throughout the Continent, 
by his improved horse winkers and 
many other devices. Some vears 
ago his attention was drawn to the 
hideous contrivances worn by children 
with deformed or imperfect feet- — con- 
trivances in which clumsy iron rods 
and other unsuitable materials were 
freely used. -Deeply alive to the 
suffering entailed thereby Mr. Leh- 
mann set his inventive faculties to 
work, and as a result evolved a pure- 
ly leather boot suitable for the worst 
cases, and which besides giving great 
comfort to the wearer so nearly re- 
sembles the boot on the sound foot as 
to pass almost unnoticed. As a 
eon-ynercial speculation we do not 
suppose it has greatly benefited the 
inventor — he has not even patented 
it — but only the leading surgeons of 
the city can adequately appreciate 
the boon this " improved boot " has 
been to suffering children, and thev 
are loud in their praises. Although 
his business demands close atten- 
tion, Mr. Lehmann wisely has in- 
terests outside it, and his services 
in connection with the political Darty 
with which he is associated are 
widely esteemed and appreciated. 



Rubberised Leather Belting. 

outlasts all other kinds and is not affected by water or heat. 

RUBBERISED LEATHER for "Harness, boots, etc., is second to none. 
Read what Mr. Chris. Venning, of " Pearlah," Port Lincoln, says : 

"The RUBBERISED LEATHER Harness that I purchased three years ago 
has been pretty well in constant use, and is none the worse for wear now. 
Belt Laces, bought same time, I used for two seasons for lacing Harvester 
belts and now I am using same laces on a Chaffcutter Belt: toughest I 
ever used. Braces bought the same time are as good as new, and will last 
me a lifetime. Boot laces and Soles carry same reputation, and now the 
boots, just received, highly satisfactory. I shall have much pleasure in 
recommending RUBBERISED LEATHER to all my friends." 

From all storekeepers. For further particulars, 

HELMSLEY JONES, Basement. Victoria Buildings, 31 Grenfell Street, 

Adelaide. 

Sole agent for South Australia and Broken Hill. 

WANTED : A MOTOR DRIVER. 

Are you satisfied with your present position, if not, we can make you a 
proficient Driver-Mechanic, capable of filling one of the numerous openings 
for Drivers for Motor Lorry, Taxi-Cab and Touring Cars. 

THE AUSTRALASIAN MOTOR SCHOOL'S 

Tuitiom is entirely practical. First the pupils are thoroughly taught the 
mechanism, which is given first on a single cylinder engine to enable the 
pupils to quickly grasp the action of the working parts. They are next 
taken on a 22-horse power car, and the important moving parts taken 
to pieces to enable the pupils to obtain a thorough and practical kmow- 
ledge of the mechanism in general, viz. : — Carburration, ignition, gearing, 
transmission of power, wiring up, timing, water circulation, cylinder, tyre 

removing, etc., etc. 

The second parts deals entirely with the Driving and Managing of Cars — 
at first in more quiet thoroughfares, and afterwards in traffic. 

Faults are created en route, which have to be remedied by the pupils, as 
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Auguit, 1912 



THE GARDEN AND FIELD. 



131 



<f Poultry Notes # 



Evolution of Artificial 
Incubation. 



Chicken Talks. 



Getting the chick out of the shell is 
only a small part of the poultry busi- 
ness. 

Many people can run an incubator, 
but the brooder beats them. 

The finest brooder ever made won't 
do the work better than an old hen ; 
but the wooden one is open for busi- 
ness all the time. 

To grow chicks you must know 
them — not only the outside, but the 
inside — and study their small likes 
and dislikes. 

One brooder and fifty chicks doesn't 
necessarily mean fifty grown fowls in 
six months time. 

Don't start too big ; a little brood 
well reared is better than a large one 
buried. 

To give them a good start, breed 
them only from healthy parents, and 
you should rear 95 per cent. 

A roupy parent means a sick chick, 
and a direct temptation to profanity. 

If you want to succeed, read about 
chicks, talk about chicks, but above 
all watch the chicks. 

Chickens cannot talk, but can be 
more eloquent than a 10/fi book, to 
the one who knows them. 

thickens were meant to eat and 
drink, to live and thrive. 

Man sometimes decides that thev 
shall mope and die, but it isn't their 
fault. 

Chicks, like children don't want 
coddling. Warmth, fresh air, sun- 
shine, exercise, and food is all they 
ask for. Don't forget the fresh 
air and sunshine and exercise and 
warmth — see ? 

Warmth for the first few days is, 
perhaps, the most important, with 
pure air, but don't roast them. That 
should come later. 



You need not have the skill af 
a cabinetmaker to manufacture a 
brooder, but you must have common- 
sense. 

Many a champion has been reared 
in a kerosene box, with a bit of 
flannel and a stone ginger beer bottle. 

Rut a larger number have passed 
out of existence via a ten guinea 
death trap. 

A brooder should provide a constant 
supply of warm, dry air. Can you 
figure out one for yourself. Don't 
forget, warm, dry, plenty. If not, 
buy a good one. 

Top, bottom, or side heat all have 
staunch advocates, but a little of all 
is a safe middle course. 

So arrange the ventilation that 
when you open the brooder in the 
morning vou don't lose your appetite 
for breakfast. 

The chirp of a happy chick is plea- 
sant, but the cry of the comfortless 
is worse than a tin whistle. 

When you open the brooder at 
night and find the chicks squatting 
comfortably around you may wager 
they will lay eggs some day. 

But if they are piled up and tramp- 
ling on one another there are going 
to be troubles— bowel troubles for one, 
bronchial trouble for another. 

A stuffed chicken is a sign of good 
cookery but poor poultry keeping. 

Dry feeding has saved more chickens 
than the cats have taken, and may 
be counted in millions. 

The gizzard of a chick was provided 
for use, not ornament. Some feeders 
appeal to regard it as an accident. 

A well - reared chick is not a glut- 
ton, but it can get outside and amaz- 
ing lot of green stuff. 

A well brought up chicken is a 
cleanly little beast — 'when it <rets a 
chance. 



By Rev. C. E. Petersen, in American 
Poultry Journal. 

The wonderful progress in inventive 
science is best seen by going back to 
th» primitive methods of "our fore- 
fathers, and yet in very many of 
these rude contrivances we find the 
germ of what is to-day a fully de- 
veloped piece of intricate machinery, 
that in many instances almost seems 
endowed with reason. 

It is at least interesting to follow 
in sorre detkil the evolution of our 
modern incubatar by going back to 
the origin of this useful invention 
that no single man can lay any 
claim to, but which is a combination 
of many men's minds, and though the 
modern incubator is far from bein°- 
perfect in many of its details, it is 
so great an improvement over the 
primitive ethods that we have put 
it within the reach of every poultry 
man that cares to use it in his 
hatching operations, and very few 
there are that do not take advantage 
of it. 

That Egypt is the cradle of artificial 
incubation cannot be successfully con- 
tradicted, anvhow we cannot go back 
farther for our information, and there- 
fore will pivp ari account of how an 
Egypt ain " Mamal " or hatching oven 
is constructed and onerated to-dav, 
as it was in the time of the Pharaohs' 
thousands of years ago. 

The hatching oven or " mamal " is 
built with brick, about nine feet high, 
with a gallery in the middle, three 
feet wide and eight feet high ; on 
each side of which is a double row 
of rooms, each three feet wide and 
four or five feet broad, and twelve 
or fifteen feet long, and each capable 
of containing four or five thousand 
eggs, deposited in such a manner as 
not to touch one another, upon a 
iriat or a bed of flax. 

At the outside of one an|?le of the 
btiiMin? there is a fire-nlace, from 
which the heat is conveyed to both 
stories by means of flues, during three 

(Continued from page 134). 



THE DIFFERENCE IS JUST THIS : WHEN YOU USE 

Burford's Prize INo. I Soap, 

Burford's INo. Starch, 
Burford's Extract of Soap, 

YOU SAVE YOUE MONEY. 

WHEN YOU USE A SUBSTITUTE THE OTHER MAN SAVES YOUR MONEY. 

DON'T LET HIM HAVE IT. 



1.32 



TTTK GARDEN AND FIELD. 



First Principles. 



Prom " Reliable Poultry Journal." 

Tt was not many years ago that the 
tone of tlu> literature of poultry 

journals was all optimistic. Of late 
years there has hern a tendency to 
admit that the poultry business has • 

problems that must l>e solved before 
it can he marie a success. l'oultry- 
men are not " quitters," however, and 
they are busy trying to discover the 

cause in these pro'ilems. Having dis- 
covered that there is a well-defined 
cause for each residt obta-ned, they 
have made great strides ah ad. The 
experiment stations have done and 
are do;ng pood work along this line, 
and everywhere there, is a tendency to 
talk of "results" and not "luck" 
as formerly. 

I have a great many visitors at my 
place, being somewhat a poineer in 
this business in my state, and it 
amuses me to hear th ee visitors 
talk. Few of them have hid any 
experience, hut their crn'idence is 
prodigious. T do not like to be a 
wet blanket nor do 1 th^nk they 
necessarily are igoing to fail. Hit I 
rlo think that there is less counting 
on loss in the poultry bus ness thin 
in any other busin ss in which a 
man engages. A prospective merchant 
counts on bad debts and oth-r 'osses. 
and in every line of business this is 
considered, except in th° poultry 
business. I am convinced that in our 
business, a man's failures are the 
making of him. if he can hold out 
long enough to win out ; and start- 
ing bio - is hist where ke>'nners lose 
out. This doss not mean that I do 
not believe in large plants, for 1 
certainly do : but a big plant has ill 
of the proper facilities, while a be- 
ginner cannot possiblv be properly 
(ixed. Tt must come by degrees, as 
experience teaches the need. 

- Failure almost Inevitable. — 

A visitor recently told me he was 
going into the poultry business this 
year and that he expected to hatch 
over ten thound chickens and raise 
over eightv per cent, notwithstanding 
the fact that it takes a very good 
poultrv man to raise eighty per cent, 
and the further fact that he had al- 



most no facilities for doing so. I 
suggested that this was a larije num- 
ber of chickeDB an I that fchev would 
require a considerable amount of 
hrooderage. " Oh, 1 shall not hatch 
them all out at once." he replied. 

I then suggested that chickens do 
not d'v wll when crow d, d. He replied 
that he was aware of the fact an] 
(h it such a measure would not be 
wise. 1 though as Rill Nye said, it 
would be decidedly "other-wise." 

Rut this man is not really alive to 
the fact that crowding is unwise — is 
fatal. He will not know it until ex- 
perience teaeh'S it to h'tu. He is n 
man of good ideas, and has a sound 
head, but he does not understand nor 
realize that there are natural laws 
governing animal life 'hat are as 
invariable in their workings as is th" 
principle that water will rise no 
high-r than its source. 

This man exnected every fertile ear? 
incubated to hatch. Like all be- 
ginners he thought he could get 
ahepd of all his competitors lw hatch- 
ing in Iteceirber and January, not 
realising that eg" 7 ** are as dear as 
voung chickens at that season ; nor 
did he take into account the fact that 
fertility is not high nor s*ron" dur- 
ing the winter months and that 
hatches at that time of thfl year are 
rarely successful. 

He expected to raise his chickens in 
home-made brooders, putting a hun- 
dred in each brooder. And thev were 
so noorlv constructed that h° could 
not possibly get a h'gher teirmerature 
than a^ventv decrees ! He does not 
know that heat is the great essential 
for all growth, both animal and 
vegetable. Tt takes such men as 
these about a war to com" to th" 
conclusion that there is nothing in 
the poultry business. 

— Overcrowding Fatal. — 

The artifieial method of raising 
chickens (in brooders! iW still in the 
experimental stage, but T am con- 
vinced that the nearer we can get to 
the natural method in the artificial 
way, the more successful we shall be. 
The hen succeeds better than a brooder 
she has a more limited num- 
ber of clucks. I feel certain that 



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many of the ailments of brooder- 
raised chickens, not excepting white 
diarrhoea, result from the great num- 
ber kept together. 

We lonow that the mortality among 
children is fifty per cent, yet among 
aiir friends we do not see any such 
alarming death rate. But this high 
rate of mortality does exist, being 
made up in the crowded districts of 
our largie cities. Right here is a 
lesson for poultrymen. Look for the 
cause of the high rate of mortality 
in the crowded districts of our large 
cities and you will find that the 
deaths are due to bad conditions and 
bad food which have lowered the 
vitality of the parent and children. 

Not only is this true of the human 
race, but you. -will find it is the sarnie 
with other animals. Put over fifty 
sheep in a pasture in a thickly settled 
community, and they will promptly 
dieout. I am aware that out west 
on the prairies this is not so, owinb, 
probably, to the sparseness of popula- 
tion, but it is true of a thickly settled 1 
community. 

When it comes to chickens, crowding 
is fatal to th°ir development. Crowd 
your chickens and they will die off 
until only those that can live in the 
allotted space survive. Grown hens 
are not so affected. The struggle for 
existence with them is not so great, 
they having already made th-mselves, 
as it were, and how thev only have 
to sustain themselves, without mak- 
ing any growth. 

Recently I saw fifty mule colts, in 
one pasture, which were being fed on 
a splendid, balanced ration. Thev 
made no p-rowths and consequently 
were very unsatisfactory. I su^ceeted 
to the owner that he seoarate th°m. 
He did so, and in two weeks the irni- 
provement was remarkable, although 
the new pastures were not one bit 
better than the old ones. 

My hot -water-heated brooder was 
designed to hold two thousand. T 
find that one thousand chicks do 
twice as well in it, and even then T 
separate or remove them at three 
weeks of age to individual brooders. 
When T first started out T had 
twelve acres in a colonv yard : now 
T have colany yards all about mv 
place, and I am very careful not to 
nut over two hund"ed and fifty chick- 
ens in each. Now T raise them former- 
ly I did not. 

— Tnbreedinrr. Ventilation, Range. — 
I consider the keeping of a limited 
number in the brooders and the 
separation of the older chicks into 
small flocks essential to success, _ al- 
though there are some other things 
equally important— not to inbireed, for 
instance. T write myself down as 
oonosed to inbreeding, in spite of the 
fact that some of our best poultry- 
men favor it. We have all seen the re- 
sults of cousins marrying deformities, 
consumption, idioev — and science tells 
us we are only higher animals. In- 
breeding weakens chickens beyond a 



August, 1912 



133 



doubt, and, in my opinion, the 
heritage of vitality is the best inherit- 
enee a chicken can have. I use trap- 
nests and breed from my bestlayers, 
but I introduce new blood every year 
and 1 have nothing to complain of in 
my egg receipts. 

I also favor fresh air for hens, 
voung chickens, brooder chicks, and 
every other fowl. I ventilate my 
breeding and colony houses as well 
as my brooders Ijy tacking yellow 
cotton cloth over the windows, and J 
lind a great improvement in the 
vitality of rr-jy stock. I am careful 
about the temperature of my brooder, 
getting up at night to replenish the 
fire, but no matter how cold it is I 
have the fresh air enter through the 
cloth-covered windows. 

I also believe in a considerable 
range for breeding stock. A large 
lot has been inclosed with wire at 
the bottom of the runs in front of 
my breeding houses. 1 also have one 
in the back. During the breeding 
season I turn about fifty hens into 
the front lot and fifty into the back 
lot, and I find this increased range 
greatly improves the fertility of the 
eggs. Too many hens in one flock will 
cause an alarming decrease in the 
fertility, and 1 believe that close con- 
finement will eventually ruin the 
fertility. It is an interesting fact to 
note that animals kept in confine- 
ment in our zoos are very poor 
breeders, some of them being entirely 
sterile. 

By studying the poultry business as 
you would any other enterprise in 
which you -n ouid risk your time and 
money, it can bo made most profitable. 
But in my opinion it is a working- 
man's business and not a good busi- 
ness for a rich man to run with a 
manager, as an iron in the fire out 
of which he can make a lot of money, 
i He seldom does it. It takes personal 
[interest in the business and plenty of 
work from the self-interest stand- 
point to make a success of the 
poultry business. 



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(Continued from last issue). 

In making these late experiments I 
worked on the idea that yellow corn 
contains a coloring matter which pro- 
duces bronze barring in the plumage, 
but the result in experiment No. 2 
has placed a different light on the 
subject and will be well worth while 
working ont more thoroughly in the 
future. 

Experiment 1. — A. four-year-old hen 
that was bred from a line of ex- 
ceptional color and had always shown 
a clear, even, rich glossy green color, 
free from bronze or purple, was placed 
in a coop where no sun rays could 
reach her and confined so that she 
could not obtain any grass or food 
of any kind other than that given 
her. She was fed exclusively on 
whole and cracked yellow corn all 
through her molt. The result was 
that she showed bronze barring 
throughout her plumage. 

Experiment 2. — Two hens that were 
of a dull black color, almost free from 
any- greenish sheen, were handled 
throughout their molt the same as in 
experiment 1. The result was that 
no bronze barring was produced, but 
their color was improved to quite an 
extent, showing considerable greenish 
sheen free from bronze or purple. 
This was a surprise to me and was a 
result I was not looking forj especially 
the improvement in color, and brings 
up the question, Does the corn supply 
coloring matter that will improve the 
color in plumage where it does not 
already contain in its natural state 
all that it will stand, but in other 
cases supplies an excess of color 
which produces purple or bronze 
barring ? 

However this one experiment is not 
sufficient to warrant, such as bein r a 
fact, but as it is conceded by breeders 
that purple or bronze barring is the 
result of any ^xcess of color, it is 
very reasonable to suppose that such 
may be the case. 

Experiment '•'■>. — An exceptionally 
strong colored cock bird, free from 
bronze or purple, (aways had been so, 
from a chick) was placed ini a pen 10 
by 12 feet with a large run contain 
plenty of grass and shade and was 
fed on yellow corn exclusively. The 
result was he showed bronze barring, 
but not nearly to such an extent as 
the hen in experiment 1. This would 
indicate that the grass, seeds, etc., 
obtained .in this run offset the effect 
of the corn to some extent. 

Experiment 4. — A high colored cock 
bird free from bronze or purple was 
confined in pen and run same as cock 
bird in experiment '■' and fed on a 
ration one third wheat and one-third 
oats, with an occasional light feed of 
buckwheat as a change of diet. This 
bird did not show any bronze barring 
and at a glance his color looked 
perfect, but upon close examination g 



bluish bar could be detected now and 
then across a feather, more especial- 
ly in some of the wing feathers. 

This would indicate that the effect 
of the corn was not so great on 
account of the amount fed and was 
offset, to an extent, by thd other food 
consumed. 

Other than the birds used in these 
experiments, my birds were allowed 
the free run of the farm as soon as 
the breeding seasan was over, the 
same as in years past, and no corn 
is fed until they are all through their 
molt and housed again for winter, 
when the cold weather sets in, and I 
have found with this treatment the 
color question is the least of n?iy 
troubles. 

From the result of the above ex- 
periments, the questions in my mind 
now are : Does the yellow corn supply 
a foreign colouring matter that enters 
into the feathers, producing purple or 
bronze barring, or does it increase the 
color thus producing purple or bronze 
barring, from an excess of color. The 
question is one of rapidly increasing 
importance. — Reliable Poultry Journal. 



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134 



THU GARDEN AND FIELD. 



August, 1912 

< -1 



(Continued from page i.W). 
or four hours daily, at stated in- 
tervals. 

Ventilators are also used, Est the 
heat should he too great — . the 
standard temperature being th.it of 
the warm baths of the country. 

About the middle of January the 
ovens are inspected and repaired ; 
and ,as they are public, and as each 
has a circuit of fifteen or twenty 
villages, notice is given to the in- 
habitants so as they may come and 
bring their eggs. 

As soon as a suitable quantity of 
eggs is collected together they are 
put into the rooms that are to serve 
for the first brood ; for the whole of 
the ovens are never employed at once 
on the same brood, but onlv one half 
of those which the building contains. 

The eggs are ranged three deep in 
the lower rooms of each oven on a 
bed of chopped straw and dust , 
which mixture Aristotle probably mis- 
took for dung, and several centuries 
later misled the great French in- 
vestigator Reaumur in his experi- 
ments. 

As the fuel "burns away it is re- 
newed three times a day and as 
many at llight, with the same pre. 
caution each time to open up for a 
few moments the hole in the roof. 

The lire is thus continued during 
tin days ; a long experience, a skil- 
ful hand, and the application of eggs 
against the eye balls are the only 
thermometers used in Egypt for regu- 
lating the temperature. 

During that space of time the egj;s 
are often turned and examined, and 
those "that are clear, add lid or with 
dead germs in them are thrown out. 

On the eleventh day the second 
brood is forwarded by placing fresh 
eggs in the interior cells of the six 
ovens left empty at the first brood, 



and the furrows of their upper cells 
are Idled with lighted fuel. 

As soon as the tires are Lighted in 
these ovens they are put out in the 
others, so that the eggs of : the latter 
are no longer heated, but by the 
lire lately made in thje former, an 1 
only receive heat by the side windows 
in the upper chambers of the ovens, 
which remain constantly open. 

The second brood thus f.ot for- 
ward, they take from the lower rooms 
of the ovens first used, one - half of 
the eggs, to lay them out on the 
lloor of the upper rooms. 

This change is made because these 
eggs require the greater care the 
nearer they draw to the time whin 
chickens are to issiir from them; and 
by being on the floors may be in- 
spected, turned and taken up with 
greater ease. 

When the twentieth day of 'incuba- 
tion is arrived, some chicks are al- 
ready seen to Iweak their shell, the 
greater part issue on the morrow 
with or without help; but few wait 
for the twenty-second day. 

The stronj^st chickens are taken to 
the room allot ted to then 1 !, and from 
there are distributed to those " who 
furnished the eggs, and who obtain 
two chickens for every three eggs ; 
the weakest are kept a few days 
longer. 

We have chosen this description of 
the Egyptain method from a number 
of treatises on the subject, because of 
its clear and concise statements. 

On the revival of aits in Europe the 
Egytain method of artificial incuba- 
tion spread successively to Malta, to 
Sicily, to Italy and then to France 
and England. 

Mains tells us in his Treatise that 
one of the dukes of Florence sent to 
Egypt for a Bermain to superintend a 
hatching oven for him ; and Alphonsus 



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11 of Naples set up one at his country 

residence. 

Charles VII I of France in 14 l J(i had 
one built at Amboise, and Francis I 
another at Montrichard. 

There is a curious entry extant of 
the expenses of the oven at Aimboise, 
u bach runs thus : 

" Paid to Messer Nicolas Vigans, 
an Italian, for fourteen days 'by him 
taken and employed for working an 
oven at the said place of Amboise, 
for hatching and rearing chickens 
without hens, which he has done for 
the King's pleasure, during this time, 
af a rale of lour sols two denieru per 
day, and has been paid, as appears 
by his receipt, the sum of fifty-eight 
sols four drillers (about five shillings). 

" To the said, the number of 1,WWJ 
eggs by him bought at the afore- 
time in order to have them hatched 
and have chickens for the said, at the 
rate of lour sols deniers>per hundred." 

In the year 1750 a work published 
in Pails and in the same year trans- 
lated into English, giving in detail 
what was comprehended in the title 
of the book : THE ART Of Hatching 
and Bringing up Domestick F'owls of 
all Kinds, At any Time of the Year. 
Either by means of the heat of Hot- 
Beds or that of Common Fire. 

(Continued on Page 138). 

<$ 

Exhibition Poultry and Its 
Influences on the Industry. 



Of late years a very sharp line of 
demarcation has been drawn be- 
tween those who breed poultry 
and show tbem, and those who 
breed poultry and do not show 
them. More than that, those who 
do not show their poultry have 
made very strong statements about 
the unwisdom of those who do 
so — or, to lift the question out of 
all its personal aspect, have un- 
hesitatingly asserted that poultry 
shows have done unmitigated 
harm, that before such shows 
were held poultry were in all ways 
better than thev are now, and that 
the fanciers and exhibitors have 
spoilt every breed which they have 
taken up. 

I use the term " exhibition 
poultry " in the heading of my 
paper because it was chosen for 
me, and it doubtless was chosen 
because, it is current in common 
parlance. Like many current 
terms it is not very accurate nor 
felicitous, for it may seem to sug- 
gest that " exhibition poultry " 
are a race or a collection of races 
of poultry a s distinguished from 
non-exhibited races, instead of be- 
ing the best (whether rightly or 
wrongly thought so is not the qncs- 



August, 1912 



THE GAJtDBN AND FIELD. 



135 



tion) of all races, wflnch are on 
that account exhibited. 

Poultry shows have originated 
within living memory. I do not 
pretend to say what was the im- 
mediate cause which brought 
them into vogue ; probably a con- 
junction of causes did so. Such 
as : — 

1. The publication of such boots 
as Dixon's " Ornamental and 
Domestic Poultrv," and some- 
what later that of " The Poultry 
Book," bv Wingfield and Johnson, 
which drew public attention to the 
fact, known only to the few before, 
that the varieties of poultry were 
manv, some of them very beauti- 
ful. 

2. The fact that ahe English 
world began to travel far more 
than aforetime on the Continent 
of Europe, and was there struck 
by the fact that eggs and poultry- 
were more plentiful than at home, 
inclined our country - men and 
country-women to ask themselves, 
" Why should this be so ?" and to 
look favourably upon any means 
which drew attention to poultry 
breeding, and I think no impartial 
person can deny that the earlier 
poultry shows did so in a remark- 
able way. 

3. A general love of competi- 
tion, born of an a^e of progress 
The Royal Agricultural Society , 
and many other like societies, had 
through shows, stimulated an im- 
provement in the breeds of horses, 
of cattle, of sheep, and of pigs. 
Might not a like improvement in 
poultrv be brought about by like 
means ? Lastly, poultrv shows had 
scarcely been started when a 
further stimulus was given to their 
promotion bv fresh importations 
from the East. 

" Poultry were< better before 
there were poultry shows, there- 
fore what good have they and the 
fanciers done ?" The statement is 
one easy to make, and not very 
easy either to prove or disprove. 
There are very few whose memory 
goes back to a time before there 
were poultry shows at all ; still 
fewer who had then arrived at a 
time" of life when they were likely 
to make an intelligent generalisa- 
tion on such a subject. 

I come to what I can speak of 
with more confidence — viz., my 
own experience. I have kept two 
old English breeds, or call them, 
if you prefer it, two varieties of 
one breed, for over thirty years, — 
I mean Dorkings, the one silver or 
light grey, the other pure white, 
rosecombed. I assert without the 
least hesitation that they are to- 
day far more hardy and far more 



productive, as they are more 
symmetrical and more beautiful, 
especially so the white breed, than 
they were when I took them up. 

in boyhood I started Dorkings 
on the gravel of Middlesex, prover- 
bially good for poultry. For the 
last twenty years 1 have kept 
them on the heavy and sticky 
loam of the Valley of the Wye ; 
not an ideal soil for fowls. Then 
I was much trouMed with 'bumble 
foot," or rheumatism ; I have al- 
most forgotten what it w<as. 
Dorkings were then poor layers ; 
nowadays mine lay so incessantly 
that a large number of them 
never go broody at all, and I 
have to fall .back upon others hens 
as foster-mothers. To what do 
you attribute this improvement { 
is a question which will naturally 
be asked. First of all I attribute 
it to the fact that in the case ol 
these breeds at least, the require- 
ments of intelligent fanciers have 
been entirely in accordance with 
the requirements of utility. A 
given compactness of form with 
deep breast has been the first 
point insisted on, and that be- 
cause it is the form which gives 
the maximum of delicate meat. 
Even the requirements of feather 
are not so absurd and arbitrary 
as people try to make out. One 
of these two varieties, to suit the 
fancier's eye, should have pure 
silvery, not straw-coloured hackles; 
with the other it is de rigueur 
that its plumage should be white 
all over, without tinge of yellow. 
These are the so-called " fancy- 
points " in which I have lived to 
see — I hope in a small way to 
contribute to — the greatest im- 
provement. 

" What can it really matter," 
I have been asked, " whether your 
fowls look white or yellow ?" It 
matters just this much. A yellow 
tinge in light-coloured fowls, cer- 
tainlv in these breeds, is a sign of 
tendency to jaundice ; and liver 
Complaint is about the most fatal, 
the most contagious, ajnd heredi- 
tary complaint which can devastate 
the poultry yard. Here, is, I 
think, a clear instance in which 
poultry shows, and breeding up to 
a show standard, have done some- 
thing for a profitable and a pure 
race. 

Hut it may be said there were 
good and pure breeds before there 
were fanciers, certainiy before 
there were exhibitions. The latter 
statement is undoubtedly correct ; 
I doubt if the former is so, for 
from the minute descriptions of 
the points of pure-bred poultry 
which we find in old books from 
that of Columella downwaffds I 



ijjyjyj Editorial Notices. 

AGlfiN TS. — Messrs. ATKINSON & CO. 
and MESSRS. GORDON & GOTCH, Etu. 

The Editor will be pleased, to receive 
correspondence and answer questions. 
Inese replies will, for the most part, be 
sent by mail, unless received just prior 
to date of publication. 

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am inclined to think that the pro- 
duction of these breeds ages ago 
was probably due to men who 
were fanciers as well as utilitarians. 
Good pure breeds there certainly 
were 100 years ago. I very much 
doubt whether, apart from the 
interest — the intelligent interest, as 
I think — which fanciers have be- 
stowed on their perpetuuiUion, 
those breeds would to-day have 
existed in anything like purity. 

"It is all the fault of shows and 
of fanciers " we are told. I very 
much doubt it ; experience leads 
me to disbelieve that a really 7 good 
established and acclimatised breed 
can so easily be spoilt. The fact 
of its rapid deterioration shows 
that it never was a good breed, or 
never was suited to our climate, 
or was not in any true sense a 
pure breed at all ! And here I 
would draw the widest distinction 
between the old breeds, which have 
stood the twofold test of time and 
of climate — i.e., which have proved 
good and useful through dozens of 
generations, and that in our Hritish 
climate, or some part of it, and 
newly produced or newly imported 
so-called breeds, often little more 
than cross-bred, which have stood 
no such test at all.—" Poultry." 




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1 36 



TEtE GARDEN AND FIELD. 



August, 1912 



Preparing for the Show Room. 



From " Reliable Poultry 
Journal.'' 

I v et it be understood in the be- 
ginning that all the skill and 
knowledge ol those ol experience 
in the art ol litting birds for the 
show room cannot transform a 
second rate specimen into a pri/.e 
winner. Neither can a bird of 
royal pedigree, standard weight 
and fashionable markings win un- 
less in the pink of condition. 
Hence the successful fanciers of 
today, throughout poultrydom, 
are those who raise the very best 
birds and show them in the best 
possible condition. 

Competition in the modern show 
room is so keen, and the work of 
the breeder in producing high 
scoring specimens so far in ad- 
vance of what it was twenty, or 
even ten years ago, that a bird 
to wiu, must necessarily be shown 
in perfect trim and must have 
been hatched well from vigorous, 
healthy ancestors of highest 
quality, and from chickhood up to 
the show room should have the 
closest care and the benefit of 
proper feed, range and attention. 

I do not sav this to discourage 
the fancier of limited experience 
who exhibits his birds for the 
first time. On the contrary, he 
is the fellow I want to assist, and 
I urge him, no matter however 
good or bad your birds may be, 
show them in their best possible 
form in order to learn from your 
score card what their merits and 
defects may be. 

• The word " condition,:' as de- 
fined bv the American Standard of 
Perfection, has a broad meaning, 
and in its direct application to a 
fowl, means health, cleanliness and 
beauty of plumage. These quali- 
ties cannot be given to a bird in 



a day or a week, but are the re- 
sult of good breeding, proper 
feeding, shade, fresh, clean water, 
clean, dry, well ventilated char- 
ters and good range during the 
call period of growth. Six weeks 
before the opening of the show 
season 1 , select from your stock a 
number of the largest, most shape- 
ly and best marked birds, which 
should be placed in large yards 
with shade and grass run, if pos- 
sible — (cockerels in separate yards 
from pullets). The roosting house 
should be kept scrupulously clean 
bv use of lime disinfectants and in- 
secticide. Ivxainine birds closely 
and if infested with mites or lice, 
get rid of them at once by insejet 
powder, or some standard remedy. 
The perches in the house should 
not be over twelve inches high 
and should be removable. In the 
vard keep clean, fresh water that 
should be renewed several' times 
dail - during the warm weather. 
In good sized shallow boxes grit, 
charcoal and crushed shell should 
be kept. Now comes the question 
of feed that will insure health, 
jjrowth and bring out the pi mil- 
age in clear, clean colours. Gradu- 
allv work the birds into a ration 
that is well balanced, and one 
that contains the greatest pos- 
sible \ anety of food that a bird 
will eat, and feed plentifully. I 
have never yet found that I was 
feeding young growing stock too 
much. Thev may tire of one kind 
of feed and perhaps leave it un- 
touched. This is not due to the 
birds not being hungry — on the 
contrary, thev mav eat freely of 
some other food, if given it. 
Hence, the necessity of variety. I 
feed sound grain, principally 
wheat, milk, cabbage and, at noon 
daily, a mash composed of two 
parts bran and two parts corn 



meal' and one part ground beef 
scraps mixed with milk. The even- 
in c feed is wheat, corn or sun- 
llower seed, and of the latter I 
think highly, as they exert a most 
beneficial effect on the growth of 
feathers. Bear in mind that in 
followir" this plan, 1 am feeding 
for condition. Condition that 
means health, cleanliness and 
beautiful plumairc. I want no pale 
combs and shanks, dull colors in 
plumage and slender, ' meagre 
necks. The birds must have the 
essential elements in food to make 
bone and feathers, as well as 
llesh, and this ration gives me 
better results than anything I 
have ever tried. The ground beef 
scraps is twice the quantity some 
of our best breeders recommend, 
but 20 per cent, animal feed in 
the mash does better for me ithan 
10 per cent. Milk is objected to 
by some, but I have yet to find it 
harmful. I substitute when I 
can, cut bone instead of the beef 
scraps, but cannot say it is any 
better, and onlv do so for the sake 
of variety. The same may be 
said of oats and other grains. 
They are good, but no better than 
wheat. My method is not a model 
one for feeding. The birds are 
never without feed, contrary to the 
rule practised by many breeders of 
feeding just what will quickly be 
eaten up clean, but it gives me 
good results, both in the show 
room and in the breeding pen, 
after the show season closes. 

Follow this plan of yarding and 
feeding up to a week before the 
time for shipment to first show. 
Weigh your birds often and look 
them over each night to see that 
the}' have full crops and then be- 
gin the final work of preparation 
for the exh bition. 

If you have kept everything per- 
fectly clean, aod your yard has 
been shaded, it will not be neces- 
sary to wash your birds unless 



KOONOOWARRA POULTRY YARDS. 



Barred Plymouth Rocks : 



Ckl, 1st and Sp. at Victoria P. * K. C. 
Show ; 1st and Medal Essendon Show, 
Vic; 1st and Sp. Adelaide P. & K. Club Show, 1911; Hens and Pullets, 
all winners, P. & K. C. Show, Adelaide, 1911 : 1st, 2nd, and 3rd Pullet, 
March Royal Show. Good Utility, £1 Is 



Buff Orpingtons : 



Birds 1st and 2nd Ckl., let, and 2nd Pullet, March 
Royal Show. Good sound color and healthy stock ; 
also good winter layers and splendid birds for Export trade. £1 Is. setting. 



Rhode Island Reds : 



America's leading utility birds, lately imported 
into Australia by me. 



White Plymouth Rocks 

and excellent Table Birds. 
Royal Show. £1 Is. 



White Orpingtons 



• Snow-white birds, easy to breed and rear, 
" typical Farmer's fowl, good Winter Layers 
lst and 2nd Ckl., lit and 2nd Pullet, March 



Imported and prize-winning stock. Won 1st Ckl, 
1st Pullet Royal Show, Adelaide, September, 1910. 
1st, 2nd, and 3rd Ckl., 1st and 2nd Pullet, March Royal Show. Great 
Winter Layers and good Table Birds. £1 Is. setting. 

Pekin DllCkS ■ Never beaten in show pen. Four Firsts, 1 Second, 2 Sp 
. at p. 4 k. Club Show, Adelaide, 191 1, out of five entries 
Two Firsts, 1 Second and Special at Royal A. & H. Show, Adeleide, Sept. 
1910, out of three entries. A limited number of Settings at £2 2s. 



I am now booking orders for breeding pens. 



I mate my breeding pens in June and will supply egge for setting. 
Book early avoid dissapointment 



Could not. supply all oideri last season. 



Eggs securely packed and delivered on Rail or Coach (buyer pays carriage). Eggs All Stamped Koonoowarra. My Stodk won 23 prizes at Royal Show, March 2921. 
Terms: Cash with Order. I keep nothing but Al Stock. I cull heavily and breed only from the Best. 



P. O. MANUEL, Enfield, S.A. 



Telephone : Central 273. 



August, 1912 



THE GARDEN AND FIELD. 



137 



thev are of some wliite breed, and 
jossibly not then unless the at- 
nosphere of vour premises is filled 
with dust and coal smoke. But 
I your birds are not clean, snow 
>vhite, you better wash them. Use 
:astile soap and warm water, 
naking a thick lather which 
should be applied freely, but gent- 
ry, to all feathered sections of 
the fowl. Spend some time in 
this and work the lather profusely 
uto the feathers to the skin, 
rt'hen thoroughly " lathered," hold 
firds by feet and head and draw 
through a tub of warm water (not 
hot) repeatedly, until feathers are 
iree from all soapy matter. Then 
till the tub again with water and 
rinse thoroughly. Ask your wife 
to prepare the tub as she would 
in bluing the white garments of 
the weeKly wash, and in this 
P blue " water give the bird "its 
Snal bath. Place the bird after 
pressing out all the water you can 
with your hands in a slatted 
:oop with open side to a warm 
stove and keep there for several 
lours. The bottom of coop should 
be covered with an inch of shav- 
ings, sawdust or fine cut straw. 
Don t let the bird get too warm, 
ueither should it get chilled, and 
after being partially dry, if the 
lay be warm, put coop where 
bird may be in the sunshine. Be 
careful to keep bird out of drafts 
while wet, for colds are easily con- 
tracted during the washing pro- 
cess. This plan works , wonders 
with a dirty bird, but to my mind 
the whiteness is not as pure and 
attractive as that of a bird that 
is of the "stay white" kind, and 
that has had the benefit of clean 
quarters and environment that are 
conducive to " stay whiteness." 

Now that your bird is washed, 
dried and clean, place him in an 
exhibition coop. Set coop under 
shelter, but in the light. Water 
and feed as usual and invite your 
friends to see him. If he is dis- 
posed to rebel at his limited quar- 
ters and £et frightened at the 
approach of strangers, you will 
find it necessary to spend some 
time in getting him to stand 
naturally, and to become accus- 
tomed to visitors. My plan with 
a wild bird is to feed sparingly 
but often, and all visitors who 
come, as well as different members 
of the family, approach him with 
some dainty bit of food of which 
be is fond. Two or three days of 
such treatment generally over- 
comes all disposition to shyness 
and the birds get to enjoy the 
attention of visitors. In such 
fuses care should be taken to feed 
freelv at night all the bird will 
eat. 



It is most important that your 
birds get this training, lor with- 
out it the . confinement in new 
coops, the noise of the show 
room and the attention of , the 
show patrons will frighten them 
untd they stand awkwardly, out 
of shape, and present/ anything but 
a high-bred appearance, and when 
in the judges' hands cannot re- 
ceive its just score for, shape. The 
dav before shipping take your bird 
from the coop for a final inspec- 
tion and the freshening touches. 
Look carefully for broken feathers, 
which should be removed. Then 
wash legs, feet and toes with 
warm water and a soft brush. If 
lines between scales on legs are 
filled with dust, remove with 
toothpick, but avoid scratching. 
Drv with cloth and dry thorough- 
ly. Then apply with finger a 
small amount of vaseline or sweet 
oil, and spend some time in 
rub lung or polishing with flannel 
cloth untd the bright natural 
color of feet and legs is brought 
out. 

Wash next the face, wattles, 
beak and comb. Rub comb very 
gently, else it will present a raw 
appearance. Apply to it a little 
sweet oil and it will look bright, 
clean and of fine texture, tro over 
the entire body of the bird with 
a flannel cloth to remove dust. 
They are now as fit as you can 
make them. Feed, water and ship 
in all wood light shipping coops, 
with solid sides but slatted tops. 
Straw, chaff or sawdust should 
cover bottom of coop, and do not 
crowd the birds in shipping, else 
vou may have wry tails and 
broken feathers. Neither should 
vou place large and small birds 
in same coop, or birds that are 
strangers to each other. Coop to- 
gether only those that have been 
raised together, and only show in 
the show room birds of agreeable 
dispositions in same exhibition 
coop. Where two or more are 
cooped together, one may be the 
controlling spirit, and dominate 
the others into a dejected, crest- 
fallen, " hen pecked " appearaoce. 




Arriving at the show rooms, 
take birds from coop, and never 
catch a bird by legs in - taking 
from coop. Carefully but firmly 
grasp it by the wing joint next 
to the body and draw it out head 
first. Look them over carefully 
to remove the dust of travel. Give 
comb, feet and legs a careful clean- 
ing. Water and feed lightly and 
trust them to the mercy and wis- 
dom of the poultry- judge. 

Do not feed too heavily untd the 
judging is over, as an overfed 
specimen looks dull, sluggish and 
is lacking in that bright, active, 
snappy appearance that pleases a 
judge. Throughout the continu- 
ance of the show, water carefully, 
but feed only moderately, and of 
as great variety as you can get. 
At night, if the light burns all 
night, drop a curtain or newspaper 
over front of coop to exclude 
fight. 

Now a bit of experience in the 
matter of weight. " Won on 
weight " is a proverb of the show 
room, and Judge I. K. Felch says 
"you are beaten before the show 
opens if your entries are below 
weight." 

Last winter I was fitting six 
head of young B. P. Rocks for a 
show and had them just about the 
weight limit, when a perfect epi- 
demic of cold ran through the en- 
tire flock. The weather was 
damp, dismal and cloudy and the 
birds for days refused to eat and 
lost rapidly in weight. But the 
colds were treated successfully and 
with a change to better weather 
the birds improved and appetites 
returned. Corn, boiled milk, a 
rich mash and raw beef was fair- 
ly crowded down them. Pepsin 
and charcoal tablets were given 
them to prevent indigestion and 
bowel trouble. At the time of 
shipment they had made a decided 
gain, but were still below weight. 
The ride of two hundred miles did 
them no harm, and in the morn- 
ing of the opening show they were 
lively and hungry. They were 
given all the water they would 



South Australian poultry owners have 
found that the very best remedy 
for the TICK CURSE it 

Faulding's 
Phenytas. 



Periodically dip the infested birds and spray infested houses and runs with 
Faulding's Phenytas and there will be no further fear of tick. 
PAULDING'S PHENYTAS is Absoluts DEATH TO THE TICK 



138 



THE GARDEN AND FLEXLD. 



AuguCfc, 1912. 



drink, then mica grit was given, 
followed by corn, which they ate 
greedily. Their crops seemed full, 
but when a pound of raw beef, cut 
line, was given them they ate it 
with a relish. This was heroic 
treatment but was justifiable, for 
a half hour later, when the clerk 
weighed them, the wisdom of such 
feeding was apparent. Four of the 
six went good full weight ; one 
pullet was a quarter of a pound 
overweight and the cockerel al- 
most a half pound. True, the crops 
looked unshapely, but as the judge 
did not reach them for several 
hours after the weighing, the work 
vol digestion reduced the crops aod 
the birds seemed bright and live- 
ly. One pullet scored 94, another 
93, and the whole lot went above 
91. 

Now as to after results. I write 
this for the benefit of certain 
people who persist in the state- 
ment that " show birds arc 
pampered and do not make good 
breeders." The cockerel above- 
mentioned went direct from the 
show room to the breeding yard 
and was mated to eight hens. 
Eggs from this hen hatched splen- 
didly—the chicks were as healthy 
and strong as ever I raised— some ' 
of them now five months old are 
very promising candidates for blue 
ribbons. The 94 point pullet was 
mated to her sire and is the dam 
of an even dozen beautiful pullets 
that will equal, and some of them 
may exceed, her score. The en- 
tire lot is alive, healthy and have 
been good breeders. 

In conclusion, a word in regard 
to the treatment of old stock. 
When the breeding season is over 
the entire lot is turned out and 
given free farm range. Their feed 
is somewhat reduced to induce 
" worm hunting " and " bug chas- 
ing-. " This exercise and reduction 
of grain feed brings about a de- 
crease of flesh, but an increase of 
health. About August 1st they 
are put on a good feed, principally 
corn and sunflower seed. This puts 
on flesh rapidly, the old feathers 
drop out and a new dress of 
bright, strong colors come on 
quickly. During the month they 
are kept in the shade as much as 
possible, for the hot August sun 
of th s climate is damaging to the 
rig-lit colors of new feathers. Feed 
plenty of charcoal, but no milk, 
and only about one-half the ani- 
mal food given to young, growing 
stock. The legs of old stock in- 
tended for the show room should 
be treated occasionally with a lo- 
tion of two parts kerosene, three 
parts lard, to which add a few 
drops carbolic acid. This keeps 
the legs smooth and clean. Other- 



wise treat old stock a s you would 
young birds. 

To recapitulate : Observe abso- 
lute cleanliness in feeding, yarding, 
cooping and housing, and handle 
vour exhibition stock often until 
thev feci at home in a coop before 
a crowd of admiring strangers. 
The secret of the whole matter, 
if there be any secrets in the 
matter, is to get your birds to 
present to the judge the shapely 
carriage you see so often in the 
yard. 



Evolution of Artificial 
Incubation. 



(Continued from page 131). 



This book, containing 171 pages, 
gives in detail the author's experi- 
ments in artificial hutching a nd mis- 
led by some inaccuracy in a passage 
in Aristotle, who says the Egyptians 
cover eggs with dunjr in order 
to hatch chickens — a circumstance 
quite impossible. M. lieaumur tried 
various experiments in hatching 
artificially by means of heat generated 
from fermenting dung, and, after 
numerous disappointments, at length 
succeeded in hatching about two-thiids 
of the eggs which he tried. 

He first put eggs into an earthen 
pot and then placed them in a layer 
of dung, but after a few days found 
that the eggs had been partly boiled. 

He next made some shallow boxes, 
somewhat in the form of a hot-bed, 
which he sunk into the dung, and in 
them piaced his eggs. Two of them, 
at the end of two days, showed the 
beginning of a germ, which gave him 
Igreat hopes of ultimate success. 

But, after a few days, the stench 
coming from these eggs gave him 
notice of one more failure and dis- 
appointment. 

These accidents were then almost 
cantinuous, and the chicks died in the 
shells long before the day they should 
have hatched. 

He then began to regulate the heat, 
and though the heat was kept at the 
requisite degree, no hatch resulted. 

At last, after the loss of a very 
qreat number of eggs, he discovered 
that it was the vapor exhaling from 
the dung that was the cause of their 
death. 

This vapor was considerable and 
easy to be perceived on the inside 
of the box and, sometimes, even the 
eggs. 

M. Reaumur then made a cask, 
which he sunk into the dung, leaving 
the top of it open, and inside of this 
cask placed baskets with ejggs in them 
leaving a cover for the top, of the 
• ask, which he could slide open at 
will, so as to regulate the heat and 
furnish ventilation. 



The days now passed one after an- 
other and none of the eggs inside the 
cask 'had given out the slightest 
token of corruption. 

On the twentieth day the chicks 
began to pick through the shells and 
make their voices heard, and on the 
following day a number of the eggs 
had hatched and a number of spright- 
ly little chicks were ready to begin 
life in this world. 

One can readily imagine fhe pleasure 
this success gave the experimenter, 



A IHaster Baker 

SPEAKS OF THE WORTH OF 

Clements Tonic 



So ill his friends scarcely knew him 
and he went to the Melbourne 
Hospital. A friend recommended 
Clements Tonic, and that saved him 



This letter hat been recorded because 
of its great ernestness, and the way the 
writer, Mr. Holliday, expresses his 
sufferings and recovery. It shows what 
Clements Tonic can do. Mr. Holliday 
writes from his business address, 113 
Madeline Street (Baker* Patent Peel 
Factory), Carlton, Melbourne, 19/5/11. 

CLEMENTS TONIC LTD., 

"lam glad to tell 70a what Clements 
Tonic did for me. A year ago I was so 
ill from bad liver and nervousness. I 
blamed overwork, and a rush of order*. 
To keep customers supplied I worked day 
and night, with the result I got so ill I 
could take no part in the business except 
supervise. To give an idea how ill and 
changed I was, people who had not seen 
me for months would pass and not know 
me. I was for five months like this, 
gradually getting worse. Good advice 
and medicine did me no good. I decided to 
go to Melbourne Hospital to see what 
they could do. I was examined there as 
an out door patient. On my return a 
customer from Bendigo was waiting, and 
was surprised at my appearance, and 
persuaded me to take Clements Tonic. 
He had seen that medicine restore many 
miners to health in his district. Two 
bottles gave me great relief, and I kept 
on taking it for two months and am in 
grand form again, thanks to Clements 
Tonic. Use this as you like. 

(Signed) HENRY HOLLIDAY." 



1"his is the kind of letter to appeal to all 
men and women, for it proves that, in 
cases of mental and physical exhaustion 
caused through overwork and excess of 
any kind, this medicine tonic restores 
strength rapidly. Send for it if you are 
ill from Constipation, Loss of Sleep, 
Biliousness, Poor Appetite, Low 
Spirits, Weak Kidneys or Nervous 
Neuralgia. •* ALL CHEMISTS 
AND ALL STORES SELL IT. 



Aujust, 1912. 



TUB GARDEN AND FIELD. 



139 



who, for twelve months, had worked 
on this problem without bringing a 
single egg to a success issue. 

The termometer used in these ex- 
periments was of a rather rude con- 
struction, being nothing but a glass 
vial filled with a lump of butter, 
melted, and in it as much tallow as 
there was butter. 

The heat of the egg chamber would 
render the liquid in the bottle very- 
thin if the heat was too great, or the 
lump would remain fixed in one place 
if too small an amount of heat was 
present, but if the temperature was 
right it would How in the bottle like 
thick syrup. 

Placing the bottle in the bosom 
before putting into the cask would 
show how the mixture ought to look. 

That any success was; obtained at all 
with such crude method, is more of a 
surprise than the failures, and goes to 
show that a good many of our 
modern contrivances may not be so 
necessary as we think they are. 

Later on 31. Reaumur tried the fire 
of a baker's oven. A small carriage 
on wheels was constructed, in which 
were several drawers for containino 
rows of eggs, which could be moved 
and examined at pleasure, in a cham- 
ber placed over a bread oven. 

M. Reaumur was so successful in 
these experiments that he was of the 
opinion it might be advantageous, 
in point of economy, to introduce 
this later metbod extensively. 

He says where there are not the 
convenience of a bread oven a hatch- 
ing oven might be constructed, with 
a stove in it to furnish the heat need- 
ed lot bringing the eggs to a success- 
ful exclusion. 

M. Reaumur's method was followed 
by others, with more or less varia- 
tions in the methods of procedure. A 
Mr. Dubois made a heated chamber, 
in which he suspended basket3 full of 
eggs from hooks in the ceiling, and 
by lowering and raising these baskets 
the heat was well regulated. It is 
not stated how well this method suc- 
ceeded. 

Next in order comes M. Coppineaus, 
with the introduction of his hot water 
system, which he carried in a pipe 
along the floor of a chamber, so 
constructed that, beside the hot 
.Water pipes, flues for the purpose of 
ventilation and regulating the heat, 
was made possible. He also placed 
'vessels of water in the room so as to 
render the air in the room moist. 
This is without doubt the first 
method of artificial incubation Iry the 
means of hot water. 

I A number of these hatching ovens 
twere constructed, some of brick and 
£of earthware, but little by little 
discontinued as they were found 
Useless for any practical purposes, 
one of the makers confessing that he- 
could not average more than one 
chicken from every six eggs. 

What may possibly Ik? the first, 
incubator invented is the one described 
by Oliver de Seres, the father of 
French agriculture. He says it was 



made of copper or iron, in which egg's 
were arranged and surrounded by 
feathers, and covered with soft 
cushions, heat having been com- 
municated by means of four lamps, 
and the oven was small and port- 
able, but he says that it was more af 
a curiosity than anything else and 
would not be of great use. 

During the year 1815 Mr. Lawrence, 
the English writer of a Treatise on 
Domestic Poultry, says that he tried 
an experiment in artificial hatching 
that, on the second trial, proved suc- 
cessful. 

He wrapped a number of eggs in 
wool, put them into a wicker basket, 
covered with flannel, and suspended 
this over a chaft'ing-dish of charcoal 
in a chimney, where there was no 
other fire, the chimney screen being 
constantly kept fast to concentrate 
the heat. 

The degree of heat was judged 
every three or four hours, by the 
feeling, and the eggs were constantlv 
turned and transferred from the centre 
to the circumference of the basket. 

About thirty or forty healthy 
chickens were obtained on the second 
trial from forty-five eggs. 

In 1839 was shown in London at 
the Egyptian Hall the celebrated 
Eccaleopian, which was examined by 
an immense number of persons. 

This estalishment was in a large 
room in the Pall Mall and it con- 
sisted of a large hatching oven, which 
extended along one side of the room, 
with an enclosure of similar size on 
the other for the chickens ; while at 
the bottom of the room was a glass 
case, in which the chickens were put 
when first hatched, and in the centre 
a saucer, with eggs broken, to show 
the different states . of progress of the 
chicken during incubation. 

The oven was divided into eight 
compartments, each of which was 
furnished with a . glass, and each con- 
tained a shallow box, lined with 
cloth, and the bottom covered with 
two or three hundred eggs, laid care- 
fully, so as not to touch each other. 

The boxes were heated with steam 
pipes and a jug of water was placed 
in each to Insure a moist atmosphere. 

In each box the eggs were in a dif- 
ferent state of advancement, the ob- 
ject being to have several chickens 
hatched every day, in order to gratify 
the curiosity of the numerous visitors 
of the establishment - 

The chickens, as soon as they were 
hatched, were put under the glass 
case at the end of the room till they 
were two or three days old, after 
which they were removed to the en- 
closure opposite the oven. 

The enclosure consisted of a plat- 
form with a railing around it and 
row of coops for tne chickens to run 
into, and boxes for them to sleep in 
at the back. 

Here they run about, pi«king up 
bruised grits and other food, all day ; 
and at 6 o'clock in the evening thev 
were put to l>ed, twelve together, in 
the boxes behing the enclosure — the 



boxes l>eing lined with llannel_ and 
having a flannel curtain in front. 

The chickens, when three weeks old, 
were sent to the market and sold at 
about a shilling each. 

The eggs for hatching were brought 
in the common market, and nearly 
one-half of them proved to be addled, 
but the chickens hatched were strong 
and healthy, and not more than one 
in fifty died after they had left the 
eggs. 

The name of the proprietor of this 
establishment was Mr. William Buck- 
ncll. 

In a later edition of Mr. Dickson's 
work, from which the above state- 
ment) was taken, he says' '■' The 
Eccaleopian, through it excited a great 
deal of attention when it was first 
exhibited, never became generally use- 
ful, and, in fact, from the great num- 
ber of eggs spoiled, it was by no 
means economical. 

It was accordingly abandoned and 
after a lapse of years another scheme 
was devised, which was patented 
aib)aut 1844, under the title of 
Cantelo's Patent Incubator. 

The principal difference in the two 
plans is that, in the Eccaleopian the 
heat was applied from below, but in 
the Patent Incubator the heat was 
applied from above, so as to imitate, 
as near as possible, the warmth of 
the setting hen. 

The machine, says Mr. Dickson, 
consists of a long counter, the top 
of which is filled with hot water con- 
tained in water-proof cloth, resting 
on the eggs, which were arranged in 
a sort of a drawer. 



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(Joint Assets Guarantee all Policies) 



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H. T. NICHOLLS, 

Manager for S.A. 
Telephone No. 2780. 



140 



THE GA&DtBM AND FISLO. 



August, 11)12 



What Made the Difference ? 



Mr. A. was boru and raised on 
a farm, that is, he had stuck to 
the farm until he was twenty-one, 
then like many another country 
boy he had taken Ms late in his 
own hands and gone out into the 
work to seek his fortune. 

Tliis oftimes fickle dame favauawd 
him and he became prosperous, 
and finally the manager of a large 
mercantile business. But often in 
his hot, stuffy city office he smefled 
in imagination the new mown hay 
and scented the sweet perfume of 
clover lieids, and promised himsefi 
that some time he would return 
to the country and spend his old 
age in the open air and perhaps 
raise poultry or small fruits. The 
time came sooner than he had an- 
ticipated. An unexpected failure 
kit him stranded and almost a 
linancial wreck. Now he would 
leave the unfriendly crowd and 
seek the delights of the country 
once more. 

Believing that was " money in 
poultry " he secured a few acres of 
fand with a small house on it and 
witli his wile in full sympathy 
thev returned to the country to 
try their fortunes in this new 
field. The first thing Mr. A. did 
was to subscribe for two or three 
poultrv journals. From these he 
studied carefully the most ap- 
proved methods of feeding and 
breeding, the different styles of 
poultry houses, etc. The next step 
was to build an up-to-date poultry 
house facing the south with 
scratching sheds — a wise point — 
and oiled curtains that could be 
raised or lowered, according to 
the weather. 

This he proceeded to fill with 
two of the best breeds of poultry 
that could be obtained. Every- 
thing was now ready and Mr. A. 



12 Poultry Papers for Is. 




THE AUSTRALIAN HEN 

AND FANCIERS' FRIEND 

is the generally acknowledged 
best Poultry & Fanciers' Paper 



in the Commonwealth. It is published 
twice a month and costs 5s. a year, post 
free. But to prove its value, we shall send 
you 12 back numbers — a liberal poultry 
•dueation — post free, for Is. Money back 
if you are not satisfied. Write to-day before 
they have all gene. 

The Australian Hen 

AND FANCIERS' FRIEND, 
756 GEOROE ST., SYDNEY, N.S.W. 



expected to fill his baskets with 
. i nd his pockets with money 
while eirgs were so high. That was 
the proper time for hens to lay, 
but these particular hens evident- 
ly thought different. 

Among other things he had not 
failed to study up all the diseases 
which were supposed to alllict 
even the best of hens. Mr. A. 
carefully watched his llock for 
" symptoms " which did not fail 
to appear. As a result a hen hos- 
pital was improvised in one cor- 
ner of the kitchen and as it was 
seldom without an occupant the 
good wile demurred, and as the 
cellar was light and dry Mr. A. 
set up a stove and removed the 
hospital to the privacy of the 
cellar. Here he faithfully treated 
the different ailments with the 
most approved remedies. Some re- 
warded his efforts by living, others 
became food for the crows. 

It was late in the spring before 
his hens began to lay. borne of 
them never laid at all, and Mr. A. 
was forced to the sad conclusion 
that he had been the victim of 
the lust for greed on the part of 
some brother poultryman. 

However, by the first of May 
he had saved a sufficient number 
of eggs to start the 200 egg incu- 
bator which he had placed in 
his cellar awaiting developments. 
When these had been brewing a 
couple of weeks he accidentally 
left them out too long when cool- 
ing and they became chilled, so he 
had to start all over again. The 
second batch proved more success- 
ful, and in due time a goodly 
number of little yellow Huffy 
things were readv for the brooder. 
It is needless to say that they 
were carefully watched and tend- 
ed, but in spite of the best of care 
and feeding the majority of them 
pined away and died. 

All this was discouraging, but 
as Mr. A. was a very persistent 
man he started out the next year 
with hopes of redeeming his for- 
tunes. But alas ! the second year 
proved to be very much like the 
first with some minor variations. 

Then Mr. A. lost patience. He 
would turn the poultrv lyusiness 
over to his wife. The business 
was only fit for women, and he 
would spend his time in something 
that paid. Mrs. A. was also 
raised on a farm, and among 
her pleasant recollections of child- 
hood days was the caring for , and 
feeding the poultry which wan- 
dered at will over her father's 
broad acres. In those days she 
had never heard of a sick hen, 
she did not believe in sick hens, 
and the little chicks left to the 



maternal instincts of their na- 
tural mothers grew to henhood 
strong and robust. So Mrs. A. 
cheerfully accepted her charge. She 
fed and watered and cared for her 
brood very much as her husband 
had done, only she omitted 
the scattering of seed between 
meals, as she did not think it 
best to disturb the hens too often. 
She always talked to them kindly 
and encouragingly and I really 
believe they looked forward to see- 
ing her and hearing her voice as 
much as they did to the dinner 
which she brought them. Early in 
December they began to lay and 
there was no stopping until 
moulting time. 

In the spring a few of the hens 
were allowed to become mothers, 
and so faithfully did they fulfil 
their part that a yardful of strong, 
healthy chickens were ready for 
the next winter's laying. 

What made the difference ? 



The Sitting Hen. 



The following facts respecting 
the powers of the hen as a hatcher 
may prove interesting and profit- 
able to your readers. I have long 
thought that the power of the 
broody has been underrated. Ex- 
periments have been tried here this 
season with a view to testing the 
full capabilities of the hen as a 
hatcher. The result is that four 
black Orpington nens hatched 
ninety-two chickens from 100 eggs, 
black Orpington hens hatched 
seventy-live chickens, one hen 
hatched twenty -seven chickens from 
twenty^eight fertile eggs, and an- 
other twenty-four from twenty-five 
eggs. The largest brood was 
by a white Wyandotte hen of 
medium size, and about 5lbs. in 
weight ; she hatched twenty-nine 
chickens. 

The modus operandi is as fol- 
lows : — A number of hens are 
pfaced on about fifteen to eighteen 
eggs each; these eggs are tested at 
the eighth day, those which con- 
tain dead germs and " clears " re- 
moved, and the hens are then 
placed on full nests of twenty to 
twentv-five fertile eggs. This is 
the general rule here now. The 
extra large hatches mentioned 
were special tests. Broods of six- 
teen to twenty-two are of com- 
mon and regular occurrence with 
one of my hatchers, but it requires 
skill and care to accomplish these4 
results, and discrimination in Sfl 
fectdng the hen 1 . It must also 
be understood that these results, 1 
are for hens set from the third 



August, 1912 



THE GARDEN AND FIELD. 



141 



week in March and onwards. I do 
not think we have yet fully de- 
veloped the question, and next 
season a further trial will be 
nade, especially in respect of the 
earlier months. Then I think fif- 
teen e""-s would be enough, as al- 
:hough I believe the hens would 
hatch more, yet their powers of 
rearing would have to be comple- 
mented bv artificial means. In 
lar?e coops hens can rear broods 
>f twenty to twenty-five in April 
and May. 

The nest boxes are about i6in. 
square, with a movable shutter in 
front, which fails to reach the top 
bv 2in. These boxes are placed in 
tiers, and as the hatching houses 
ire near a river and in a valley, 
10 earth is placed under the hav 
~>i which the nests are composed, 
rhe hens are taken off at regular 
9eriods ever*- rTs»f and tethered bv 
the leg in long rows, with access to 
water, grass, and ashes, and are 
fed on maize entirelv. When re- 
placing, a number of eggs are 
taken from the nest and placed in 
the operator's cap, these are put 
track under the hen as she settles 
Jown. It is well to remember 
that som? hens soread themselves 
out, and can cover more eggs than 
Dfthers. 

To get the very best results it 
is best to test attain on the i=sth 
■av. and remove anv addled eevs 
there mav be, as an eeg of this 
kind is not conducive to a hijrh 
Iveraee, especially if it should 
burst. Mav I ask amateurs to 
bear the following Points in mind? 
An egg that does not hatch 
s not necessarilv an infer- 
tile e~ir. I have pt"s returned 
each season as infertiles or 
I clears " which contain embrvos. 
from the three or four davs old 
rerm to the dead in shell on the 
"oint of "inning. \n infertile ee-g 
h clear at the end of even twen- 
ty-one davs with little or no smell. 



PROPERTIES ! 

INVESTMENT * "RESIDENCES 
:>f every description in Citv and 
Suburbs. 

>APM& GARDEN properties, &c. 
Apply— 

MAELOR-JONES AND 
PATTERSON," 

Land Brokers, 
(Opp. Savings Bank), 
:UKRIE STREET, ADELAIDE. 



If a hen breaks an egg, or fouls 
the nest, be careful to wash the 
remainder with tepid water. Never 
s;t hens on nests to come on or 
off at their own sweet will ; this 
accounts for many a bad hatch, 
for which the seller of the eggs is 
blamed. Nests want carefully 
making. Keen the corners well 
(died up with the hav. 

In conclusion, I would remark 
there is a good deal more in suc- 
cessful hatching with hens than 
many at first imagine. — From 
" Poultry." 

® 

Fattening Fowls. 



From " Poultry. " 

The good prices to be obtained 
for fine table fowls should tempt 
poultry keepers who have plenty 
of space to give some attention to 
this branch of poultry culture. In 
some districts, fattening is car- 
ried on bv special " fatters " who 
buy up the chickens in their neigh- 
borhood and confine them to a 
regular diet. But in many other 
parts there are no professional 
" fatters " and the chickens are 
sent to market by the farmers and 
others who rear them without 
;mv preliminary preparation in 
the matter of feeding. Those who 
have eaten fowls that have been 
fattened have eenerallv found them 
superior to those that have gone 
thronn-h no preparation. It will 
be remembered that the term 
" fatted " does not mean that the 
fowl is to be loaded with fat ; 
onlv, that the quality of the flesn 
is to be improved and made tender 
and that the quantity of meat is 
to be increased. 

The snlendid specimens that are 
to be seen in the table poultry 
section of the Palace and other 
shows are strong exidence of the 
improvement that can be wrought 
bv clever feeding: The weight per 
Pair of some dead chickens exceeds 
twenty pounds and this will cive 
an idea of what can He produced 
with care and skill. There are so 
mam- breeds of fowls suitable for 
the table that there is no excuse 
for the miserable 11*+le chickens 
s+il1 so often seen, which will not 
'av on flesh, however well thev 
«ti«* 1>e fed. There is no b-tter 
f vl for eating than r> cross between 
the Dorkinp and Indian Game, 
bred from the Dorkimt cock and 
Indian Game hen, or from the 
sexes reversed. The Lanfsham, 
too, is an excellent bird, with a 
quantity of meat. 



To fatten fowls, they are con- 
fined in coops or pens and fed at 
regular periods on a fixed diet. 
When first shut up they are fasted 
for about twelve hours, to give 
them an appetite for the new 
treatment. They are fed three 
times a day at stated, times. The 
food usually consists of soft meal, 
corn meal, pea meal, barlev meal 
or ground oats. This is mixed to 
a thin state with skim milk and 
given in a wooden trough, fast- 
ened to the front of the coop or 
pen. At the end of about a week 
the food is made thicker ; some 
beef or mutton fat is added, the 
quantity of which is gradually in- 
creased. No water is required and 
grain is not necessary, though 
some fatters give boiled barlev for 
the last feed in the day. Some 
flint grit is provided and some 
boiled nettles two or three times 
a week. The food must never be 
given when stale or sour. If a 
bird appears not to thrive during 
the process, it should be turned 
out in an open run without food 
for twenty-four hours and then re- 
placed in the coop and tried airain. 

Some chickens fatten much more 
easily than others, but about 
three weeks is the usual time for 
the treatment to continue, before 
thev are ready for the table. 
After a chicken is fattened it will 
not remain in the same state but 
will go off and become out of 
health if the same diet is persisted 
in. It is therefore necessary to 
calculate the time, if the birds are 
required for eating at ;i nv particu- 
lar date. No amount of feeding 
will make on old fowl tender ; 
skillful cooking can alone do this. 
A cockerel that has been allowed 
to run with hens will as a rule 
prove tough and hard. 



J. T. TUNBRIDGE. 

Vienna Dining 
Rooms. 

HINDLEY STREET, 
ADELAIDE. 

Opposite Ware's Exchange 
GIVE HIM A CALL. 



XfcCCVUCI D ! something about 
yon r methods of breeding, rearing, 
and managing Live Stock ? Let 
am have it if it will only fill the 
back of a Poet card. 




142 



THE GARDEN AND FIELD. 



August, 1912 



<$> Pigeon Notes. # 



Victorian Notes. 



Show Homers. 



(By G.J.M.) 

The North Suburban Show of 1912 
is now a thing of the past, and a 
splendid function it was! 

There was a record entry in almost 
every class, and T do not think that 
the quality was ever before equalled, 
As usual the Homer classes were over- 
flowing, and a fine lot of birds were 
staged. The Jacobins were a splendid 
lot, but marked improvement was 
shown in Magpies, O wls, and Short - 
faced Tumblers — particularly the first 
and last named varieties. 

And now 1 want to fake ofT mv h ,t 
to the Fanfail Club ! 1 ask the 
members of that bodv to accept my 
heartiest congratulations for having 
afforded facilities for a display of 
Fans hitherto unequalled in Melbourne. 
May this body flourish is my verdict. 
Rut T would also like to say here 
that I hear that thev have neglected 
the big exhibition show, and, after 
all, that is where the public <*<■>. I 
hope that next year there will Ik- as 
manv Fantails there as are in the 
North Suburban. 

The prizes were very well distributed 
indeed, but 1 noticed as most fre- 
quently " in the money " Mr. Nixon, 
who won the Challenge Tun for 
Homers, while Mr S. Kirk also did 
well in that variety. Tn Saddlebacks 
Mr. Gus Shee was almost invincible 
in thp feather foots ; but a strong 
team of clean legs was shown bv 
Mr. W. J. Boutch! Tn Fantails the 
lion of the show was Mr. 0. P. Bur- 
ton of Rranxton N. S. W., who won 
four first and three specials. Mr. W. 
Wheeler won the Williamstown Cup for 
young birds with a slashing white, 
and also won the cup for any other 
color. In Jacks Mr. W. Hearne won 
most prizes, and Mr. Frank Crottv 
was also a winner, In Magpies the 
special for best Mag fell to Mr. Gus 
Walker a novice who showed onlv one 
bird. The principal winners were 
Messrs. Woodward and Mead, and Mr. 
G. S. Sanderson (Launceston) Mr. 
Sanderson also did well with Owls. 
Messrs Searle, Hicks, and Hughes 
split up the Tumbler sections between 
them. On the whole the show was an 
unqualified success. The arrangements 
were perfect. 



WOODWARD & MEAD 

PIGEON SPECIALISTS, 
Have now some 1911 youngsters ready 
in 

MAGPIES, JACOBINS, HOMERS. 
NUNS. 
Prices to suit all purses. 

G. J. MEAD, 
" Ohiltern," Sycamore Grove, 
BALACLAVA, Victoria, 



The arrival of the breeding season, 
which is looked upon as the most in- 
teresting period of the pigeon fancier's 
year, provides a fitting opportunity 
for a few timely hints to the voun t 
aspirant. 

Assuming that the decision has 'been 
made to venture starting with this 
highly interesting part of the pro- 
gramme, it will lie well to observe the 
nature of the material at our disposal, 
both in houses and birds. Quite an 
array of "don'ts" could he arranged 
in a set of instructions on this ques- 
tion, but to avoid the monotony of 
tautology the adoption of another 
plan will be perhaps of wider interest. 

— Housing. — 

Tn choosing a shed for breeding at 
the early stages a southern asneet 
is advantageous, and if the sunlight 
is Freely admitted Sri long as its rays 
remain the warmth thus obtained 
gives health and vigour to the birds 
and encourages them in their duties. 

Tn the event of anv stock, cocks 
more particularly, having been in 
previous years occupants of certain 
breeding boxes, arrange, as far as 
possible, that thev asairi become 
tenants of such boxes. Much time is 
thus saved from the invariably tedious 
I ask of compelling a bird to take to 
a box that does not coincide with his 
views. 

Bitter have been the experiences 
when the absurd idea of overcrowding 
has been adopted, so devote serious 
thought to this problem. On the 
other hand, the one-corn partment one- 
nair system has not found universal 
favour, since it is acknowledged tha' 
the birds, being deprived of each 
others companv, beoome lost and 
lazv. From experience, three to four 
pairs, the latter preferably, in a shed 
of suitable size, produce the best 
numerical results, as it tends to give 
equal rights to each male occupant, 
and lessens the chance of one becom- 
ing " cock of the walk." 

— Selecting the Breeding Pairs. — 

Selection of stock becomes a most 
important step, and one that calls for 
continual thoiight from the closing 
scenes of the season that has gone. 
Take a note of those ' in stock that 
have caused trouble the previous 
season ; for example, a clumsy cock 
that continually breaks the eggs, an- 
other that, will not feed the young 
after a week, or one that proves of a 
vicious nature and vents his spite on 
the bobies of its young and almost 
pecks the helpless mite to death, or 
another that is decidedly unhealthy. 
Again, hens which lay from the perch, 
or are clumsy ion nest and continually 
smashing eggs, or are not free 
breeders. Disregard such stock with- 
out exception. Large breeders use 
these classes of birds sometimes with 



success by t ransferring eggs to feeders 
but, where the limits are confined t< 
good stock only, this section is best 
out of sight and mind. 

— Type of Breeders. — 

Now for a few words on the 
breeding stock. To obtain an ideal 
of stock Show Homers your aims are 
thus directed. Reasonable substance 
figures prominently in head of cock, 
stout, well-set beak, nice wattle, with 
full front . Here is a combination 
that comprises the ideal of one 
breeder whose lot can boast success. 
In addition, there must be a clear 
white eye, central in setting, with 
dark, fine" cere. Apparently that 
pictures the model of perfection; but 
no, length of head is not included, 
that feature is not required in abun- 
dance, but moderation. Throat 
should not display any signs of thick- 
n"ss, while the body is conspicuous 
for shortness. The short head \s\ 
peculiar to a short body, so that 
difficulty is easily overcome. Not aj 
woid has been mentioned on colour, 
but the more true it is in the male 
the more likelihood of similarity in 
the off-spring. 

A heavy beak of Antwerp type on a 
hen is not only undesirable, but un- 
gainly ; it does not become the sex| 
from the point of view of those seek-' 
ing typical and characteristic speci- 
mens. This excessive beak substance 
becomes useful at times, no doubt, 
but its presence removes that softness 
of appearance peculiar to hens, and 
substitutes a decided masculine aspect. 
Tn the hen quality is all important 
not only in head properties and bodv. 
but in pedigree, and by careful and 
methodical selection the difficulties be- 
come more easilv removed relating to 
the production of the desired features. 




O.K. LOFTS. 



Have some real beauties to sell 

in TURBITS, BLONDINETTES, AFRI- 
CAN OWLS, NUNS and S. F. TUMB- 
LERS. 

These lofts have won CHAMPIONS 
at Sydney Royal, also CUPS, and 
MEDALS at S.A. Canary and Pigeon 
Show and a host of SPECIAL, FIBS1 
and SECOND PRIZES. 

Price* from 5/- each. 

Apply — 

E. A. GROSSER, 

Hamilton, S.A. 



August, 1912 



THE GARDEN AND FIELD. 



143 



® Home Notes. @ 



Do your hens l»y when Eggs are high 
in prioe, or when they are dirt) cheap ? 

' Botany 

EGG PRODUCER." 

is what they require. 

Composed of MEAT, BLOOD, BONE 
MEAL and BONE GRIT. 

71b bags, 1/9 ; 141b», 2/9 ; 281b» 4/9 ; 
owts, 16/6. 

If you cannot obtain it through your 
Storekeeper, write to the Sole Agents, 

King & Co., Waymouth Street. 



— Value of Pedigree. — 

In making these selections for stock 
there is one point of more than 
ordinarv value that must ever be in 
mind, viz., pedigree. So many pur- 
chases are made purely and simply on 
the value of the bird as it stands 
to the eye, and the overlooking or, 
rather, neglecting to examine its 
pedigree is regarded of little conse- 
quence. A good pigeon on this ac- 
count is often declared a poor stock- 
getter in the opinion of the unin- 
formed on that noint. whereas had a 
bird with suitable pedigree been mated 
the result would have determined the 
same critic in a favourable direction 
on the results. 

— Nesting Material. — 

Leaving this question for that of 
nesting material, let your obiections 
prevail against recommendations to 
•Be anv unnatural litter and direct 
thought towards the habits of birds 
in happy freedom. Twigs from the 
hedges will always be used by the 
pigeon en'ovinc liberty, therefore take 
advantage of that example from the 
pages of Nature's book, and supply a 
liberal amount of short, cut thin 
■trigs scatterf>d about the ground. 
Rroom i- capital, oti account of its 
sort and pliable nature. Cuttings 
from the Weeping Birch are much ap- 
preciated, but this expensive material 
is only at the disposal of a selected 
few. 

Plain sawdust, on account of its 
labour-saving properties, is used verv 
extensively, but the dangers involved 
create appalling results. Often has 
the squab just introduced to the 
light of day, unfortunatel-- inclined to 
weakness, been chocked through bein- 
comoelled to rest its head op the 
(tawdust, which, in a short time, works 
Ms way into the little beak, too weak 
to reject it, with a finale not unex- 
pected.— Feathered World. 

(To be continued). 
* 

Clear white wattles and hard 
clean cere are pood indications of 
health. 



Conversation. 



People often complain that the com- 
pany by which they are surround- 
ed is so dull they cannot talk ; but if 
we find the company dull we should 
blame ourselves. The thing is to 
touch the right vein in people. One 
of the chief difficulties to good con- 
versation is to know how to open 
with strangers. There is nothing 
better for i such occasions than 
Hazlitt's advice : " If you really want 
to know whether another person can 
talk well, begin by saying a good 
thing yourself, and you will have a 
right to look for a Tejoinder." 

<$> 

Mingle With Others. 

If a woman is to protect herself 
from the ravages of worry, and so 
retain her youth for a longer period, 
she must come into more frequent 
contact with other neople — as her 
husband does — and read good books ; 
she must relieve the monotony of her 
duties and the limiting influence of 
confinement within four walls by tak- 
ing outdoor exercise — a walk everv 
day, or a spin on a bicycle ; in short, 
she must excercise the body and nind 
in a healthful manner, and she will 
find the bloom of youth and health 



remain with her for years after it 
has faded in other women of the 
same age. " The ordinary woman," 
says a celebrated physician, " leads 
such a monotonous existence that her 
mind has no occupation but worry ; 
she is almost made up of worry upon 
worry. What she needs is to come 
out of herself much more than 
she does. She must have inter- 
course with more people and take 
more excercise. This can be done 
without neglecting home, and every 
right-minded man will do his best to 
secure for his mother, or his sister, 
or his wife, these aids to the retention 
of y.outhfurness of body and mind." 

♦ 

Disordered digestion in adults is 
often the outcome of being compelled 
or allowed to eat rich food in child- 
hood. 

Physicians are advocating the use 
of pure olive oil for weak lungs. It 
bids fair to take the place of cod 
liver oil, and it is thought by manv 
pleasanter to take. 

To clean wall paper, use bread 
about a day old. If the paper is 
only dusty, flick and rub it with a 
mop. If it is marked with grease 
hold a piece of blotting paper over the 
spot with a hot flat-iron for a few 
seconds. 



ARTHUR BROWN & COMPANY, 

Corner KINC WILLIAM 
and HINDLEY STS., 

THE IDEAL CENTRE FOR MAN'S SHOPPING 

WE 

are specialists in Hats. FELTS direct from 
Makers 3/11, 4/11, 5/11, 6/6, 7/6, 8/6, 10/6 I2/6. 
Shirts, Collars, Ties. 

OVERCOATS, 21-, 27 6, 30 -, 42/- 
45-, 50/-, 63/-. 

Ask for the Pegamoid Coat, the most wonderful 
invention for Rain Coats, will not crack, will not 
let water through, 35/- 



144 



How to Walk Gracefully. 

A FEW HINTS GIVEN A FRENCH 
SPECIALIST. 



" The one great fault in your Eng- 
lish gills," said the proprietress of a 
large school of deportment in Paris 
recently to the writer, " is that they 
walk loo stiflly and take far to long 
a str'de. In my opinion the women 
of Spain, and Italy are by far 
the most graceful walkers in the 
world— and why ? Because they are 
accustomed to carrying weights on 
their heads. The Parisian girls also 
are very graceful walkers, on account, 
I put it down, of the large number of 
deportment schools which have been 
opened during the last ten years." 

".TTow do you teach the young 
ladies who attend vour school, 
madame, to walk gracefully ?" I ask- 
ed. 

" Ah, monieur wants to know too 
much," she replied: "hut still, T do 
not mind telling him a little. When 
n young lady first enters mv school 
she has to practise walking straight 
with a weight placed upon her head, 
and without letting it fall off. When 
she is able to do this she must then 
learn to turn backwards, and from 
side to side. Also, she must practise 
waltzing with a weight upon her 
head, and then, after she is efficient 
in this, she is shown something a 
little more intricate. When practis- 
ing walking with a weight upon vour 
head, which is the most important 
point of all, it should be done before 
a large toilet glass, so that ladies 
may studv their walk and note all 
their little defects. 

" Another good way to become a 
graceful walker is to take ., lessons in 
dancing, as a really good dancer has 
a much greater chance of becoming 
uraceful in her walking than a poor 
dancer. After n lesson in dancing, a 
voung ladv should go home and 
practise what she has been told before 
a toilet, glass, and then walk for 
about a quarter of an haur round the 
room with a weight upon her head. 

" It is a little known fact, but true 
for all that," continued madam, 
" that more courtship are begun at 
the wells of Italy than in any other 



part of that country, because that is 
where the girls are seen to advantage. 
They go to the wells to get water ; 
and, after getting it, they place the 
jars on th<eir heads an I carry the<m 
away with a grace given only to 
Italian girls ; and the the young men, 
knowing this, congregate round the 
wells, and of course, the most <race- 
ful girls among the water-carriers 
have the most admirers, and so have 
the best chance of securin r lim'-an'-. 
Mv advice to you English girls is 
this : A pretty walk is (l lwauty in 
itself, and everyone who will can 
acquire this beauty, so do it at 
once — now. without losing another 

dayi" 



General Hints. 



Diet Versus Medicine. — 

Medicine is too cheap nowadays, or, 
at least, we take too much of it. Tf 
it cost us more we should take less, 
trving to find out means of curing 
little ailments without flying to the 
chemist. For instance, a little atten- 
tion to dailv diet would save miny a 
dose of castor oil and similar medi- 
cines, and do us much more good. A 
pdnss of cold water is often of use 
if taken directlv we <rvt up in the 
morning ; while brown bread, particu- 
larly- the variety known as whole- 
meal, is preferable to white. Oat- 
meal porridge is solcndid, and we 
ought to see that it is always ready 
for the breakfast table. Vegetables, 
except potatoes, should in these cases 
be freelv indulged in ; and fruits, 
•specially prunes and aoples ; while 
regular exccrcise in the open air is a 
nocessitv. if we would save ourselves 
the taking of purgatives. 



— Tf Your Clothes catch Fire. — 

Do not run about and scream, but 
sink on the floor and roll yourself 
up in a hearthrug, if there is one, or 
th" flames can often be crush-d out 
at once against the floor, and no 
further harm, incurred than burnt 
hands. Tf vou seo a chil l or anvone 
else with th-ur clothes on fire, seize 
the first heavy woollen thing that 
comes to hand— i blanket, ru«r, table- 
cloth or thick coat. Throw it round 




That You can Have Your 

Worn and Discarded 

SILVERWARE RE-PLATEP 

and madt to Look I ik* N«w by Sending it %n 

B. WALLIS, 

78, Flinders St., Adelaide. 



the person, drag her to the ground, 
and crush the fire out. Many of the 
deaths from burning so often reported 
would never occur if proper steps 
were taken immediately to extinguish 
the (lames. It is fatal to move about, 
for the least current of air will in- 
crease the fire. 

— An Objectionable Habit. — 

"A disagreeable trick, and one that 
children easily fall into, is biting the 
nails. If not promptlv checked it will 
continue into adult life, and ruin thle 
shape of nails and finger-tips. Ex-: 
treme nervousness ' or excitement 
generally causes the child to bite the 
nails in the first place, and if not 
checked it quickly it ouickly become 
a habit. DTelp the child to overcor 
the nervousness, and, if the finge" 
still find their way to the mouth 
thev must he dipped in a solution 
something bitter, until the litt" 
culprit Tins learnt better manners, 
earlv as nossibln teach the chil'l t 
trim and keep' th° n*»ils in order an 
endeavour to make him have a prid 
in them, which will greatlv remove^ 
the temptation to bite them. 



— TTot Milk as a Rtinr 1 n'. - 

W hc-n overcome bv bodily fatigueJ 
or suffering with brain exh"Ust : on, no, 
stimulant serves so well the purposd 
of refreshment and rest, both bodilv 
ond mentallv, as milk. Make it ver<J 
•bo*., and sin it slowly from a flasaJ 
Milk should never be taken ouickl"v 
a c this renders it indigestible. Al- 
wavs sip milk, taking five to ten 
minutes to drink a tumblerful. If 
milk is swallowed quickly, it enterdf 
into the stomach, and then forms in! 
one solid curdled mass, most difficult' 
of digestion. If, however, a cdass of 
milk be sipped, and five minutes at 
least be taken in drinking it. then, 
on reaching the stomach, it is so 
divided that when coagulated, as it 
must be bv the gastric juices, while 
digestion is going on, instead of be- 
ing in one hard condensed mass, 
nnon the outside of which onlv the 
digestive fluid can act, it is more is 
th" form of a sponge, and in and out 
of th° entire bulk the gastric juices 
can play. 



— Glycerine a Cure for Dyspepsia. — ' 
This is a very simnle r°medv. and 
one so inexpensive that it is within 
reach of all. Mix a small teaspoon- 
fnl of pure iglvcerine in half a wine- 
glassful of water, and take it with, 
or immediatelv after each meal until 
the en-imy is routed, which, is an 
ordinary case, will be in a few days, 
and in obstinate cases probably & 
fortnin-ht. This same treatment 
should be repeated if indigestion 
again manifests itself. 



Coaahbuildem' and Bieyol« fSnildera' Nioknl-VWtint 
a Speoiality. 



Husband (reading the paner) : 
" What idiots some men will make of 
themselves !" Wife : " Now, John, 
what have you done this time ?" ] 



September, 1912 



145 



Editorial Notices. 



AUENTS. — Meeers. ATKINSON & CO. 
and MESSRS. GORDON & GOTCH. Ltd. 

Tbo fcditor will be pleaaed to receive 
correspondence and answer questions. 
These rep lie* will, (or the most part, be 
aant by mail, unless received just prior 
to date of publication. 

PUBLUSHING DATE. — On the 25th of 
each month preceding title date. 

DIS CONTINUAL CES.— Responsible sub- 
scriber* will continue to receive this 
journal until we are notified by letter to 
discontinue, when all arrears must be 
paid. 

SUBSCRIPTION.— Posted to any part 
of Australasia 5/- per year, in advance. 
Foreign, 8/. 

ADDRESS — M, Currie St.. Adelaide. 
TeUphoaa, 1984. 

TO ADVERTISERS.— Alteration of ad- 
vertisements anould be In our hands not 
later than the 15th of the month. 



The Science of Watering 
Gardens. 

Many amateurs fail because they 
do not know how and when to 
water their gardens ; hence this 
offer of mv practical experience. 

Bog plants and semi-aquatics re- 
quiring excess of water, also plants 
which grow on drv rocky ground 
are not referred to in the follow- 
ing remarks. 

Good drainage is a first essential 
to carrv off anv excess of water. 
Sufficient humus acts as a store- 
house giving off water to the roots 
without injuring them. A proper 
amount of stone, sand and grit is 
required to keep the soil particles 
from clogging into lumps too hard 
for the roots and atmosphere to 
penetrate. Surface tillage keeps a 
laver of fine soil (instead of a hard 
cake of earth) and is a means of 
aerating the ground and conserving 
its moisture instead of wasting it. 

Water is required, firstly, to 
supply the plant with those juices 



E. A. LASSCOCK, 

LOCK LEYS NURSERY. 

LOCKLEYS. 



FLOWER SEEDLINGS, Present plant 
ing, 2/- per 100 ; postage 6d. 
extra. Beat strains. Assorted 
colours. DELPHINIUMS. Strong 
plants, 1/6 per dozen. PETUNIA 
GRANDIFLOKA, 1/- per dozen. 

Good assortment of Ferns at reason- 
' able prices. Bazaars and Fetes 
supplied at wholesale rates. 

Catalogues Free. 



Telephone No. 34, Henley Bwoh. 



in the sap which circulatfe the food 
it moistens .uid absorbs Erotn the 
ground. Secondly, it is needed to 
dissolve the mineral and earthy 
particles which otherwise would be 
unavailable for feeding the plant. 
Thirdly, water is necessary in 
order to provide for the transpira- 
tion of water from the leaves 
which is a necessity for their well- 
being. 

Frequent sprinklings cake the 
surface and make it mossy thus 
preventing the atmosphere from 
penetrating the ground. How 
absurd it is, too, to suppose that 
a fine sprinkling can do for the 
plant in a few minutes that which 
Nature does with hours of soaking 
rain. 

A good, soaking once or twice a 
week will store up sufficient water 
for the use of the plants. We see 
Nature does this, and that she 
leaves plants for a long time with- 
out renewing supplies, and they 
thrive on 'it. The amount of water 
required depends upon the kind, 
a S e < position, development, and 
health of the plant ; also upon the 
season of the year. Succulent and 
thin-leaved plants require less 
water than other kinds. Except 
rapidly growing herbaceous plants 
the garden will thrive all the better 
for occasionally feeling the want of 
water. 

The roots of a plant extend q/uite 
as far as the branches, and all 
this area must be supplied. The 
amateur usually pours water in a 
thin stream aft the base of the 
stem, thus leaving the spreading 
roots to starve. Plants require 
liberal supplies of water when thev 
are producing new shoots, and 
sometimes the addition of arti- 
ficial manure to enable them to 
build up fresh growth properly. 
Except during their resting time, 
one cannot run anv risk by water- 
ing rapidly growing herbaceous 
plants freely. 

Water sparingly when the new 
shoots are developed, or the plants 
will crow on freely without form- 
ing flower buds. All plants have 
a period of rest, during which 
some require very little water, 
and others none at all'. 

At short intervals either hose 
or snrav (according to the kind of 
plant) the leaves and stems, not 
onlv to clear awav insects, but 
also to remove the • dust which 
chokes the pores of the leaves. 

By enquiry from practical men 
ajad by personal observation one 
mav extend these few hints, and 
thus make the garden a thing of 
jov and beauty. 




When you buy Hose, buy 



'ELESTRie' 

and get the Best. 
MADE TO OUTWEAR, 'NOT TO 
WEAR OUT. 



Obtainable from 
H. L. YOSZ, LIMITED, 
Rundle Street, 
— and — 
eOLTOM, PALMER HNO 
PRESTON, LIMITED, 
Currie Street. 



Variegated Ficus Elastica. 



The bane of plants kept in the 
dwelling-house is the dry atmosphere, 
and the dust which settles on the 
leaves. To counteract this they 
should be thoroughly sponged once a 
week in tepid water. Drawing the 
finger across the leaves will leave a 
districts impression in the layer of 
dust, which, chokes up the pores 
the plants dying prematurely. Cold 
currents of air should be avoided, 
and no more water be given than is ab- 
solutely necessary. A feature in their 
beauty is that large specimens of 
about 8 ft. high can be grown in a 
five or six inch pot, but in such cases 
food must be given, especially during 
the spring months ; also, when re- 
potting, it is generally necessary to 
place the plants in the greenhouse to 
recover the check, as it is like the 
Aspidistra, and does not recover 
quickly after a disturbance. 

The Ficus is a little difficult to pro 
pagate, but those wishing to increase 
their stock should fix on a plant of 
about one or two years old, as the 
older the plant the more difficult to 
propagate. After securing a (rood 
stem, cut it up into lengths of about 
two inches, leaving about the same 
amount of wood at the top with a 
pair of leaves, as the top shoot- 
forms a good plant, fnsert these in- 
to pans of sandy soil, and plunge in- 
to a gentle bottom heat under glass. 

* 

Pedestrian : "Hey ! You just missed 
me by an inch." Chauffer: "Be 
patient, I'm coming back directly !" 



THE GARDEN AND FIELD. 



September, 1912 



Salt on the Tail of an Idea. 



Itead before tlio Florists' Club of 
Philadephia . 

With your kind permission 1 am going 
to tell you to-night how 1 put ''Salt 
on tho tail of an idea." Wo all know 
success is tho result of hard work, no 
luck in it, simply petting right down 
to it and hammering away at it ; not 
only hard work bui energy directed in 
the proper channels, Eocussed Id one 
direction, concentrated until it crys- 
talizes into Success. 

— Ideas are Crystalized Thoughts. 

So it is with Tdeas. First you see 
or hoar, then you Think, then you 
Remember, then you Imagine. Tf you 
drop either of the four after von have 
seen or heard, you will Never have an 
idea. Ideas are crystalized thoughts, 
and you will not have ideas unless 
you see or hear. Lots of people see 
things but do not see. To get ideas 
we must first cultivate our power of 
observation ; for instance — I want to 
get a new wagon, I do not know 
what I want ; but I do know I want 
something smart and different from 
anything about town. I start the 
observation car agoing, and every 
fine wagon that goes by me I notice. 
I see wagons everywhere, partly un- 
consciously. Then I start the thinkerv 
agoing, and I think about what I 
havo seen, then I remember through 
thinking about them, then after think- 
ing and remembering what I have Been 
I start the imagination factors- ago- 
ing. Oh ! I will get all kinds of 
crazy notions in my head, but 
gradually I will have to sift them out 
one by one, and may settle on one 
shape or style, but the Idea is not 
yet clear. Now T have to work 
harder I have to get a little salt. 
1 drop a little on the tail of that last 
thought or idea and it becorries a 
little, clearer. Now I throw out a 
few more fantastic ideas, and in a few 
more days I have to add a little more 
salt, and gradually I come to some- 
thing entirely different and yet 
practical. You can get this result on 
any subject if you simply hang to it, 
and keep on adding salt. 



— Creating Idea*. — 

Now to create ideas in any specifio- 
lino it is necessary to surround your- 
self with the proper environment — the 
right sort of atmosphere. You will 
not get sporting ideas in a church, 
neither will you got moral or religious 
ideas in a saloon. If your hobby is 
baseball, and you are a very en' 
thusiastio scorecard man you will not 
see anything else in the newspaper or 
On the street but score cards. If 
automobiles are in mind you will see 
every new automobile on tho road, 
know all about transmission and gear 
and the resiliency of the tires. So I 
am trying to show you how very 
necessary it is to have the proper 
environment and atmosphere about 
you to make a success in any given 
line. You can draw from it con- 
tinually, you have something before 
you to see, to think about, and ta 
exercise your imaginations upon when 
you rest at night. 

Ah ! gentlemen, this is, I think, the 
great secret of Ideas — Your outer 
Office, the eyes and receptive brain, 
are busy all day seeing things !'nd 
taking them in, storing them up until 
you rest. Then vour inside office, the 
subjective brain takes it up, works it 
out, moidds your thought, your 
imagination, your enthusiasm into the 
crystalized product, Ideas. 

— Enthusiasm Essential. — 

Right here is another important fac- 
tor T almost forgot to mention, 
Enthusiasm. Tt is nigh impossible to 
take the initiative, to originate any- 
thing, to get an idea without enthu- 
siasm. You must believe in yourself, 
in your goods, and in the apprecia- 
tion of the general public. I do not 
care who you are, you are bound to 
get credit for any really good work 
or thought you create. Right here I 
want to tell you about my Surprise 
Box. The idea was the result of ob- 
serving and taking up a remark ; a 
gentleman, a good spender, came into 
my store, nothing was too crood for 
him, but he was always looking for 
something better. One evening, after 
buying a corsage bunch of violets and 
otchids worth 20,000 dollars, and while 



T was arranging it in what I though* 
a very good looking violet box, he 
leaned over the counter and said. 
Why don't some of tho florists get 
up something now in the way of a 
lino box that would present the (lowers 
to th« best advantage as soon as it 
was opened " My ears caught it, I 
thought about it that evening going- 
home in the car, I don't believe I 
would havo seen a five dollar note on 
the floor of the car that night. I 
saw nothing but boxes, boxes, all 
kinds of boxes. It took fully one 
year thinking, remembering, imagin- 
ing to produce the Surprise Rox. 

While I was experimenting with this 
tho box'maker first of all said I was 
crazy, "another of these 'fan-dang- 
led ideas of yours." Rut T said, 
" Never mind, you make it this way." 
" Rut it will never work," he replied. 
" Make it " I said, " I will pay for 
it." f had confidence in ray goods, in 
myself, in the man who wanted some- 
thing to present tho flowers to their 
best advantage. I first used paper ; 
it would not work as the dampness of 
the flowers made it soft and limber j 
then I used regular doilies, thev were 
too stiff, so I bought lace and had 
them made our own stvle and it 
worked perfectly. T sent the first ones 
to a few prominent people and they 
have been friends and customers ever 
since. 1 had confidence in the public, 
I was enthusiastic about it and told 
them so and they became enthusiastic 
too and bought them. 

— About Flower Roxes. — 

Speaking of boxes: — I have just' 
brought a few with me to demonstrate 
the evolution of the florists' boxes. 
When I first began my experience in 
the business, every now and again mv 
boss would say, " Charlie, run uo to 
the shoe store and see if they have 
any boxes for us. If they haven't go 
across the street to McCreary's and 
get some collar and shirt boxes." I 
can well remember what acrobats 
those carnations and roses were ; they 
had to bend the crab, and do every 
other stunt, squeezed in tight as in 
a coffin. Then after T got a lot of ' 
boxes I had a steady job pasting on 
our labels over the shoe merchant's. 



SIXTY YEARS AGO 

SMITH'S Plants, Trees, Shrubs, Climbers, Roses, Hedge Plants, Gums 
Peppers, Palms, Ferns, Pelargoniums and Flowering Plants, etc., etc. were 
THE BEST and they still hold that reputation. A trial will convince you 

Catalogues Free, send for one. 

W J SMITH CLIFTON NURSERIES - 

1 WALKERVILLE, SOUTH AUST. 

ESTABLISHED 1851. 'PHONE 372. 



September, 1912 



THE GARDEN AND FIELD. 



147 



After this we had boxes mads with 
nice green paper and gold trimming. 
Once in n while we would change to 
yellow with white labels. Then the 
ever-handy cheap folding boxes came 
into use. When the board got wet 
the string would cut through and hold 
the flowers to the lid. At last we 
had boxes made in different sizes to 
suit goods, all but American Beauties. 
You can to-day see fine Beauties com- 
ing out of fine shops with the stems 
sticking out as long as the box itself. 
What right has a florist to send roses 
out in this style ? Would a dry goods 
merchant do it ? Can you think of 
any other line that would ? It is the 
first impression that counts every 
time especially in our business you 
can't command a price if you your- 
self do not value the goods worth a 
decent box. 

Ideas are always created through a 
desire for something : Think, Remem- 
ber, Imagine. First you think about 
what is wanted. You see things sug- 
gestive. You remember them, you 
build on them, you imagine ; put on 
a little more salt and you create. 

— A Need Must Precede an Idea. — 

We had a lot of one-sided begonias, 
then the thought came, '"what can I 
do to enhance the value of these plants 
to sell them at a good profit ? " Mats 
were old, heavy and unsuited to the 
plant. They needed some kind of a 
crazy basket to hide the defects. I 
walked through the supply houses but 
couldn't find anything to suit. Must 
make it myself. I am not a basket 
maker, but here she goes ; got a 
basket maker to make a skeleton and 
we did the rest ; here is your plant 
worth four times the price in the 
basket and something new in the 
bargain. But it took enthusiasm, 
thought, confidence in the goods, in 
ourselves, in the public to create it. 
In creating ideas you wi'l get lots that 
are not practical and that may be 
ridiculous or fantastic. But they are 
divided into two distinct classes 
easily defined and I have always 
found this is a good rule to ob- 
serve : — An idea is only a genuine 
idea when it conveys your thought 
and your thought shoujd come from 
some useful want or desire ; there must 
be an excuse for doing it or twisting 
a shape in a certain way. It must 
express that thought to your customer 
without any explanation from you 
then you have a genuine idea worth 
having. 

— The Misuse of Ribbon. — 

I believe the use of ribbons with 
flowers has a great field and enhances 
the beautv and value of them. Re- 
member that last suggestion, "value." 
A bunch or basket with an appropriate 
bow artistically placed makes it worth 
as much again, if you are not simply 
•elling merchandise. But, put the rib- 
bon where it belongs, where the eve 
suggests the need of something being 
tied. To put a red neckite on an arau- 
caria is as bad taste as chiffoning an 
earia is as bad taste as chiffon- 
ing an azalea. It does not do the 
azalea any good and wasts the ribbon. 
Ton can use some receptacle with the 



plant that offers an excuse to tie on 
a bow of ribbon and you at once have 
the satisfying effect on the eye. Lots 
ol people will notice these defects but 
not really know -what it is that does 
not appeal to them. They may buy 
them, but it will not have that satis- 
fying effect on them as something that 
conveys and carries out the thought 
they have. 

— Plant Decorations. — 

Take up the matter of plant decora- 
tions : I remember how it impressed 
me when a boy starting in the busi- 
ness. The word decoration carried 
with it the thought of one half day's 
hustle and bustle, the tearing out of 
the well-arranged greenhouse, break- 
ing of pots, freezing of plants, and 
then the next day everything repeated, 
bringing them home. And all this for 
about a= much as a tailor would 
charge for a good suit of clothes. The 
reason for this is, we sell our brains 
by the load, so much a load, plants, 
brains and work thrown in and get 
them all back again the next day. 
This idea of getting them back again 
is so impressed on the public that you 
will not get a good price for your 
flowers and work because you sell 
them by the load and get them all 
back. Sell them something thev will 
keep ; you do not want themiback, and 
your customer will be satisfied to pay 
your price. It is the mental law of 
sale, something they will get for their 
money, belongs to them and which 
they have the desire to possess. Do 
not take it away the next day by the 
load. Pack up cut flowers, use them 
everywhere, they can be used to eood 
advantage in vases, clusters and ear- 
lands. Now I do not wish to be mis- 
construed ; we do not want to eliminate 
plants altogether ■ we always want to 
use plants but let them be specimens, 
plants that you can set anywhere on 
their own merits. 

lias it ever occurred to vou how in- 
congruous and bad taste it is to fill a 
house with a lot of stuff you would 
not otherwise dare show a customer 
individually ? Using pot covers and 
pedestals that are anything but orna- 
mental to a finely appointed house, re- 
moving all the' subjects of art and 
brie-a-brao and building in place 
banks of plants. Fill vases with cut 
flowers, arrange them on the mantel 
and you williget a better price and will 
not have to take then^ back the next 

day. 




T ? f 

• • • 

HOUSES ! 

GARDENS ! 

FARMS ! 



If you want a House, Farm or 
Garden satisfaction will be guar 
anteed if you consult 

H. M. CHARLICK, 

LAND h ESTATE AGENT. 



Telephone No. 850. 



Established 1880. 



GEORGE LANDERS, 

Wholesale and Retail Saddler, 

251 & 253 RUNOLE STREET EAST. 
ADELAIDE, S.H. 

New Market, opposite English and Scottish Bank 
and at No. 11 Ohappel Street, Norwood. 



MANUFACTURER OF ALL KINDS OF LEATHER 
GOODS. 

Harness, Saddlery, and Vehicles of every description 
Pliin and Fancy Leather Goods Stocked and toOrder 
Seooiid-liand Harness and Vehioles Bought, Sold, 

or Kxchanged for New. 
All Orders and Repairs executed with dispatch. 
All our lines can b« hired hy the day or by the week 
at lowest rate* 

A LARGE STOCK OF VEHICLES ALWAYS ON 
HAND. 

Horses and Ponies for sale (with trials. 



— Ideas Again. — 

You cannot get ideas or produce new 
things if y6ur surroundings are out of 
harmony with your soul. You must 
first get in line with your inner self 
and nature, then you must radiate 
that feeling, that sincerity, that en- 
thusiasm to those about you. Create 
the atmosphere of happiness, advance 
good cheer around your assistants, 
elevate their thought and standing;, 
make them respect themselves, their 
business and you. Pay them well so 
they can say with pride " I am a 
florist," and charge well for your 
goody and brains. That is the only 
way to evolve ideas. You, your assist- 
ants, your store must be in harmony 
with the most beautiful things of 
nature — flowers. 



HAMBURG HOTEL 

RUNDLE STREET, ADELAIDE. 

HAS SIXTEEN ADDITIONAL BEDROOMS, 

Electric Light Throughout. 
Hot and Cold Baths. 'Phona 1130. 



J. FLANNAGAN 



Proprietor. 



THE GARDEN AND FIELD. 



M8 : 

Open Border Notes for 
September. 

The past month has been favor- 
able For gardening, for while 
there has been an absence of 

heavy rains, genial showers have 

fallen, and vegetation has made- 
good headway. This applies es- 
pecially to weeds and the gar- 
dener is under the necessity of 
bestirring himself to keep them 
under. 

September is one of the busiest 
months in the flower garden in all 
districts, for all work w hich should 
be completed at once in early 
localities mav be commenced at 
the end of the month in the 
later districts. 

Nearly everything that is on 
hand in pot, frame, or box suited 
to outdoor culture can be planted 
at once in early localities. Show- 
ery days should be chosen for pre- 
ference, but if rain holds off select 
cloudy da\s or cool evenings for 
this work. 

Cannas, Carnations, Verbenas, 
Pensteinons, Ploxes, Pelargoniums, 
Chrysanthemums, Canterbury Bells, 
Lobelias, Snapdragons, Gailiardi- 
as, Hollyhocks, French Marigolds, 
Shrubby Calceolarias, Columbines, 
Marguerite Daisies (white and the 
blUe flowered Marguerite), Aga- 
thaea Collestes, Centaureas (in- 
cluding the beautiful Cornflowers), 
Sunflowers., Iberis of various 
kinds, and hosts of others of 
ecpially easy cultivation, lists of 
which mav be seen in the seeds- 
'men's catalogues, may be set out 
in the borders. 

For all plants, but especially for 
Cannas, Carnations, and Chrysan- 
themums, the soil should be well 
worked up, deep, and free, and well 
enriched with old manure. 

Wherever possible Cannas, Carna- 
tions, and Chrysanthemums should 
be planted in special beds, because 
the special treatment they require 
can then be given them. 

Cannas can hardly be manured 
too freely, and must be watered 



\ei\ liberally. North winds and 
parching dry air arc their worst 
enemies ; therefore, make the beds 
where there is splendid shelter 
to the north. The south side 
of a wall or fence is the best 
position. There, arc brickfielder 
days every summer, when they ale 
almost sure to be scorched if 

planted in the open, unless they 

can be enveloped in a sprav, but 
they are showy, useful plants. 

— Snails and Slugs. — 

A keen waitch must be kept for 
snails and slugs. The standard 
remedy for the former is to col- 
lect them early on some morning 
after a showery night ; and for the 
latter dust with the lime bag at 
night. If these precautions are 
followed Up with vigor for a 
couple of weeks there will be a 
in, irked diminution of these pests, 
but intermittent attentions are 
useless. Some can be poisoned by 
the use of pans green and bran 
and syrup, as recommended for 
caterpillars. Take a dipper of 
bran, a teaspoonful of Blundel's 
pure paris green, a cupful of 
treacle, and enough water to 
moisten the bran. Mix the treacle 
and water, and thoroughly damp 
the bran ; then thoroughly rub in 
the paris green until it is well 
mixed. Put this in little heaps 
the size of marbles, or scatter 
round the beds of plants, and 
they will eat, and the gardener 
will be thankful. To kill some and 
sprinkle them with paris green or 
arsenic is another plan. 

Should pressure of work have 
caused outlying borders to be neg- 
lected and weeds to grow until 
now, they should be dug up at 
once before the weeds seed too 
freely, and unless they are re- 
el uired for immediate planting the 
surface should not be broken 
down too finely. 

Bedded out Cinerarias must be 
looked to, and if the weather con- 
tinues dry regular waterings must 
be given to enable the display 7 to 
last longer. 

This is a good time to put out 
evergreen shrubs and hedge plants. 



September, 1912 

Wait lor dull or rainy weather, 
aiicj move carefully, and water at 
once. 

I.auri'stinus, Veronica, Oleander, 
Rhamnus, Myrtle, Laurel, Copros- 
ma, Diosma, Citrus, Olea, Eu- 
genia, Arbutus, Tecomas of v a ri- 
otisi sorts, Ilabrothamnus, Spar- 
mannia, Wigandia, Bougainvillea, 
Kenned vas, and Passion Flowers 
should be planted out at once. 
The creepers prefer warm walls 
with an eastern or northern 
aspect. 1 

Palms suited to our climate 
should now be transplanted. The 
following are well proved : — Pritch- 
ardia lilifcra, Corvphia australis 
(fan palm), Sabal umbraculifera, 
Phoenix reclinata, and dactvlifera 
(l)at' Palms), Jubaea spectabilis, 
and Chamaerops excelsa, and 
huinilis. These should not have 
their roots torn or disturbed in 
the operation, and must be water- 
ed immediately on being set out ; 
in fact, this treatment should be 
applied to all plants now. 

Weeds will be growing apace, 
and the hoe should be used on 
bright sunny days as much as 
possible upon border and path. 

In wairm pits, in pots, boxes, or 
pans sow Cyclamen, Gloxinia, 
Beironia, Coleus, Tydaea, Torenia, 
Gesnera seeds. 

Make cuttings of-. Fuchsias, 
Coleus, Pelargoniums, Begonias, 
I'lectranthus, Iresines. in glass 
frames, a little bottom heat to 
start them being- a great advan- 
tage. A fresh manure pit made 
in the ordinary wav is cheap and 
effective. 

Give tuberous-rooted Begonias a 
start under similar conditions, 
putting the tubers in small . pots 
at first, and giving them scarcely 
any water for s start. 

A batch of Chrvsnathemum cut- 
tines may be put \ in, but they do 
not require heat. The strong 
young top growths about 4 or 5in. 
long are most suitable. The leaves 
should be trimmed off half wav 
up the stem, and the cutting in- 
serted to that depth in well- 
drained pots rilled with pure sand. 
These cuttings should onlv be oc- 
casionally syringed overhead, and 
not watered to any extent. 

Sweet Peas may be sown in 
cool districts now. For the plains 
it is best to sow in March, April, 
or Mav. Plots are now to be 
seen about Adelaide in flower, 
which is good, for there is less 
danger from hot winds, 



ALBERT O. PIKE, 

(Late GAMEAU BROTHERS). 

Clairville Nursery, Hectorvilie. 

All kinds of fruit trees for sale. Citru s trees, Lemons and Oranges a special- 
ity. Send for illustrated catalogue. 

Telegraphic Address— Pike, Hectorvilie, Payneham. Telephone— Central 2768, 



September, 1912 



149 



The Greenhouse. 



Cyclamen, Cinerarias, and Zon- 
ale Pelargoniums should make a 
good show. Pot Fuchsias. 

Caladiums should be potted up 
into convenient sized pots, put in 
a waiim corner, and given a little 
moisture only. Gloxinias, Achi- 
menes, Tvdaeas, Gesneras, St. 
Paulias may also be started. 

If green aphides appear on the 
r.lants in the house close all aper- 
tures and fumigate with tobacco 
in the evening. Admit plentv of 
air during fine days, in the morn- 
ing more particularly, closing the 
ventilators fairly early in the 
evening. As the days become 
warmer, the time for airing can 
be extended. 

Propagate Crotons, Dracaenas, 
Anthuriums, and Philodendrons, 
Impatiens, etc., by short cuttings 
inserted in bottom heat. 

Shake out and divide Cypripedi- 
ums where finished blooming, and 
pot up in a mixture of peat or 
fern fibre Sphagnum moss and 
potsherds, topping up with Sphag- 
num around the crown of the 
roots. 

Treat Bromeliaceous plants in a 
similar manner, and where necer- 
sary Marantas could be treated 
accordingly. 

Pot up Rex and, other ornamen- 
tal leafed Begonias into rich, free, 
peatv soil, in well-drained pots, 
keep them close to the glass after 
the shift. 

Give all strong-grown plants 
water, and many of the sorts 
mentioned above weak liquid man- 
ure at intervals as required. Har- 
den off any plants of Iresines, 
Plectranthus, and Alternanthera 
used for bedding outdoors. 

Prepare to put blinds or frost- 
ing upon the roof and sides ex- 
posed to the sun, as the plants 
are very weak in tissue after the 
dulness of the winter's light. 



Removing Faded Flowers. 

This is far more important work 
than most people realise, indeed, 
some think so little of it that it 
is scarcely done at all. Yet how 
much the future vitality and 
floriferousness of a plant is helped 
by the continual doing of this 
simple task, to say nothing of the 
added neatness the removal of de- 
caving flowers must mean. The 
following, among others, particu- 
larlv repay such care : — Sweet 
Peas, Violas, Linuins, single Roses, 
Mignonette, and Verbenas. 'A 
strong pair of scissors answers ad- 
mirably for this purpose. 



The Bush-House and 
Fernery. 

Interest in these structures be- 
gins to awaken afresh with the 
sunshine, and plants should all 
receive an overfhaul. 

Most plants should be re-potted 
and foliage cleansed and re-ar- 
ranged, with the object of making 
the interior look a little different 
to what it appeared last war. 

Plants that cannot be repotted 
conveniently, and which are well 
drained, may be top-dressed with 
rich compost. This applies chiefly 
to Tree Ferns, Palms, Cyads, 
Camelias, etc. 

Most small ferns, such a Maiden- 
hairs, require cleaning of old 
fronds and repotting. Thev mav 
be divided now, but seedlings that 
are collected freely from time to 
time by the observant cultivator 
from among the pots make far 
better specimen plants than off- 
sets, growing much more vigor- 
ously. 

Fern baskets can be filled, and 
nothing- can possiblv be more 
handsome. 

Old baskets can be top-dressed 
with ricn comlpost, and as thev 
grow, weak liquid manure should 
be applied. This is a better 
practice for basket ferns than 
turning and tearing them out. 

Fresh peat or soil may be 
packed into the recesses of rock- 
eries. 

Cut old dead fronds from the 
Tree Ferns and Asparagus plants. 

<$> 

Asparagus Fern. 



This elegant plant is far superior 
to Maiden Hair Fern for its beauty 
;n decorations and for its lasting 
qualities. 'Clip latter, after being 
made up in a bouquet or buttonhole 
on a hot day, begins in the course of 
a few hours to droop, but Asparagus 
will last as many days and still ap- 
pear quite fresh. 

The best, and Quickest means of 
propagation is undoubtedly by taking 
cuttings, although this method is 
known only to a small percentage of 
its lovers. 

It is a very easy operation to 
strike these cuttings. Cut them off 
just below a joint and insert them in 
some sandy compost, and keep moist, 
and shaded during bright Sunshine. 
In a few weeks' time they will be 
found to have rooted freely, and if 
potted up in a compos: of peat, leaf- 
mould and silver sand, will soon 



make beautiful healthy and bushy 
plants. 

1'y means of cuttings a larire stock 
of plants can be quickly raised in- 
stead of waiting for seed to continence 
growth. Another good means of 
propagation is by division. They can 
also be raised from seed which how- 
ever takes a long time to germinate. 
Wnen a pot becomes crammed with 
roots it should be turned out, all the 
old soil washed off — not torn of 
haphazard, thereby destroying most of 
the tiny fibrous roots — but carefully 
got away with clear water, the roots 
afterwards being cut up with a sharp 
knife and carefully placed in clean 
pots and new compost. Although 
this is a good and sure method of 
propagation, the same quantity of 
plants cannot be got as by means of 
cuttings. 

It is always advisable to have 
young plants to replace the old ones, 
as the latter are of too rank a 
growth tor purposes ot effective Horal 
decorations. New growths are al- 
ways prettier and of finer texture, 
and for one to keep up his reputation 
and stock he must propagate by the 
quickest means. 

Asparagus Fern is excellent for a 
table decoration of for window dis- 
play. Place the fern in the centre 
of two or more flowering plants, such 
as Geraniums, Begonias, Calceolarias, 
or any other of the bright iloral 
subjects of two or three different 
colours, and allow the sprays of the 
Asparagus to droop gracefully over 
each, about two or three inches above 
their bloom. The result will provide 
a particularly effective tloral display 
and one which will prove very attrac- 
tive to visitors, for its novelty and 
ior its lasting qualities. 



How I Made a Garden Roller. 



A correspondent to "The Garden- 
ing World " writes — " I wanted to 
roll a gravel path in my garden ; 
an iron roller costs more than I 
cared to spend for my small re- 
quirements, so I procured a two 
feet length of 12 in. drain pipe, and 
cut two discs of wood to fit tightly 
in the ends, filling the pipe with 
wet clay, rammed tightly as pos- 
sible, and drove in the wooden 
discs, fastening them with thin 
wedges. An iron rod passed 
through the centre acted as axle, 
and fastening to the projecting 
ends two stout sticks (binding with 
wire) I had a complete roller that 
has done all the work I needed. 

<3> 

The Sparrow's Appetite. — If you 
could eat (writes an Kxchange) as 
much in proportion to your size 
as a sparrow you would need a 
whole sheep for dinner, a couple of 
dozen fowls for breakfast, and six 
furkevs for your evening meal. A 
tree sparrow has been known to 
eat 700 grass seeds in a day. 
(Fortunately we cannot). 



TUM GAJLDJSN AND PUCLO. 



September, ID 12 



Fertilizers and Fertility. 



A Paper read before the Society of 
American Florists. — 



(Continued from -July Issue). 

in speaking of the ferments we ure 
prone Lo mier thai the worn, is all 
done by the micro. oiyian.sms already 
treierred to, but it seeins that stui 
more important in the economy ol 
plant us woil as un.uiai lile are tuti 
unorganized ferments or enzymes, it 
now seems liKely that these enzymes 
mu\ hu\e an important bearing on 
the fertilizer question, oust what the 
nature ol these substances may nc, ai 
tne present time we do not know us 
it is tiiiiicuit to couect thi-m in a 
pure stale. That they are higliK 
nitrogenous however, is generally 0. • 
lievett. But it is their action which 
concerns us most. it is said thai 
these ferments bring about changes ny 
their mere presence, or at least with- 
out loss ol their own substances, 
that is what is called catalytic ac- 
tion, just as the presence ol certain 
metals in a solution will precipitate 
other metals. 

'Ihese enzymes exist in all parts of 
the active tissues of the plant, and 
are found in abundance upon the 
growing point of roots. They evident- 
ly have the power of reducing the 
starches, fats and proteids to forms 
which can be direct lv assimilated and 
used in the building up of tissue. In' 
tact it appears that it is to the work 
of these enzymes that the bacteria and 
other simple forms of vegetable life 
owe their power of rendering up in 
such a remarkable degree the nitrogon 
contained in albuminoids and other 
compounds. The enzymes have been 
studied principally as they appear 
within the plant body. Tiiey are not 
themselves organized, and are prod- 
ducts, not parts, of the vegetable cell. 
They can bring about their character- 
istic changes as well outside as inside 
the body ; and an interesting question 
is how far these substances may ex- 
tend outside the plant body, and if it 
is not possible that in some genera- 
of plants the work of collecting nitro- 
gen from the soil is not due directly 
to them without the intervention of 
the fungus. 



In discussing the fertility of the 
soil, there are other factors than the 
presence of chemical elements neces- 
sary lor plant food. The food must be 
accessible, there must be a supply oi 
water for solvent purposes, and there 
rrjust 'be a sullicieut amount of heat 
to encourage the action of the dissolv- 
ing agencies. The physical condition 
ol the soil plays a very important 
part in determining the fertility of the 
sod. Air and water are not usually 
spoken ol as fertilizers, but they, 
nevertheless, are vital to the success 
of the plant. The soil must be of 
such character that the air can cir- 
culate among the particles and come 
in contact with the rootlets. The soil 
must also be in such condition that it 
will hold a certain amount of water, 
and it must be of such consistency 
that the root hairs can visit every 
little grain of earth in search of'nutri- 
tnent. 

The soil must not be so line as to 
obstruct the free passage of air and 
water, nor so coarse as to allow 
either to flow through in currents. 
What we need is a huppy medium 
where the spaces between the soil 
particles are such that a mere him of 
water encircles every one, or what is 
called hygroscopic holding of mois- 
ture. In this condition the soil is 
capable of absorbing and holding the 
greatest possible amount of nutrients 
in a readily accessible manner. In 
this condition too it will maintain a 
more equable temperature and become 
a more comfortable home for nitrify- 
ing bacteria. This physical condition 
of the soil is brought about by tillage, 
and it is frequently the case that 
proper handling of the soil makes all 
the ■ difVerence between success and 
failure. 

So much for some of the factors 
which we have to consider in increas- 
ing the fertility of our -fields, and 
now let us consider briefly some of the 
causes of loss of fertility. We are 
apt to attribute loss of fertility en- 
tirely 'to absence of available plant 
food. That such is not always the 
ease will be evident 'to anyone who 
has had long experience in gardening 
operations. 

There are failures which are often 
and perhaps justly attributed to ex- 
hausl ion of the soil or at least of 



certain of the elen'icnts. The theory- 
is that the land must be rested or a 
rotation pursued which will allow of 
a recovery 2 or a renewal of the miss- 
ing element. It is such occurrences 
which have been responsible for our 
systems of rotation of crops. 

The unsatisfactory part of this ex- 
haustion theory is that no matter how 
much fertilizer we may supply, we 
can not get certain crops to succeed 
themselves annually through a long 
series of years and give satisfactory 
returns ; while certain other crops can 
be grown annuallv on the same plot 
for a generation and increase in fruit- 
fulness from year to year, In look- 
ing for an explanation which explains 
we naturally recall the fact that all 
living things in the course of their 
growth use only certain portions of 
the crude material which is taken in- 
to their systems, and reject other 
portions more or less changing in 
character. These rejected, waste or 
by-products may be thrown off from 
the onganism or pacjked away 
in some unoccupied corner. These 
refuse portions are very poisonous, 
particularly to the organism which 
produced it. You will doubt- 
less remember that the bacteria 
and other microorganisms are notor- 
ious ih this direction, they not only 
give off refuse matters which are ex- 
cessively poisonous to some other 
forms of life, but in the end destroy 
the bacteria from whence they came. 

These secretions of waste matters 
have been given the name of 
ptomaines, and instances of severe ill- 
ness or even death from the use of 
ice cream or cheese containing these 
ptomaines will perhaps be more or 
less familiar to you. 

Now it is possible that our "Clover 
Sickness " and other like occurrances 
are due not to exhaustion but to the 
presence in the soil of these ptomaine 
poisons. Perhaps the clover itself may 
not be the direct victim, but the nutri- 
fying bacteria so necessary to the 
growth of the plant may be killed by 
their own toxic refuse. If this is true 
of clover, it m&y be true of other 
plaints which decline to succeed them- 
selves for any length of time. 

In this theory of ptomaines is ten- 
able, we have an explanation of a 
puzzle. There is of course a great 



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Postal Address : PAYNEHAM, SOUTH AUSTRALIA. 

1 



September, 1912 



THE GARDEN AND FIELD 



151 



difference in various plants in the 
character of their secretions. The 
Rothamsted experiments showed, if i 
remember rightly, that wheat could 
be grown on the same land for at 

least twenty years and the yield be 

on the increase. 

Some other crops are known 10 do 
well year after year in the same soil, 

a fact well known to gardeners, and I 
can recall one instance of rye being 

grown on the same field for twenty 
successive years without any apparent 
loss of vigor. 

Regarding the behaviour of man" of 
the flower erops which are grown un- 
der glass, we have but comparatively 
few facts available. The o-eneral im- 
pression is,. I think, that they will not 
do their best unless the soil is entirely 
renewed each season. Whether this 
is due to poisoning- of the soil or to 
the exhaustion of some food element, 



CURLEW BRANDY. 




For years the Only Kra-nrly us*u 
in the Adelaide Hospital 
Sole Agents — 

DOWNER A 00. 

Wine and Spirit Merchants and 
Aerated Water Manufacturers. 

37 WAYlfOUTH ST.. ADELAIDE 



or to a change in the physical char- 
acter of the soil, has not been deter- 
mined as far as 1 am aware. If the 
loss of fertility of the soil in our -reen- 
house is due to physical changes, it is 
a serious matter, for it repans the re- 
moval and renewal of the soil once or 
twice a year, an operation both labori- 
ous aud costly. In the broader prac- 
tice of field work these losses can be 
more readily corrected, at least we 
do not have to move our soil to the 
crops. 

We stand in need of more work in 
the investigation of the losses in oor 
greenhouse work, ami it seems to me 
that t lie experiment stations might 
help us in that direction. 

Horticulturists have, it is true, done 
a great deal of experimenting along 
these lines, but most of the work has 
not been done in such a manner as to 
render the results of any great value 
to the public, nor- have there been 
records kept of the work which are 
available for study and comparison. 

These are some of the factors which 
we have to consider when attempting 
to increase the fertility of our gar- 
dens. We do not know just what is 
the best thing to do ; we. must still ex- 
periment a little. Fertilizers do not 
act just the same every time, but we 
must continue to use them, and our 
experience is a pretty good, though 
ofteD costly guide in their applica- 
tion. 

We must remember that fertilizers 
do not always mean fertility ; we 
need good tillage, good cultivation 
ann common sense mixed with them. 

It seems to me that w e stawid toda'v 
upon the threshold of the door which 
will lead us to a vastly better under- 
standing, not only of the processes of 
assimilation, but also a more perfect 
knowledge of the economical produc- 
tion and use of fertilizing elements. 



A SUCCESSFUL INSURANCE 
COMPANY. 



Insurance has become one of 
the routine items of commercial 
and private life. The question 
now is, not, shall I insure ? but, 
where shall I insure ? People in South 
Apstralia have a very wide choice. 
The Liverpool and London and Globe 
Insurance ' o. Ltd., undertakes prac- 
tically all classes of insurance work, 
such as l-'ire, Accident and Disease, 
Employers' Liability, Workmen's Com- 
pensation^ Live Stock, Motor Car, etc. 
This Corporation handles an immense 
amount of business in various parts 
of the world, and has behind it a 
long and honourable record. Over 
£56,000,000 have already been paid in 
claims, which alone is sufficient indica- 
tion of the wealth and standing of 
i he Company. Agents are statianed 
in all parts of the State, aud in ad 
diliou the Company has country In 
spectors which affords every con- 
venience and facility to farmers and 



producers in covering risks connected 
with their particular business. It is, 
perhaps, not necessary to remind our 
large circle of readers of the farming 
and producing community, of the 
importance of insuring against loss by 
fire, and the wisdom of asking a 
wealthy Company to take the risk 
on their own shoulders, instead of 
doing it themselves. Many fires 
occur, destroying buildings, and con- 
tents, hay stacks and growing crops, 
and one never knows when it will not 
be their turn to be visited by the lire 
liend. Perhaps, the reminder that 
this company undertakes all classes 
of business w ill not be inopportune. 



Though the prohibit ioners may talk 
and the local optionist may rave, and 
many other people imagine various 
things, there is no doubt that the use 
of stimulants will continue as long 
as the world goes round. With 
spirits as with all commodities there 
are the good and the bad. This is 
unavoidable, but is certainly unjust 
to condemn the former for the faults 
of the latter. There are- many brands 
of wines and spirits which the con- 
sumer may use with the fullest con- 
fidence and in getting a pure, health- 
ful, and unadulterated article, the 
" Curlew " Brandy, of which Messrs. 
Downer & Co. are agents, has stood 
every test, both of time, as well as 
medical and analytical examinations. 
It is largely used in the home, and 
carries the recommendation of eminent 
physicians as a desirable stimulant 
for use in public and privste hospitals. 
The " Curlew " label, therefore, on a 
bottle may be taken as sufficient 
sruarantee that the contents, are what 
they are said to be, a good honest 
article. 



NOW IS THE TIME TO SPRAY 
with 

Red Spraying 
Oil 

for SAN JOSE SCALE, 
RED SPIDER, 
and PEACH APHIS. 

Sole Agents — 

Charles Atkins & Co. 

LIMITED. 
97, CURRIE STREET, ADELAIDE. 

PAQrlprc I Can you writeus 

JAjOCLUCI D ' something about 
your methods of breeding, rearing, 
and managing Live Stock ? Let 
us have it if it will only fill the 
back of a Pont curd. 



152 



THE GARDEN AND FIELD. 



September, 1912 



Frttit Garden 9 Liverpool & London & Blobs 



Some Troublesome Insects. 



— And the Way to deal with them 
so they will not Rothcr. — 

Cherry, peach, and plum trees 
are sometimes injured, and often 
disfigured, by gum oozing from 
the bark in places. A little gum, 
here and there, may do no special 
harm, but often the trouble in- 
creases to an extent that calls for 
treatment. 

The gum oo/.ing from the bark 
of your trees may be from one ol 
three or four causes. It may be 

1. Mechanical injury, in which 
case the best thing to do is to 
clean away the gum and paint the 
wound with melted grafting wax 
or beeswax, or even common 
house paint, and let Nature take 
care of it. 

2. A fungus disease sometimes 
caJled " guminosus," in which case 
severe pruning- back of trees, 
cultivation, fertilization of soil 
and watering are about all that 
can be done, as the purpose 
should be to stimulate growth. 
This can not be reached by spray- 
ing, as it is beneath the bark. 

3. Bark borers or shot-hole 
borers. These are the larvae of 
very minute beetles that make 
tunnels beneath the bark and are 
also called " engraver beetles." 
When thev mature they bore 
through the bark and leave holes 
about the size of those made by 



gunshot, or about the size of a 
pin's head. This is why they are 
called " shot-hole borers." Thev 
attack onlv trees that are declin- 
ing. There is no wav of reaching 
them in the sense of a remedy, 
but the best thing to do is to 
prune back the trees, cultivate the 
soil, and water abundantly and 
frequently with water containing 
a teaspoonful of nitrate of soda 
in each gallon of water. This is 
to stimulate growth, and is often 
successful. 

4. The fourth cause of gum is 
a larger kind of borer, such as is 
to be seen in peach and plum trees 
frequently. This can be killed by 
inserting a soft wire with a sharp 
point, or by cutting out with a 
sharp knife,, slitting lengthwise ra- 
ther than crosswise in the bark ; 
or using the best possible re- 
medy for borers, which consists of 
a liquid called bisulphide of car- 
bon, put into a spring-bottom oil 
can and injected into the holes 
the borer occupies. Close up these 
holes with mud or clay, and the 
pest will be killed at once and the 
tree not injured as it might be by 
cutting. 

An American grower writes of 
the shot-hole borer : I think that 
we can greatly check this pest by 
thoroughly washing the bark with 
a strong soap solution, say one 
pound whale-oil soap in four gal- 
lons of water, to which add one 
half pint crude carbolic ' acid. 
This shot-hole borer spreads quite 



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slowly in an orchard. Keep the 
trees healthy and thrifty by culti- 
vation and feeding, and it will 
help much in discouraging the\ pest. 
This insect is noticed by small 
holes which it bores in the bark. 
There is sometimes a hole for al- 
most each' square inch of bark. 
At these points the sap or wax 
comes out, in lumps about the size 
of a grain of wheat. The leaves 
will drop off the trees when the 
insect has got fairly started. By 
examining the holes one finds a 
small black insect about the size 
of a Ilea. When a tree is very 
badly infested there is usually no 
hope of saving it. I would burn 
the tree at once, root and branch. 



Keeping Apples. 



A correspondent of an exchange 
recommends amateurs who have 
late keeping apples to store to 
put them in drain pipes of 12 
inches diameter. The pipes may 
be placed on end on any hard 
lloor, with a covering on the top 
to exclude light and vermin. An 
odd corner of an outhouse will do. 
The pressure is next to nothing, 
the temperature varies little, and 
(lure is no shrivelling, which is 
so frequently found in a fruit 
room . 



September, lyl2 



THE GARDEN AND FIELD. 



Bordeaux Mixture. 



The Woburn Bordeaux mixture re- 
ferred to in last issue is discussed as 
iollows in the Agricultural News : — 

The eighth report on the work of 
the Woburn Experiment Fruit Farm, 
England, deals entirely with insecti- 
cides and fungicides, their preparation 
and uses. Among the investigations 
carried out at the Station, the re- 
sults of enquiry into the chemistry of 
the well - known fungicide Bordeaux 
mixture has shown how the cost of 
that mixture may be reduced by 
three-fifths without in any way 
diminishing its effectiveness. The fol- 
lowing is an extract from the report 
dealing with this subject : — 

The investigation into the nature of 
the compounds formed by the action 
of lime on copper sulphate has shown 
that as many as six different sub- 
stances may be present in Bordeaux, 
mixture. The substances which are 
present when the mixture is made in 
the ordinary way, by adding excess 
of lime in the form of milk to coppei 
sulphate, is double basic sulphate of 
copper and calcium. The carbonic 
acid of the air acts on this, forminy 
carbonates and sulphates of the 
metals, and it is owing to the graduaJ 
re-formation of sulphate of copper ib 



this way that the mixture possesses" 
fungicidal properties. But the basic 
sulphate of calcium present is first 
decomposed before the basic sulphate 
of copper is attacked, so that a 
certain time always elapses before thu 
mixture begins to behave as a 
fungicide. This is a great disad- 
vantage, but can be obviated by us- 
ing only just sufiicient lime to pre- 
cipitate all the copper in the first 
instance, lor in that case, a pre- 
cipitate is formed which contains none 
ot the basic calcium sulphate. There 
is, iurther, a great advantage in thus 
reducing the lime used, for the basic 
copper sulphate precepitated is a less 
basic compound than that in ordinary 
Bordeaux mixture, and it liberates 
two and a half times as much copper 
sulphate by the subsequent action of 
the air ; so that a mixture as efficient 
as the ordinary one may be obtained, 
with the use of only two-fifths of the 
quantity of copper sulphate. 

To make this mixture, clear lime- 
water instead of milk of lime, must 
be used ; 6fb. Gioz. of copper sulphate 
are dissolved in water in a wooden 
pail, and into another large tub of 
water 2 or 3 lb. of fresh lime are put. 
After being stirred several times, and 
allowed to settle, 8(j gallons of the 
clear lime-water are tapped off, and 
mixed with the copper sulphate, the 



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whole being made up to 100 gallons 
by the addition of. soft water. 

The mixture must always be tested 
to make sure that all the copper has 
been precipitated, and if this is not 
so, a little more lime-water must be 
added, and the testing repeated. If 
the liquid gives no red colour with 
potassium ferrocyanide it is in a 
proper condition for use. The stain 
produced on a steel knife is often 
recommended as a test for unpre- 
cipatated copper, but it is neither 
delicate nor safe. Any excess of lime 
added above the nunimum required 
for the complete precipitation of the 
copper weakens the mixture, and 
represents a direct loss of money. 
The scorching of foliage sometimes 
noticed after the application of Bor- 
deaux mivture may be caused by the 
same substance (the copper sulphate 
liberated) as that which gives it its 
fungicidal properties, and if so, such 
scorching is invitable ; it is certainly 
a fallacy to suppose that it can be 
avoided by using excess of lime : in- 
deed, it is very probable that the 
scorching often observed is due to 
the large excess of lime used. 

The mixture made with lime-water 
as above does not scorch foliage any 
more than (he ordinary mixture, 
probably less, and has been in con- 
stant use in Italy for many years. 



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154 



THE GARDEN AND FIELD. 



[September, 1912 



Flowering Apples. 



From " Horticulture." — 

The various ornamental apples 
included under the popular term 
" flowering " apples, surpass in 
floral beauty all trees and shrubs 
blooming at their particidar sea- 
son- Vet, notwithstanding their 
great attractiveness, they are used 
very little as compared with' most 
ornamental plants. This fact is 
probablv due, to a large extent, 
to a lack of any widespread know- 
ledge or appreciation of their 
worth. .Some have been display- 



In GARDEN 



ing their beauty in our gardens 
for a long time, while others are 
comparatively recent introduc- 
tions. They are large shrubs or 
small trees, having a form often 
somewhat irregular, yet in the 
case of some specially sym- 
metrical, bearing an abundance of 
charming flowers with a range in 
color from white through shades 
of pink to almost blood-red, and 
frequently bearing fruit which is 
attractive in the late summer and 
autumn. 

— As to their Demands. — 

Thev do not require more than 
the average ornamental shrub or 



tree and, for the most part, they 
are not fastidious as regards soil 
or situation. Some few need gar- 
den cultivation, while others suc- 
ceed in ordinary soil even on 
somewhat dry banks. However, 
thev all respond earnestly to good 
deep soil and careful treatment. 
Moreover, they are perfectly hardy 
and vigorous. As to pruning, in 
the early years of the plant's life 
it is practically identical with 
that of the fruiting apple, while 
later it consists essentially in re- 
removing dead and interfering 
branches. 

— The Uses to wliich they may 
be Put are Many. — 

They have their place in the 
small garden and on the larger 
estate. Some may be appropri- 
ate in the garden or on the lawn 
as specimens, others may be der 
sirable in the back of the shrub- 
bery, while many of them are 
particularly well adapted to bor- 
der plantations and screens. Some 
as the Wild Crab Apple (Pyrus 
coronaria), are very attractive 
when situated on the borders of a 
natural wood. After all, there is 
no gainsaving that thev are most 
effective when in masses, especially 
where there is a background of 
green, as that offered by a grassy 
bank or a growth of coniferous 
trees. Although this larger use 
seems to be most desirable) the 
fact should discourage no one 
from planting ; them on small areas 
and in limited numbers, for a 
single plant in a garden or on a 
lawn is capable of affording as 
much pleasure during its season 
of bloom as any individual plant 
possiblv can. 

How unobtrusive the flowers are 
as thev nestle in the fresh living 
green of the unfolded leaves ! Yet 
how certain they are to catch 
your attention, and how tenaci- 
ouslv thev hold it ! Is not their 
perfume sweet ? It is that of the 
apple, v et more refined and withal 
more intense and all-pervading. 

— The Siberian Crab (Pyrus 
Baccata). — 

Now, is it not worth the while 
to devote ourselves to making 
their personal acquaintance ■? As 
the Siberian Crab is the first to 
greet us, it is onlv courteous to 
cultivate its friendship. Although 
growing wild from Siberia and 
Manchuria to the Himalayas, it 
has been cultivated in Kurope for 
a long time and in China and 
Japan from time immemorial. It 
is a small spreading tree some! 
times becoming as large as the 
apple and reaching a height of 
thirtv feet. The flowers are 
usually white and appear in abun- 



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September, 11)12 



THE GARDEN AND FIELD. 



155 



dance with the leaves on long 
green Hower stalks. Following the 
Howers come the little apples, 
ranging in size from a quarter to 
three-quarters of an inch in 
diameter, and yellow or red in 
color. When in bloom the tree 
is a beautiful object, and again at 
fruiting time it is interesting, yet 
it should not rank high in this 
list. What will shortly be said 
in the case of the Flowering Crab 
as regards hardiness, vigjor and 
ease of establishment, applies to 
the Siberian Crab, and likewise 
the uses to which they may be 
put are identical. 

— The Flowering Crab (Pyrus 
Flonbunda).. — 

This is an extremely attractive 
plant from Japan. It is a shrub 
or small tree, low and busihy in 
form, branching from near the 
ground, and ultimately growing 
to a height of twenty feet. The 
llowers are rose-colored, an inch 
across, and completely cover the 
plant. The slightly loosened buds 
with their bright red. hue are 
nearly as attractive as the unfold- 
ed blooms, and the combination of 
buds and open llowers is charm- 
ing. Then follow the small red 
apples, about the size of a pea, 
borne on slender stems. These 
are rather interesting during the 
late summer and earlv fall but do 
not persist until winter. All in 
all, this is the best of our apples 
and, in fact, ranks very high 
.imong ornamental plants. It is 
good in a garden, but most effec- 
tive when used in masses. This is 
one of the apples very well adapt- 
ed to forming screens or to use 
in border plantations. It is hardv. 
sturdy and easy to establish and 
grow. 

— Parkman's Crab (Pyrus 
Hallianaj — 

ris a bush or small tree, with loose 
open crown, somewhat unsym me- 
trical in habit and as a rule not 
exceeding a height of fifteen feet. 
It has pleasing feathery foliage in 
moderate abundance. The llowers 
are rose-colored, usually semi- 
double, pendulous on slender red- 
dish Hower stalks. The fruit is 
about a quarter of an inch in 
diameter, brownish-red, and ripens 
in late fall. Although its beauty 
denends almost entirely on the 
bloom, it is particularly hand- 
Some and as regards delicate 
modeling and exquisite coloring it 
is the most charming of the group. 
It is not as vigorous a grower as 
most of these plants and is more 
exacting in its demands if ont- is 
1U> pet the most satisfactory re- 



sults. It is decidedly a plant for 
a garden or lawn and should not 
be placed in poor soil or in try- 
ing situations. 

— The Chinese Flowering Apple 

(.Pyrus Spectabilis) — 

is an apple which has been long in 
cultivation. It is a small shrub- 
like tree growing under garden 
cultivation from twenty to twen- 
ty-five feet high. The branches 
are upright in habit of growth, 
rather symmetrical, and when the 
plant reaches maturity the form 
is vase-like. The foliage is of 
moderate density and the leaves 
are thick and of a dark green 
color. However, the foliage has 
no particular merit and is in- 
ferior, as I believe, to that of 
most of the apples. The llowers 
of the forms growing in cultiva- 
tion are semi-double, nearly an 
inch across when fully expanded, 
pale rose in color fading to white, 
and of delightful fragrance. They 
appear in great profusion each 
year. Fruit is rarely borne and 
is of no consequence for ornamen- 
tal purposes. It is easy to grow 
and is one of the desirable trees 
lor a small place. 

— The Wild Crab Apple (Pyrus 

Coronaria). — 

Of our own native apples the 
Wild Crab Apple is the best, com- 
paring favorably with the most 
satisfactory exotic species. It is 
indigenous to the forest glades of 
the region south of the Great 
Lakes and among the Allegheny 
Mountains. In form it is a low, 
bushy tree, growing under favor- 
able circumstances to a height of 
twenty-five or thirty feet, while 
its branching is characteristically 
stiff and angular. It is a late 
bloomer and prolongs the display 
of apple blossoms, a fact which 
gives it decided value aside from 
its other merits. Perhaps it is 
less showy than most of the mem- 
bers of this group because the 
leaves have unfolded when the 
llowers appear. These are white 
or rose-color, nearly two inches 
across when fully expanded, and 
delightfully fragrant. The fruit is 
about an inch across, waxy, yel- 
lowish green, possessing some or- 
namental value and serving for 
jellies and preserves. The plant 
is perfectly hardv, ui^qrous and 
ens\- to grow. It is best used in 
masses, either in conjunction with 
others of the (lowering apples or 
with strong growing shrubs or 
low trees. It coidd be successfully 
employed in screen or border 
plantations, and would be admir- 
ably placed when used on the 
m;irgin of a natural woodland. 



All in all it is the most meritori- 
ous of the apples as well as one 
of the most desirable of small 
trees. 

Now to assemble the attributes 
and emphasize the fitness of our 
old and newly acquired friends. We 
have found them to be hardy, 
sturdy and far from exacting in 
their requirements. Their adapta- 
tion to a wide field of usefulness 
is evident and their fitness to their 
particular tasks goes without say- 
ing, whether it is to gladden a 
garden or lawn as specimens, to 
enliven the back-ground of shrub- 
bery to add cheer to a screen or 
boundary planting, or to brighten 
the borders or open glades of some 
native woodland. Their beauty is 
beyond portrayal. The rose with 
its suffused fragrance and its deli- 
cate splendor is no rival when 
their branches arch beneath the 
many llowers, all modest in the 
presence of their own wonderful 
coloring. 



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THE GARDEN AND FIELD. 



StptciniM'i', i y 1 2 



Oidium on Vines. 



In wet seasons the mildew 
known as Oodium tuekcri causes 
considerable drainage among vinos, 
but this loss can be almost en- 
tirely avoided by systematic dust- 
ing of the plants with Hour of 
sulphur. Some practical remarks 
on this ■■ subject werejmade at lyvn- 
doch recently by Mr. .1. Woolcock, 
who read the following paper be- 
fore members of the local agricul- 
tural bureau : — Oidium is a mould 
that grows exclusively on the outer 
tissues of the vines, and attacks 
only the green organs of the 
plant, viz., young shoots, buds, 
leaves, tendrils, flowers, berries, 
and stalks. It appears first as a 
dirty white efflorescence, extending 
like "a thin film, and possessing a 
characteristic mouldly smell. After 
the attacked wood has become 
ripe and hard the imjprints of 
oidium may be seen as-' dark brown 
patches on the surface of the bark, 
which is not gnawed through as 
in the case of anthraenose black 
spot. The wood is liable to dry 
up in winter, and should never be 



Selected cither for. cuttings or as 
scions for grafting. Very often 
the invasion occurs after blossom- 
ing, and in that case 'it mostly ait- 
tacks the leaves and bunches. 
Should it appear early, and un- 
less proper attention is paid in 
due time, it will cause the flowers 
to abort. The tender leaves are 
the first and the most seriously 
attacked, the disease showing pre- 
ferably on the under surface. Its 
mesh-work of microscopic shreds 
or filaments) spread around them, 
attld tlu v soon shrivel and dry up, 
while their full power as organs 
of evaporation and of assimilation 
of some of the constituents of the 
air is seriously impeded, and the 
must of grapes coming from af- 
fected vines' is, never so rich as in 
tire case of well-matured and 
healthy grapes. It is the berry, 
however, .that the fungus seems to 
most particularlv cherish. They 
are either entirely or partially 
covered with a whitish greasy 
powder, which at first can be 
rubbed off without leaving any 
trace, but which, after a few days, 
when the powdery mould has 
taken a greyish tint, leaves, when 



rubbed off,, little black specks on 
the surface of the skin. The effect 
of , the fungus on the skin is to 
tighten it and prevent it from 
stretching, so that the berries 
cither dry up or burst open. The 
ripening does not progress satis- 
factorily ; the. berries assume a 
dull and sickly color after thev 
have turned, and are none too 
good for making wine, as they 
have a mouldy taste. Oidium, as 
a rule, flourishes best in localities 
where the atmosphere is generally 
warm, moist, and muggy, while it 
is not so troublesome in a hot 
and dry climate. Again, some 
varieties of vines are more sus- 
ceptible to the disease than others, 
and the vincgrower should watch 
in the spring and early summer 
lor possible invasion. All vine- 
growers are acquainted with 
oidium, and a great majority know 
that sulphur is the best remedy 
for the pest. A great many, 
however, may not be aware that 
there is a form under which sul- 
phur is more active for that pur- 
pose, and also that the state of 
the wieather and the time of day 
when the application is mjade have 



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September, 1912 THE GARDEN AND FIELD. 



I direct influence upon the efficacy 
of the remedy. Atmospheric con- 
ditions have a considerable influ- 
ence over the growth of oidium. 
A warm temperature favors its 
growth, but great heat, such as 
when the thermometer rises up to 
9.s deg. Fahr., stops the progress 
of the fungus, which actuallv dies 
k out when the temperature reaches 
113 deg. Far., though its debris, 
when the circumstances become 
favorable, soon cause a new in- 
vasion. It is often noticed, espe- 
cially in warm districts, where 
the temperature close to the sur- 
face of the soil is verv high owing 
to the radiation of heat, that the 
lower leaves, as well as the 
bunches that hang prettv low, are 
free from the disease, while on high 
trellises under' similar circum- 
stances, it is seen to blight the 
vine and wither the crop. Experi- 
ments conducted in all parts of 
the world have conclusively de- 
monstrated the action of sulphur 
against oidium, and powdered sul- 
phur, as well as flour of culphur, 
is now used everywhere. It is not 
necessary, moreover, to bring the 
particles of sulphur into immedi- 
ate contact with the spores and 
fungus threads to effect their des- 
truction, as the fumes which this 
substance in a fine condition emits 
at elevated temperatures, and es- 
peciallv by exposure to the sun 
and heat, are the only active 
agents of destruction of the mould. 
Under the action of heat the sul- 
phur is oxidised, and sulphurous 
acid is formed, which is an emin- 
ent insecticide and mould des- 
troyer. That action, it has been 
noticed, is more pronounced when 
the sky is clear and without 
clouds than in a diffused li<jht. 
In Places where the temperature 
of the soil rises as hi{{h as no 
deg. Far., spreading the sulphur 
on the ground under the vines is 
sufficient to accomplish the des- 
truction of the fungus. Sulphur- 
ing, to be efficacious, must be used 
&s a preventive. If the treatment 
is ^elaved until the formation of 
the fruits of the fungus it is not 
likt-lv to do much good, for, al- 
though it may destroy the mvce- 
Hal threads, the seeds of the 
fnnjrus are too well protected 
within their hard coverings to be 
injured by the application. The 
best time for sulphuring is early 
in spring, when the shoots are 4 
fas. lon^ ; then a^ain just about 
the time of blossoming, as how- 
ever well the applications m-v 
lave been made, it is almost cer- 
tain that some of the terminal 
cells of the mvcelial threads swol- 
len and filled with a transparent 
granular matter, will escape des- 
truction. These, with spores 



brought from othen vineyards:, may 
bring a new infection in about 
three weeks' time. At this) period 
the blossoms may be rendered 
sterile bv the threads of the 
oidium covering the newlv-expand- 
ed flowers and causing them to 
abort. A third application should 
be made a few days before the 
turning of the berries. In wet sea- 
sons, or in a moist district, as 
manv as five and sometimes six 
sulphurings mav be necessarv, and 
no hard-and-fast rule can be laid 
down for each application. The 
person in charge should use his 
judgment and sulphur more especi- 
allv the varieties most subject to 
oidium until the pest has com- 
pletely disappeared. There are 
manv ways in which it can be ap- 
plied, i.e., by a piece of branbag 
held bv the four corners and 
shaken over the vines, a dredging 



157 

A. F. TELFER. 

Produce and General 

House and Land Agent. 



SANTO BLDGS.. WAYMOUTH ST. 



box similar to a flour dredge, or 
a sulphur bellows. The bellows are 
most widely used, and most effec- 
tive, as the operator can get at 
the underside of the foliage where 
the disease will appear first. Last 
season I saw some very bad cases 
of oidium on vines, and the owners 
did not know what the trouble 
was. It was then too late to 
apply the sulphur with a view of 
saving the fruit. 



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September. 191 Si 



Sweet Potatoes. 



Under the above title a very 
useful and interesting pamphlet 
(Fanners' Bulletin 324) has lattly 
been issued by the United States 
Department of Agriculture. It 
contains a good deal of informa- 
tion as to the climatic and soil 
conditions needed by the sweet 
potato .rop, the fertilizers that are 
most suitable, methods of prepar- 
ing the land and setting out the 
plants, after-cultivation, harvest- 
ing of the produce, different 
varieties, etc., as well as details 
in relation to storing the crop. 

Sweet potatos thrive best on ai 
moderately fertile, sandv loam, 
which does not contain an excess 
of organic matter. Farmers in 
the Southern States of America 
put a special value on the crop be- 
cause it is one that can be grown 
upon soils which are too poor for 
the production of the majority of 
farm crops. 

Good drainage is essential for 
the successful cultivation of sweet 
potatos. When the soil is too 
loose the potatos tend to be long 
and irregular in shape. For this 
reason it is not advisable to plough 
more deeply than 6 or 8 inches in 
preparing the land, since the best 
shaped potatos are produced in a 
fairly loose surface soil overlying a 
firm subsoil. 

Abundant application of organic 
fertilizers has been found to stimu- 
late the growth of the potato 
vines at the expense of the roots. 
It is not advisable therefore to 
apply heavy dressings of farm 
manure directly to the. crop. Such 
dressings should, in preference, be 
ploughed into the soil with the 
crop of the previous season. As a 
general rule sweet potatoes will 
pay for judicious manuring with 
artificial fertilizers. It is recom- 
mended that a mixed fertilizer 
suitable for use on most sweet 
potato lands should contain from 
3 to 6 per cent, of nitrogen, 6 or 

7 per cent, of phosphoric acid, and 

8 to ia per cent, of potash. Such 
a mixture as the following would 
meet the above requirements : 
200 lb. of high-grade sulpate of 
ammonia, 200 lb. of dried blood, 
1,200 lb. of superphosphate, and 
400 lb. of high-grade muriate of 
potash. Experience has indicated 
the necessity of having an abundant 
supplv of potash in order to secure 
the best return with the sweet 
potato crop. In manuriaf e2peri- 
ments with the crop, the applica- 
tion of potash has resulted in an 
increased field of from 40 to 60 
per cent. When large quantities 



of artificial manure are given, it is 
better to distribute the fertilizer 
at least ten days before planting 
and thoroughly to incorporate it 
with the soil, than to apply it in 
the row at the time the crop is 
being planted. Sweet potator are 
regularly propagaited by vine cut- 
tings from which the next crop is 
is raised from ' seed ' potatos, 
which are in some cases cut in 
several pieces, and planted in the 
row where the plants are to 
mature, or more frequently, allowed 
to sprout and grow for some time 
in the soil, and the vines so pro- 
duced, taken and divided into cut- 
tings from which the next crop is 
obtained. Propagation by vine 
cuttings is, of course, as a general 
rule, cheaper and more convenient, 
but the results of experiments 
haive shown that it is advisable 
occasionally to have recourse to 
planting ' seed ' potatos, since the 
crop certainly tends to fall off in 
yield when reproduced from vine 
cuttings only, vear after vear in 
succession. 

Small potatoes onlv need be used 
for planting purposes, or for the 
production of vine cuttings. They 
should, however, be uniform in 
size, and of the shape desired in 
the following crop, 

Land that is best suited for 
sweet potatos growing is easy to 
cultivate, and thorough prepara- 
tion of the soil will be repaid by 
increased return, and greater ease 
in handling the crop later. Sweet 
potatos can well be grown in a 
rotation which includes cotton and 
a green forage, crop, such a cow- 
peas, beans, etc. 

In many parts of the Southern 
States sweet potatos are grown on 
land in the level condition, which 
has not been raised into hills. The 
vine cuttings or voung plants .are 
set out about 24 to 30 inches 
apart each way, so that from 7,000 
to tt,oo plants are required per 
acre. Where the crop is grown on 
ridees, or hills, it is customary to 
have the ridges, from 36 1 o 42 
inches apart, from centre to centre, 
and to place the plants 14 to 18 
inches apart in the rows. It is 
alwavs well to plant the crop 
when the conditions are most suit- 
able to a ciuick start into growth, 
either just before a rain, or as 
soon afterwards as the land can be 
worked, since the sweet potato 
plant is one which responds readily* 
to a moist condition of the soil. 

After-cultivation of the crop con- 
sists chiefly in hoeing for the 
purpose of maintaining: a mulch of 
loose surface soil, and for keeping 
down weeds. This surface cultiva- 



tion should receive attention, more 
especially when the soil is drying 
after showers of rain, since at 
that time the upper layer tends to 
cake. — " Agricultural News." 



PROPAGATION OF SWEET 
POTATOES. 

In a later issue we $ead that 
in order to desmonstrate the ad- 
visability of occasionally having 
recourse to the tuber in the propa- 
gation of sweet potatos, and the 
bad economy of continuing, year 
after vear, to plant vine cuttings 
from crops which have been them- 
selves grown fron vine cuttings, 
some trials were carried out at 
one of the Cuban Experiment 
Stations. 

In these tests, sweet potatos of 
the same variety were grown 
on adjacent plots which received 
identical treatment in all respects. 
In one case, however, the crop was 
grown from vine cuttings which 
had been raised in this way con- 
tinuously for many generations, 
while in the second case planting 
was made with slips grown direct- 
ly from potatos themselves. The 
plots planted with slips returned 
a crop three and a half times as 
great as the plots planted with 
cuttings. It is evident that the 
gain of 350 per cent, fully repaid 
the extra expense and trouble in- 1 
volved. 

€> 

Nitrogen as a Plant Food. 

No plant food is of more im- 
portance than nitrogen, since this 
is the element removed from the 
soil in largest quantity by the 
great majority of crops. The 
available supply of nitrogen in 
most soils, too, is very readily 
exhausted by continuous crop 
growing, and it is the most costly 
of manurial elements to replace. 
As most planters are aware, an 
economical method of increasing 
the store of nitrogen in the soil is 
by including in the rotation an 
occasional crop of leguminous 
plants, such as cow peas, velvet 
beams, ground nuts, etc., which 
thus serves a double purpise. The 
following notes dealing with the 
subject of nitrogen as a plant 
food, are taken from a lengthy 
article entitled ' Relation of Nutri- 
tion to the Health of Plants,' that 
appeared in the Yearbook of the 
United States Department of 
A griculture : — 

Nitrogen is an important con- 
stituent both of plant and animal 
food. It is essential to the forma- 
tion of albuminoids and of various 
constituents of the protoplasm or 



September, 1912 



THE GARDEN AND FIELD. 



159 



living substance of the plant. By 
_ far the most important source of 
nitrogen for most agricultural 
crops under ordinary circum- 
stances, is the nitrates of the soil. 
The main source of nitrogen in the 
I soil, besides the decay of organic 
matter, is the fixation of the nitro- 
gen of the atmosphere through the 
agency of micro-organisms. Though 
about 75 per cent, of the volume 
of the air is nitrogen, it does not 
become available to ordinary crops. 
In the case of leguminous crops, 
however, nitrogen is absorbed by 
micro- organisms, and converted 
into nitrates or some other high 
nitrogen compound which can then 
be utilized as plant food by the 
growing crop. Many varieties of 
bacteria and fungi have been found 
which can absorb free nitrogen if 
thev are furnished with carbohy- 
drate food. This is usually derived, 
from decomposing vegetable matter 
or from living root cells. The 
bacteria live on, or in, the roots 
of the leguminous plants, forming 
swellings or tubercles on them. 
The great importance of this to 
agriculture is at once apparent, 
and the studv of the conditions 
favouring the growth of these 
beneficial mico-organisms is of the 
highest practical value. 

The lack of a sufficient supply of 
nitrogen to growing plants is 
usually manifested bv reduced leaf 
and stem growth on the part of 
the crop, and a tendency to the 
production of flowers and fruit at 
a very earlv period, though the 
amount of fruit produced is cor- 
respondingly small. In this respect 
the effect of a lack of nitrogen . is 
similar to that of a lack of water. 
On the other hand, an excess of 
nitrogen acts likie an excess of 
water, stimulating the production 
of vegetative growth at the ex- 
pense of flowers and fruit. This 
growth is rich in nitrogenous 
matter and water, and is very 
easily injured bv unfavourable con- 
ditions. It is a well- known fact, 
for example, that many cereal 
crops have not only soft leaves 
and weak stems under such condi- 
tions, but the plants are more 
subject to rust and mildew, and 
various other parasitic diseases. 
This is true, not only of cereals, 
wut practically of all ordinary 
plants. In culture under glass 
these conditions can be controlled 
and remedied, but in the field it 
is more difficult. Drainage and 
methods of cultivation also in a 
measure afford means of check t r 
rapid and succulent growth in wet 
seasons. 

Besides these general effects of 
the lack or excess of nitrogen on 
growth, attention should be directed 



to some obscure diseases where 
nitrogen assimilation appears to 
be involved. Among these may be 
mentioned 1 mosaic ' disease of 
tobacco, winter blight of tomatos, 
' die back ' of the orange, and 
California vine disease. As al- 
ready stated, plants obtain most 
of their nitrogen through the ab- 
sorption of nitrates bv the roots. 
The dilute solutions pass up 
through the stem to the leaves, 
where, through the aid of the 
chlorophyll, the nitric acid unites 
with sugars to form the more 
highly organized nitrogen com- 
pounds such as amides and pro- 
teids, which serve as food for the 
growing cells. the young cells 
cannot use the original isoil nitrates 
any more than animals can, so 
that if anything interferes with the! 
process of proteid organization, 
nitrogen starvation will folfow. 
even in the presence of large 
quantities of nitrate. For the 
organization of proteids, sugars 
are required, and sugar cannot be 
produced unless the • chloroplasts 
are in good working order, and 
exposed to light and heat of the 
proper intensity. The proper 
mineral nutrients — lime, potash, 
phosphoric acid, magnesium, iron, 
etc., must always be present. With 
insufficient light or heat there is 
no proteid formation from nitrates, 
neither is there any in albino leaves 
or those devoid of chlorophyll. In 
both of these cases, therefore, 
nitrates accumulate in the plant. 
With the renewal of the activity of 
the chloroplasts the accumulation 
of nitrates is gradually worked up 
into proteids, except, of course, in 
albino leaves, where the chloroplastsi 
may have permanently lost their 
functional activity. In such cases 
the cells usually remain com- 
paratively rich in nitrates. 

It is known from experimental 
investigation that a large excess 
in nitrates mav in itself cause a 
yellowing in the assimilation. At 
first, plants overfed with nitrate of 
soda, or other strong nitrogenous 
fertilizer, become a brighter green 
and btow rapidly, but as the 
nitrates accumulate in the cells 
faster than it is used, the leaves 
besnn to turn yellow on the ed^es 
and along the vascular bundles. 
fTowth is checked and the nlant 
dies back. This is especially likelv 
to happen in the case of crops that 
are not gross feeders. Yellowing 
f»«d death of the edges of leaves 
i'thoufh not following a stimulated 
growth) is caused bv an over- 
apnlication of almost anv quicklv 
soluble salt ( potash, sodium 
chloride, etc.y In the case of the 
orange, it has been observed that 
the disease known as ' die back ' 



appears to be greatly favoured, if 
not caused, by excessive fertiliza- 
tion with organic manures rich in 
nitrogen. It is not known whether 
nitrogen from mineral fertilizers 
has the same effect. 

Webber also observes that on 
the poor sandy soils of Florida, 
sulphate of ammonia and nitrate 
of soda stimulate not only vegeta 
tive growth of the orange, but the 
production of fruit as well, while 
organic manures are more likely 
to stimulate vegetable growth at 
the expense of fruit, the fruit pro- 
duced with organic nitrogen toeing 
coarser, thicker skinned, and of 
poorer quality than when mineral 
fertilizers are used. Farm manure 
acts in this way like organic 
manures, as might be expected. — 
" Agricultural News." 



A. F. TELFER. 

Produce and General 

House and Land Agent. 



SANTO BLDGS., WAYMOUTH ST. 




160 THE GARDEN AND FIELD. 

Vegetable Garden. 



Notes for September. 



Spring work now commences in 
earnest everywhere. In ihe earlier 
districts, of course, it commenced 
in August, and m|any things are 
well advanced, such as early 
tomatoes, earlv cucumbers, and so 
on ; but, if things be done pro- 
perly, the man who starts now 
will not he far behind the one 
who went to work in the wet 
weather. It is little use sowing 
cucumbers or tomatoes or melons 
in the open till the end of the 
month. Hut if the bed be well 
prepared and plenty of suitable 
manure put underneath, forming a 
mild hot-bed, seeds planted at once 
will germinate, and get a good 
start. Of course, early tomato 
plants should be now ready for 
planting out. If you have not got 
any ready, it is advisable to buy 
a few plants from the nursery- 
men. 

I have frequently written about 
the advantage, or shall I say ab- 
solute necessity of properly j re- 
paring the ground for all crops, 
but I cannot refrain from again 
emphasising this most important 
point. I would sooner have one 
eucumjber plant on a well prepared 
bed than a dozen put in care- 
lessly, and the same applies to 
other vegetables. For the home 
garden mv advice is, grow a few 
plants and grow them well. You 
will thus get more pleasure and 
better results with very much less 
work. The advice applies with 
double force in a market garden. 

If not already done, make a 
sowing of French beans in early 
districts as quickly as possible 
after reading these notes. Work 
the ground well, manure it well, 
raise it well above the surround- 
ing bed to get drainage and 



Schmidt ft Catchlove 

106 Angas Street, Adelaide. 

GENERAL ENGINEERS. 

Makers of all classes of PUMPS. 
Specialists in Oil, Gas, and Petrol 
ENGINES. 



Repair Works and Tool Makers 
'Phon. 316}. 



warmth,, and you should have 
French beans ill November. 

For the early beds of French 
beans try and choose a sunny 
spot, and not only raise the bed 
slighth above the surrounding sur- 
face, but, if possible, slope it to- 
wards the north. 

Make sowings of red and white 
beet, spinach, capsicums, New Zea- 
land spinach, tomatoes, cucumbers, 
sweet ,uid water melons, marrows, 

pumpkins, trom'bones, sugar mai/.e, 

radishes, lettuce, turnips, mustard, 
and cress, etc. 

In the earlv districts make a 
final planting oi cabbages, onions, 
and Potatoes, and in late districts, 
on well drained soil, make the first 
planting of these same vegetables. 
1 Ma nt sweet potatoes where the 
conditions are suitable. These are 
a sandv soil and sufficient summer 
moisture. The sweet potato should 
become a verv popular vegetable in 
South Australia, for which both 
soil and climate in very many 
places are suitable. 

Keep down the weeds ; keep the 
soil movingr a nd light. It does not 
matter so much about earthing 
up potatoes, but it does matter 
about keeping the soil loose, and, 
if the potatoes are inclined to 
be near the surface, then thev 
should either be mulched or 
earthed up. 

Don't forget a bed of sweet 
corn, this most neglected and 
most delicious of summer veget- 
ables. This, again, is a vegetable 
which should be very largely 
grown where water is available. 

It is too late for peas and 
broad beans in the early districts, 
but in late districts crops should 



September, 1912 

be sown freely. In later districts 
cabbages, cauliflowers, and celery 
will be transplanted from now 
onwards. The onion crop will be 
put out, and at the end of the 
mouth the first sowings of French 
beans, capsicums, tomatoes, cu- 
cumbers may be sown in warmer 
localities, but October will be soon 
enough in many places. 

<$> 

Storing Lemons. 



Lemons for storing should be 
cut from the tree, not pulled, and 
handled as careifully as eggs ; thev 
should be gathered just as thev 
are becoming yellow and ripe. 
After picking, they should be al- 
lowed to stand well exposed in 
some building, until the surplus 
moisture has evaporated from; the 
skin, and the latter has become 
toughened. This may take from 
five to ten days, according to the 
weather. The sun should not be 
allowed to shine on them after 
thev are taken to the store room. 
The air should never be allowed 
to strike any of the fruit when 
once it is stored away, so thatj it 
is necessary to stack the fruit 
close together in the centre of the 
room, leaving just room enough 
to walk around. Old bags may 
be hung around the sides of the 
stacks, then the tops of all stacks 
of cases should be covered with 
boards or< trays, after the fruit has 
been covered with bags, so that 
neither light nor currents of air 
may find their way into the; fruit. 
The cases should be lined with 
paper, and, if each individual fruit 
is wrapped in soft paper, so much 
the better. — " Exchange." 



Prospective Purchaser — " You say 
this is a healthy place, yet the man 
next door is confined to his bed. How 
do you account for that ?" House 
Agent— <" Oh, he's a doctor and is 
slowly dying of starvation." 



Rubberised Leather Belting. 

outlasts all other kinds and is not affected by water or heat. 

RUBBERISED LEATHER for Harness, boots, etc., is second to none. 
Read what Mr. Chris. Venning, of " Pearlah," Port Lincoln, says : 

" The RUBBERISED LEATHER Harness that I purchased three years ago 
has been pretty well in constant use, and is none the worse for wear now. 
Belt Laces, bought same time, I used for two seasons for lacing Harvester 
belts and now I am using same laces on a Chaffcutter Belt ; toughest I 
ever used. Braces bought the same time are as good as new, and will last 
me a lifetime. Boot laces and Soles carry same reputation, and now the 
boots, just received, highly satisfactory. I shall have much pleasure ia 
recommending RUBBERISED LEATHER to all my friends." 

From all storekeepers. For further particulars, 

HELMSLEY JONES, Basement, Victoria Buildings, 31 Grenfell Street, 

Adelaide. 

Sole agent for South Australia and Broken Hill, 



eptember, IB 12. 



THE GARDEN AND FIEflLD. 



"101 



Pollination of Tomatoes. 



The question of the pollination 
tomatos has been undergoing' in- 
:stigation at a number of Ex- 
rirnent Stations in the United 
tates, and the results obtained 
•e distinctly interesting. The re- 
>rt on the work done is suin- 
aiized as follows in Farmers' 
ulletin 317 of the United States 
:partment of Agriculture : — 

As far back as 1890-1 it was 
und at the Cornell Station that 



VITADATIO. 

The well-known remedv that wili 
re Chest Trou'iLs, Hydatids, Rlieu- 
itism, Tumours, Liver 1 and Kidney 
seases, Eczema, Indigestion,* etc. 

Vitadatio cures are PERMANENT. 

Read what Mrs. Webster says about 
r CURE :— " 9 Marshall St., New- 
arket, Jan. 10, 1912. To Mr. S. A. 
ilmer, Vitadatio, Melbourne. — Dear 
lline you how I had been cured of 
y-datids and Gall Stones through 
king Vitadatio. I have met with 
ir, — About 12 years ago I wrate 
veral people lately to whom I have 
commended your Great Remedy, and 
want you to know how thankful I 
n that I met you. and how anxious 
am that those who suffer as I did 
lould know wh>)t n crro-t chance 
lere is of gettina cured. I have no- 
ling to gain by writing vou this, and 
would not write it if there was any 
)ubt about my cure, but I think 
r ery sufferer should know what Vita- 
itio has done for me. I am now 
ell and heartv. and have reared a 
;milv of four children since. I would 
>t have been alive to-day if it had 
it heen for Vitadatio. If anv on- 
ould like to call and see m°, I w ; ll 
e glad to tell them all about my cure, 
ours truly — fRifmern Mrs. H. Web- 
ter. Witn°s«— William Davies. 

Mr. S. A. Palmer has had 10 vears' 
tperience in England, curing cases 
lat have baffled the great specialists 
iere. 

Tf vou are a sufferer, write for full 
■rticulars about VITA.OATTO. Tt 
ill cost you nothing to get all full 
tformation. 

old by Chemists and Storps at 3/0 
and 5/6 bottle. 

ead office — 439 Flinders Lane, Melb., 
Victoria. 



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191 GRENFELL STREET 
(opp. New Market). 

Trolly, Dray, and Buggy Builder, 

Wheelwright and General Smith. 
'mng done daily. Hones Shod. 
A TRIAL SOLICITED. 



the amount of pollen used in fer- 
tilization of the tomato flower had 
an important influence on the form 
and size of the fruit produced. 
More recently these results have 
been confirmed at the Michigan 
Station, where it has also been 
shown that no decided advantage 
was gained bv the cross-pollina- 
tion of varieties as compared with 
self - pollination. Four plants of 
each of six varieties were employed 
to determine the effects of using 
varying amounts of pollen. All 
the flowers on one plant of each 
variety were emasculated and 
pollinated on one side of the 
stigma only. These invariably 
produced lopsided and small fruits. 
All the flowers on one plant of 
each varistv were pollinated with 
from one to five pollen graiins. 
These produced very small solid 
fruits, with an average weight of 
about 1 oz., and having no seeds, 
or but one or two. All the flowers 
on one plant of each variety were 
pollinated with a large amount of 
pollen, spread all over the stigma. 
These produced fruits that were 
smother and heavier than those 
produced from flowers that received 
but a small amount of pollen. The 
conclusions deduced from these ex- 
periments are that when pollen 
falls on one side of the stigma 
onlv, a one sides tomato always 
results, and the larger the sigma 
the greater the irretuilaritv. The 
amount of pollen applied determines 
to a great extent the size, 
and smoothness of the tomato, 
but after a certain amount no 
further increase cam be obtained. 
The small, irregular tomatos 
grown under glass are caused 
largely by insufficient pollination. 

With a view to throwing some 
light on the relative value of cross 
and self-pollination, the blossoms 
of four plants of each variety were 
cross-pollinated with two other 
varieties. All set fruit eqjuallv 
well. The 265 fruits produced 
from cross-pollination on all six 
varieties had an average weight of 
79 t grammes. There was, there- 
fore, practically no gain in the 
total number of cross-pollinated 
fruits, but a slight gain in weight. 
Although it does not appear 
necessary to raise several varieties 
for the purpose of cross-pollination, 
there is no harm in altematinsr 
such varieties as are grown, and 
in some cases a possible benefit, 
such as a slight increase in weight 
may l>e obtained. All the experi- 
ments, however, show that the 
setting of a good crop of smooth, 
heavy fruit depends largely on the 
distribution of the pollen. — "Agri- 
cultural News." 



A RECORD ! 

AULDANA 
WINES . . 

in competition against all 

AUSTRALIA 

at ADELAIDE WINE SIIOWS. 



19+4. CHAMPION CUP f*r 

HOCK 

1806. CHAMPION CUP lot 

CLARET 

1906. CHAMPION CUP for 

SHERRY 

Besides also many 

FIRST PRIZES 

too numerous to mention 
Town Office : 

Australasia Chambers, 
King Wm. St., Adelaide. 

Vineyards a»d Cellars : 

Magi 11, South Australia 



162 

The Black Currant. 



This is quite a distinct fruit 
from the red or white currant, 
and requires an entirely different 

mode of treatment. It succeeds 
best in rich, moist soil, thriving 
will m .1 coal, somewhat shaded 
position. A thorough preparation 
of the land before planting, by 
either bastard trenching or plough- 
ing and subsoil in»-, is essential. 
Although delighting in an abund- 
ance of moisture, the black cur- 
rant will not thrive in a water- 
logged soil, the roots being des- 
ii- ■ ' hv too much water. There- 
fore in wet situations draining is 
liecessary. The black currant be- 
ing a ross feeder, an abundance of 
plant food is required to produce 
fruit of the finest quality. Farm- 
yard manure, where procurable at 
a reasonable cost, is to be pre- 
ferred, but where it} is necessary to 
apply a special fertiliser, this 
should be rich in nitrogen and 
potash. As it is also a fibrous 
surface-rooting bush, digging or 
deep cultivation of the ground 
after planting must be avoided ; 
hoeing and surface-tilling only be- 
in"" necessary, to destroy weeds 
and keep a loose friable surface. 



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NORTH ADELAIDE... 

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Buggy, Spring Cart, Yankee, and Cab 
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Trusses, Bandasrei, Kneecaps, Leather 
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Commonwealth. Fit Guaranteed. 



LADY IN ATTENDANCE 



WATCHMAKERS, JEWELLERS and 
OPTICIANS. 



J. TROWBRIDGE 

(15 years with Stevenson Bros.) 
57 GOUGER STREET, ADELAIDE. 



Engagement and Wedding Rings are 
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A splendid assortment of WATCHES 
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Repairs a Speciality aod Guaran- 
teed. A Trial Solicited. 



THE GtARDEN AND FIELD. 

Fertilizers should be applied, as a 
mulch onlv, audi where ■nitilicial 
manure is used it should be Lightly 
cultivated in. 

The black currant is easily pro- 
pagated 1>\ cuttings. These should 
be made about i>ins. long, cutting 
tlie lower end square* off dose to 
a bud, also cutting oil the top to 
make them branch out. Cuttings 
may be made from a healthy\ one- 
v ear-old shoot any time after the 
fall of the leaf. None of the buds 
should be removed. Thev should 
then be planted in rows iKins. or 
so apart, a few inches from cut- 
ting to cutting, and about Xins. 
dee]). Three or four of the upper- 
most buds will then, start into 
growth in the spring, and by the 
following autumn should have pro- 
duced shoots from i2ins. to iSins. 
long. These one-vcar-old bushes 
should be removed and planted in 
their permanent positions, ,sft. 
apart on the square being the 
minimum distance. This must be 
regulated bv the method of culti- 
vation intended. When the plant- 
ing is finished, cut the branches 
well back, leaving but three or 
four buds at the base of each 
shoot : this will cause a vigorous 
growth of healthv vqung wood for 
the follow inv season. All the prun- 
ing necessary for the second sea- 
son after planting- will be thinning 
out where branches are crowded, 
leaving the centre of the bush 
fair!-- open. Do not shorten back 
any of the branches left. 

Since the black currant produces 
its finest fruit on the new wood 
— that is to say, wood of the pre- 
viousi year's growth — not on spurs, 
it must be the aim of the cultiva- 
tor to keep his trees, well furnished 
with this description of wood. 
To do this it is necessary, when 
pruning, after the bushes are es- 
tablished, to cut out the old wood 
that has, produced a crop, to make 
room for the young; growth. In 
removino- the old wood cut well 
back to a healthy bud, which will 
develop into a shoot or branch 
to carry a crop of fruit the follow- 
ing season. Always leave the 
strongest and healthiest of the 
young wood to bear the crop, 
cutting out, the weakly growths, 
finally leaving the branches five 
or six inches apart. If this sys- 
tem is properly carried out black 
currants will continue to produce 
heavy crops of fine fruit for many 
years. 

An advantage to be gained 
from leaving all the buds when 
making the cuttings is that, as 
the bushes get older, suckers are 
sent un from the base, and, as the 
best fruit is produced on young 
wood, these suckers are beneficial; 



September, 1912 

all that is necessary when pruning 
is a judicious thinning-out ol tht 

same to prevent crowding. 

An additional advantage in dis- 
tricts whejre the borer is prevalent 
is the abundance of young wood, 
enabling the grower to cut out 
almost all the two-year-old wood, 
besides leaving plenty of voting 
wood to select from ; thus he is 
able to overcome to a great ex- 
tent the ravages of this pernicious 
pest. — New Zealand Journal. 
<S> 

Keeping Fruit. 



Although many of the experi- 
ments that have been made at dif- 
ferent times with a view to pro 
longins? t the keeping qualities ■ 
fresh fruit have not proved to ■ 
all that may be desired from j 
commercial standpoint, yet man' 
of them are of value. It has beei 
shown beyond doubt that th 
decay of ripe fruit is generally du 
to the, presence of bacteria on th 
outer surface of the fruit. With i 
view to destroying these agent 
the use of formalin has frequent! 
been resorted to, and althoug 
often used at various strengths, i 
is no doubt beneficial in extendin 
the period over which the rip 
fruit mav be preserved. Recen 
experiments at the Kew labors 
torv (London, have partly detei 
mined the length of duration ov* 
which some of the smaller fruit 
and berries may be kept in goo 
condition. A number of goos» 
berries were recently immersed fc 
ten minutes in cold water contaii 
i n £ 7 P er cent, of commercial fo 
malin, after removal thev wei 
placed in ordinary fresh water fc 
live minutes before being place 
on wire-netting travs to dry. Tl 
fruit wais purchased through tl 
ordinary channels of distributic 
from a retail' shop, and, althouj; 
it was perfectly ripe at the t<im 
it was found that it kiept in goc 
condition for from four to sey 
davs after similar fruit purchase 
at the same time had decaye 
Strawberries and grapes immersf 
in the solution were kept in . ft 
fectb- sound condition for w 
davs after the untreated fruit ha 
become mouldy. Cherries' at 
gooseberries remain firm for sew 
davs longer than untreated frui 
Other experiments conducted at ti 
same time showed that, while thi| 
had a beneficial effect upon t! 
fruit, they were by no means 
effective in prolonging the keepii 
power of the specimens treate 
and also that the cost of trea 
ment bv means of the formal 
solution was very considerably k' 
than bv other methods. 



September, 1912 



THE GARDEN AND FIELD. 



163 



@ The Farm 9 



Rhodes Grass. 



The name Rhodes grass has been ap- 
plied to at least hvo members of the 
Chloris family, which has led to much 
confusion both among botanists and 
those who have given these two 
grasses practical trials in Cape Colony 
and New South Wales. Even Mr. 
•T. H. Maiden, Government botanist 
for New South Wales, fell into error, 
and for nearly a couple of vears used 
the popular name of Rhodes orass for 
Chloris virgata. Personally, I think 
the confusion in the names was in a 
great measure brought about by the 
fact that the late Mr. OcS Rhodes, 
who took a keen i-te — st 'n t'"- intro- 
duction of new species of grasses and 
in agriculture generally, had seeds of 
the Sweet grass of the Tranvaal col- 
lected and sown in large nat"h~s on 
his estate, " Groote Schur." near 
Capetown. The grass did well there, 
forming heavy sods of ^ood herbage, 
and the manager of the estate had 
the seed collected and distributed 
among the planters of Cape Colony, 
bv whom it was naturallv called 
Rhodes grass. However that may be, 
it is now generalh- accepted that the 
botanical name of Rhodes grass is 
Chloris gayana. while Chloris virgata 
is apnlied to the Zoet or Swee<t nrass 
of the Transvaal. A considerable 
amount of seed has been sold in Aus 
tralia under the oeneral name of 
Rhodes grass, and taking into con- 
sideration the confusion that has 
existed in regard to nomenclature, it 
woold be a hard matter without a 
botanical examination to say whether 
such seed is in reality C. gayana or 
C. virgata. 

The whole of the Chloris familv de- 
light in a warm climate, and mav be 
found through the troDics in both 
hemispheres so that it is doubtful if 
either of the two species under dis- 
cussion would thrive in any but the 
warmer portions of this country. 

Rhodes grass was first introduced 
into \Vw South Wales six years ago 
by Mr. Sylvester P.rown, of Minembah 
near Singleton. He raised a vigorous 
»lot of it on his own property, and 
besides freely distributing seeds, ac- 
cording to Mr. Maiden, sold large 
ouantities of it under the name of 
Chloria abyssinica. The Singleton 
district, it may be remarked, is not 
a place of high rainfall, and Is con- 
sidered rather cold in winter. 

For the benefit of those who are 
unacquainted with it, I must state 
that Rhodes grass is a hardv perennial 
of high feeding value, which on fair- 
ly moist land makes a rapid growth 
of five or six feet in summer. Its 
stems run along I he ground for 
several feet, and then grow upwards, 
rooting at the joints on the ground 
Under favourable conditions Rhodes 
grass is exceedingly hardy, and will 
produce a large quantity of feed, and 
it will undoubtedly pay stock-owners 



to give it a trial on suitable places. 
It is claimed tor it by many who 
have tried it that it is highly re- 
sistant to drought. 

Mr. C. T. Musson, of the Hawkes- 
bury Agricultural College, supplhs an 
interesting note in a recent number 
of the X.S.W. Gazette on the seed of 
Rhodes grass. He paints out that 
the flowers are small, and come away 
from the supporting stalks in two's 
and three's. If two, then only one 
good seed is usually formed. The 
sesds, which are remarkably small 
for the size of the grass, are spindle 
shaped and redish brown, the weak 
seeds being short and whitish. In 
size and numbers they come near the 
seeds of the Poas, and approximately 
!00,flflO plants may be obtainable from 
1 lb. of seed. 

In consequence of its having come 
so recently into cultivation, there is 
no guide in the use of this particular 
species as to quantity required for 
sowing. It is such a strong bulky- 
grass when well grown that there 
would seem little necessity to sow 
heavily ; more particularly so, seeing 
its capacity for " running " and root- 
ing at the nodes (joints). 

The main difficulty in using a small 
quantity would lie in the cohesive 
property that pertains to the bulk 
sample. Experiments might be tried 
in the matter of mixing it withsharo 
dry sand, or some one small seed, 
such as white clover or couch. Seeds 
used for such admixture should, how- 
ever, have the germ killed by baking 
or otherwise, and should be carefully 
and thoroughly mixed with the 
Rhodes before sowing. 

Ten BE*, of this seed per acre would 
provide ninety plants per square foot. 
Half the quantity would do, pro- 
vided a fairly even distribution 
could be obtained. This should be 
ample. In the long run, probably, 
only half a dozen would live on that 
area, those, getting the best start 
providing all the successful plants ; 
those coming on later would he 
smothered out by the earlier ones over- 
shadowing them. Still it is necessary 
fo put in much more seed than is 
actually required. 

Rhode.s grass should be sown with 
caution, for its creeping habit of 
growth might prove trouble j onie in 
certain situations, and its gen ral 
suitability to our climate has yet 
to be proved. Hut, like many oth r 
grasses, the best thing for every 
farmer to do is to test it on his own 
land in a sm'all experimental plot, 
when he can soon decide from persoual 
observation whether it is a grass that 
will prove profitable to grow. 

It has been stated by those who 
should be in a position to know that 
C. virgata is a far better grass than 
C. gayana. It, is a strong grower, 
yields heavily, is succulent and palat- 
able, grows in a dry season, and is 
Raid to be less affected by frost. 



As a sub-tropical grass, requiring 
warmth to germinate it, the seed 
should not be sown till late in spring 
and where small areas are to be 
dealt with it is better to 'sow in 
seed beds. The seed should be sown 
on the surface and patted down with 
the back of a spade, and in six or 
seven weeks, according to the weather 
the young plants will be strong en- 
ough to put out in their permanent 
situations. — The New Zealand Farmer 
Stork and Station Journal. 



'DURING THE HOT FATIGUING SUM- 
MER OR CHANGEABLE WINTER 
MONTHS TAKE CLEMENTS TONIC." 



Mr. William Pagdin, of 213 Parra- 
matta road, Leichhardt, writes on 
7/7/11, he had always been compelled 
during' the summer months to seek 
doctors' aid, until he took Clements 
Tonic. Now he writes thus : — 

CLEMENTS TONIC, LTD. 

For several years during the summer 
months I have had my system thorough- 
ly run down, and have been a martyr 
to dyspepsia. I have always been com- 
pelled during January and February to 
seek medical advice, and the doctor has 
always ordered absolute rest. I was 
told to take Clements Tonic, and I took 
one bottle, and found great relief. After 
taking the third bottle I went about my 
work with renewed health and vigour. 
Previously I felt work a drudgery, and 
had not even energy to take recreation. 
Everything seemed a burden. I could 
not eat, and never felt refreshed after 
sleep, until I took Clements Tonic. I 
cannot speak too highly of the efficacy 
of this tonic, and have r?commended it 
to several friends, who also have derived 
great benefit. When I feel out of sorts 
T always use it." 

"(Signed WM. PAGDIN." 



The value of Clements Tonic cannot 
be over-estimated. In cases of Poor 
Blood, Wasting Weakness, Debility Loss 
of Sleep, Poor Appetite, Biliousness. 
Sick Headache, Low Spirits, Insomnia 
(caused through worry), Constipation, 
Liver or Kidney Ailments, it is most 
reliable. All chemists and storrs sell 
it everywhere. Get it to-day. 



T. SHEPPARD 

WATCH IMPORTER. 
BOWMAN'S ARCADE, ADELAIDE. 

Sole Importer of the Famous 
Registered 

"Sheppo" Brand Watches. 

Silveroid Double-cased Keyless Chrono- 
meter Lever«, £1 10/-. Open Face, 
£1 5/-. Sheppo Double-cased Key- 
winders, £1 5/-. Open Face, £1 1/-. 
Sheppo Watches are Lifetime Watches, 
no other* so good. 



164 



THE GARDEN AND FIELD 



September, 1912. 



The Value of Lucerne. 

The value of lucerne in a general 
way has long been understood, 
but the full possibilities of this 
crop can scarcely be comprehend- 
ed, it wonderful prolificacy, its 
tenacity, its fertilizing properties, 
and its merits as forage are well 
known to manv farmers. But 
these, it appears, are only a few 
of the properties of this Wonderful 
plant. At first it was generally 
supposed that it would thrive <>nl\ 
by irrigation, and needed the best 
of all soils and a very complete 
rainfall to establish proper growth 
Subsequent experiments have, how 
ever, convinced many farmers that 
ft can be grown successfully over 
a large proportion of our agricul- 
tural areas, where soil and rain- 
fall arc reasonably propitious, 
Such being the case it is gratify- 
ing to observe that each year the 
area devoted to lucerne has been 
enlarged. Besides being a perfect 
food for horses, cattle, sheep, pigs, 
and poultry, its chief virtue — and 
the one that is pronounced to be 
of most importance— is that which 
gives it its value as a fertilizer. 
Luoerne has the faculty of gather- 
ing nitrogen from the air for its 
own support, and the surplus is 



added to the soil. It is a deep 
Feeder, its roots penetrating the 
earth to extraordinary depths, 
drawing toward the surface and 
1 1 1 i'J i / i n > ■ moisture and valuable 
mineral elements that other crops 
would never reach, leaving the de- 
sirable elements there for future 
crops of all kinds. By capillary 
attraction these roots and rootlets 
draw up moisture from below the 
surface until the top soil becomes 
modified and the nature of the 
paddock changed. The chemical 
analysis of a cubic foot of earth 
of a llourishiiv lucerne paddock 
shows a wonderful change in mois- 
ture contents since the sowing. 

According to the Kansas Board 
of Agriculture, the mere mechani- 
cal effect of the extensive root sys- 
tem can scarcely be over-esti- 
mated. As soon as germination 
begins the plant starts its tiny 
roots downward in seach of mois- 
ture. Roots 4ft. long have been 
found on lucerne onlv four months 
old, and when nine months old 
roots 9ft. long have been located. 
After the taip root reaches a few 
inches befow the surface it sends 
out smaller roots that have a 
lateral growth of a few inches. 
These, too, fin turn take a down- 
ward course for moisture, and for 



mineral elements needed for the 
growth above. The first smaller 
roots decay, and others start out 
from the tap root lower down. 
These in turn decay, and still 
others start. The decaying roots 
add humus to the soil, and the 
openings left by them for a won- 
derful system of channels for the 
penetration of air and water, into 
the soil. Soil which was origin- 
ally compact is homeycombed, and 
air and water penetrate the space 
occupied by dead roots until — 
when the lucerne paddock is ready 
to be used for a different crop — 
the soil has been wonderfully 
changed, not only, in its, chemical 
elements, but in its physical char- 
acter. 1 The remilar deposit of lu- 
cerne leaves, even when the ut- 
most care has been used in 
cuttine, has been estimated at one- 
half ton or more per acre everv 
vear. As these leaves contain a 
great percentage of protein, it can 
readily be seen that thev mak« a 
heavy contribution to the soil's 
fertility. It has been estimated 
that the value of the stubble of a 
lucerne crop and the roots con- 
tained in the upper 6%in. of the 
soil is £4 per acre from the fer- 
tilitv standpoint. In addition to 
the stubble the whole root sys- 
tem contains as much fertility as 
could be added to the soil bv an 
expenditure of £7 per acre on com- 
mercial fertilizers. 

Such are some of the facts con- 
cerning this marvellous plant, ga- 
thered from the pamphlets issued 
bv the experiment stations in the 
United States, from books by ex- 
pert students of the plant, and 
from letters bv observant farmers. 
The discovery and extensive use of 
this prodigy of all plants have of 
late been welcomed bv scientists 
as an inestimable blessing to agri- 
cultiire and an incalculable boon 
to the human race. One scientist 
in particular, who is a member of 
the Kansas State Board of Agri- 
culture, and who is a recognized 
authority on the subject, as well 
as the author of several valuable 
books concerning it, says that to 
lucerne alone must be credited the 
exeat agricultural development of 
Kansas, Xebraska, and other dis- 
tricts. Without lucerne their de- 
velopment would have been slow 
and unsatisfactory : with it thev 
are leading the world as grain-pro- 
ducinir States. To cite instances 
of improvement made by the iise 
of this nlant, the Wvomin«- Kxoeri- 
ment Station found that wheat 
following lucerne yielded thirty 
bushels oer acre, ais against 
eighteen bushels when sown after 
other crops. Oats after lucerne 
on the land of this same station 



Everybody Expects a 
Fair Deal 

And you will get it by paying a 
Visit to 

C. H. LEHMANN'S 

Establishment for 

Saddlery, Oollars, 
Harness, etc. 



A Gall Respectfully Solicited. 
It will pay You. 

C. H. LEHMANN, GRENFELL STREET. 



September, 1912 



THE GARDEN AND FIELD. 



I(i5 



vielded seventy-eight bushels per 
acre, as against thirty-seven 
bushels after other crops. Hence 
there is a widespread interest con- 
cerning this plant throughout the 
entire wor.d of agriculture. Its 
fame has spread throughout the 
length and breadth of America, 
not onh- bv reason of its virtues 
as a fodder, but because of the 
fertilitv that it adds to soil wher- 
ever it can be grown. 

Farmers are warned against 
sowing it on wet, cold soil, or on 
land that is subject to floods. 
The ground for its seed-bed does 
not requite deep ploughing, but the 
surface needs to be well harrowed 
and reduced to a fine tilth. Some 
get discouraged if the crop does 
not do well the first season, but 
if it is mowed everv time that it 
comes into bloom it will improve. 
Lucerne has wonderful recuperative 
powers, and possesses the prover- 
lrial nine lives of the cat. It has 
for some years past been recog- 
nized in this countrv as an ideal 
food in summer time for all kinds 
of live stock ; but as a fertilizer, 
surpassing in character anything 
known to the chemistry of farm- 
ing, it has yet to make local his- 
tory. It is verv desirable to keep 
voung lucerne clear of other weed 
life, and, above all, to guard 
against the appearance of an in- 
veterate and rapidly-spreading foe 
in dodder. Pure seed is the best 
preventive, but if this parasite 
does make its appearance, the 
patch of lucerne whereon it is 
first detected should be extra 
initiated by fire and sword, or, 
more correctly, spade. — " Rider's 
Kftview." 




H. DENNIS 

IMPLEMENT MAKES. 
(Late of MORGAN). 
YOUNG STREET 
(Old Methodist Hall) between 
FRANKLIN * WAYMOUTH STS. 

DENNIS' PATENT 
8TEEL BUCKSCRAPER AND SILT 

SCOOPS, GATES, ETC. 

Write (or Illvutrated Catalogue and 
Priee Leart. 



The Value of Farm- Yard 
Manure as a Fertilizer. 

The value of farmyard manure 
as a fertilizing agent in connection 
with the cultivation of English 
crops is discussed at considerable 
length in the June number of the 
Journal of the British Board of 
Agriculture. 

From a large number of analysis, 
it appears that farmyard manure 
consists, on the average, of about 
75 per cent, of water, about two- 
tnirds of i per cent, of nitrogen, 
one-quarter of i per cent, of phos- 
phoric acid, and one-third of i per 
cent, of potash, or per ton about 
15 it), of nitrogen, 5 lb. of phos- 
phoric acid, and 7 lb. of potash. 
The composition, however, natural- 
lv varies with the feeding of the 
animals and the manner in which 
the manure has been stored. 

During storage, various chemical 
changes go on in the heaps of 
manure. As a result, many com- 
pounds are given off in gaseous 
form. Some nitrogen is lost in 
this way, but the proportion of 
non-nitrogenous organic matter 
which passes off is still greater. 
Water is also evaporated, and as 
a result of all the changes, the 
manure which has been stored for 
a considerable time is more con- 
centrated in nitrogen, potash, and 
phosphoric acid and in dry matter. 
One effect of the fermentation 
which is in active progress is that 
the active compounds of nitrogen, 
such as ammonium carbonate, 
grow less on storage of the manure, 
as the\' are convertied into in- 
soluble protein-like bodies. Hence, 
old farm manure is slower in its 
fertilizing action, and less caustic 
in its effect upon the delicate roots 
of seedlings, than fresh manure. 

As a direct fertilizing agent, the 
chief value of farm manure lies in 
the fact that it contains all the 
elements of a plant's nutrition — 
nitrogen, phosphoric acid, and 
potash — although the phosphoric- 
acid is deficient compared with 
what it should be in a well-balanoed 
fertilizer. As a result of the 
various stages of availability in 
which the nitrogen is present in 
farm manure, its effect is not fully 
evident shortly after application, 
but its influence is continuous for a 
more or less considerable time 
after being put on the land. 

It is often pointed out that the 
value of farmyard manare to the 
land is not altogether confined to 
its fertilizing properties ; its physi- 
cal effects upon the texture and 
water-holding powers of the soil 
are equally important, and indeed, 



in droughty seasons, particularly 
with some crops, these effects 
count for more than fertilizers 
towards ensuring a good yield. 
This manure as it rots down into 
the soil goes to restore the stock 
of humus which is always under- 
going oxidation, and tending ,to be 
diminished in quantity. Humus 
acts beneficially both on light and 
heavy soils ; to sands it gives 
cohesion and water - retaining 
power, while by loosely bringing to- 
gether the finest particles of clay 
soil, it renders them more porous 
and pliable. 

As already mentioned, a soil 
which has been enriched in humus 
by continued applications of farm 
maaiure will resist drought better 
than one in .which the humus con- 
tent is low, and investigation has 
shown that the difference does not 
depend so much upon the greater 
amount of moisture present in the 
soil containing humus, as in the 
way this soil w.ll absorb a large 
amount of water temporarily dur- 
ing heavy rainfall, aind then let it 
work more slowly down into the 
soil, thus keeping it longer within 
reach of the crop. — " Agricultural 
News." 



An officer of the Royal College 
of Veterinary Surgeons in Eogland 
savs it is easy to tell a • horse's 
character by the shape of his nose. 
If the profile has a gentle curve, 
and at the same time the ears are 
pointed and sensitive, the animal 
may be depended on as being 
gentle, and at the same time 
high- spirited. On the other hand, 
if the horse has a dent in the 
middle of his nose it is safe to 
set him down as treacherous and 
vicious. The Roman-nosed horse 
is sure to be a good onieior hard 
work, and safe to drive, but he is 
Hkelv to be slow. A horse with 
a slight concavity in the profile 
will be easily 'scared, a nd need 
coaxing, while one that droops 
his ears is aptt to be both lazy 
and vicious. 



Drink 

COOPER'S 

PURE BEER. 

Orders to the Brewery, 
Upper Kensington. 



THE GARDEN AND FIELD. 



September, 1912 



The Shearing Shed. 



From Queensland Agricultural 
.1 ouroal, 

To the small owner as well as 
to the large proprietor, one of the 
most important events of the year 
is tlie shearing. It is as import- 
ant to him as is the harvest to 
tlie agriculturist, for it is the 

sum of all his work and care 
for the past twelve months, 

so that ignorance or mismanage- 
ment may result in serious loss. 

It is the object of this article 
to give, in as clear and simple a 
manner as possible, the essentials 
of .shearing-she|l management, 
which includes the get-up of a 
small clip — say that of 4,000 
merino sheep of mixed sexes and 
ages. 

I am a strong advocate of the 
small owner having a shearing 
plant of his own, or, in the alter- 
native, a share, as one of a group 
of fellow-selectors, in such. 

There is no need to particu- 
larise the advantages of machine- 
shearing over hand-shearing, for 
hand-shearers good, bad, and in- 
different aire nearly extinct. The 
advantage to the selector in hav- 
ing easy access to machinerv lies 
in the fact that the best preven- 
tive to the ravages of the maggot 
flv is crutching by machinerv. 

A four-stand plant, with oil en- 
gine, head plank, and all appur- 
tenances complete, can be procured 
at Brisbane for less than £100, and 
the various makers of that class 
of machinery send experts to any 



holding to erect and teach the 

running of machinery at actual 
cost of his wages and expenses. 
Over hand-shearing, too, there is 
,111 estimated balance in favour of 
machines of od. per sheep in re- 
turns. Crutching l>v hand involves 
recrutching six weeks or so later, 
during the By season, which may 
be said to extend from May to 
August, while the closer-cut of ma- 
chines sees the winter well 
through. It is, therefore, necessarv 
that an owner should crutch his 
sheep by machinerv, and, if he 
has his own plant, it can be done at 
,i minimum of cost. One man can 
crutch 400 sheep per dav, and there 
is no mystery to a man with com- 
mon sense in running the plant 
himself after a little instruction 
from a qualified expert. 

Assuming, then, that the owner 
possesses his own pi, ml and is 
able to run it himself, What are 
the essentials to successful shed 
management ? 

Taking the processes in due 
order, they consist of — penning up, 
shearing, picking up, woolrolling, 
woolclassing, and pressing. 

— Penning Lp: — 

The duty of the penner-up in a 
small shed is so light that for 
three parts of his time he should 
be available for any other work 
in the shed. He should see that 
there is no undue delay in filling 
the catching pens, and that tHfe 
sheep are not 'injured or smothered 
in the pens. 

— Shearing. — 

With the Arbitration Court 
award before him, the owner will 



have very few contentious matters 
to deal with. If he be fortunate 
enough to have four good men, 
supervision will be very pleasant 
work. (Jn the other hand, if he 
has even one "snagger" (i.e., 
duffer), his pocket and temper will 
suffer. For that reason it would 
l>e wise for him to arrange his 
shearing time for the early or the 
late month of the year. From 
July to October most of the big 
sheds aire in full swing, and there 
are greater inducements for fast, 
good men to go there than to 
shear a small cut of, say, 1,000 
per man. In that connection it 
is well to remember, provided the 
sheep be strong, that Queensland 
can shear at any time in the year 
without loss of stock from the 
cold. The big losses through in- 
clemency of weather generally 
occur in the months of October 
and November. A good, fast man 
has learned — and he is fast because 
he has learned— that the shortest 
way round a sheep is "on the 
skin " ; that going back for a se- 
cond cut is waste of time ; there- 
fore he gets all the wool first 
time. Holding a sheep easily and 
comfortably prevents the animal 
from kicking, and so prevents 
delay ; and he has learned to know 
the tool with which he earns his 
living. In consequence he is rare- 
ly seen near the expert, but is 
shearing away merrily, while the 
average man is waiting for re- 
pairs. The average man only 
knows whether his machine is go- 
ing well or ill, or at least very 
little more, while the " snagger " 
is always in trouble. These last 
do not know their tools of trade. 

The owner will know that he is 
(retting good shearing when he sees 
that there are comparatively few 
" second cuts " in the fleeces; that 
there are no loose trimmings on 
legs or head ; no dead or injured 
sheep in the counting pens ; and 
no knees jammed into the flanks 
of the sheep on the " long, blow." 

A good shearer rarely cuts a 
sheep. It is generally by accident 
if he do so. A serious cut should 
be sewn at once, and a proper 
antiseptic applied to all cuts. It 
is the picker-up's duty to see that 
such is placed in a handy tin on 
the board ready for accidents, 
and to apply it. A good shearer 
is a joy ; a bad one should be 
prosecuted for obtaining money 
under false pretences. 

— Picking Up. — 

It is the duty of the picker-up 
to take the' belly waol — which is 
removed first by the shearer — 
pick the stained part from it in 




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3 gallons, 14/6 ; 5 gallons, 17/6 ; 10 
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A. SIMPSON & SON 

LIMITED. 
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Makers also of Sheep, Cattle and Pig 
^roughing, Tanks, Field Gates, Wheel 
and Water Barrows , etc. 



September, 1912 



THE GARDEN AND FIELD. 



:he case of wethers being shorn, 
Uid place it in the appointed re- 
reptacle. When the shearer has 
hushed his sheep and " lets go," 
Jie picker-up should put the ileece 
leide on a clean place, for a mo- 
nent, and sweep back the locks 
so that the next sheep- may be 
thorn on a clean board. It is im- 
^rative that the " board " be 
[ept clear of locks, otherwise the 
leece wool will become full of 
ocks and fribs, necessitating extra 
vork by the woolrollejrs in pick- 
ng them out, or else dirty fleeces 
roing into the bins. One, source 
»f loss in price is when the valuer 
(ees " fribby " fleeces. When the 
loor is swept clean, the picker-up 
.akes the fleece and throws it\ on 
Ik- wool table with the breech at 
he end nearest him, and the neck 
Lwav from him. Good picking up 
s a big factor in good woolrolling. 
L clean " board " is imperative in 
t well-managed shed. A good 
icker-up is usually the hardest 
worked rouseabout in a shed. 

— Woolrolling. — 

Four good shearers will shear 
Lb average of 400 to 600 sheep 
tccording to sex. Two men, at 
;he woolrolling taibles are neces- 
;arv to handle that number of 
leeces. The table should be 4ft. 
tide and not less than 10ft. long. 
Chis is somewhat longer than is 
isual in most woolrooms. 

The ordinary method of dealing 
with the pieces is as follows : — 
fhe ileece is thrown out by the 
)icktr-up, and the woolrollers 
mmediatelv skirt off the pieces, 
:hro\vin;r them on the floor with 
ill their excellences and imperfec- 
tions. A man with a broom 
sweeps them over to a piece-pick- 
ing table, where the now tho- 
roughly mixed wool is unmixed or 
sorted. This kind of piece-picking 
requires skilled men ; it is really 
i woolsorter's job. If they be 
unskilled, the result is bad work, 
and consequent loss in value. If 
skilful, vet slow, there is verv soon 
an accumulation of back work, 
and more expensive labour ia( re- 
quired to keep pace with the 
shearers. Mostly the work is 
slummed. 

'The method I have advocated, 
and used successfully for the past 
twentv years does away with the 
mixing process. It is as follows: 
—When the picker-up throws out 
his fleece, the woolrollers take off 
—first the stained pieces ; then the 
points and ed^es of flanks (alias 
1st pieces), and finally the broken 
fleece. As thev are taken oil, 
each sort is thrown into a basket 
or other place, and the Ileece is 
then shaken to dislodge fricks and 



its proper bin. There is no wool 
locks, rolled, and then placed in 
tying on the floor ; each sort of 
pieces is taken off bv itself, and 
there cannot be any slumming or 
back work. In short, instead of 
aj single skirting, there are three — 
stains, points or 1st pieaes, and 
broken fleece. This method is just 
as applicable in a shed oi 40 
shearers as in one of 4. All the 
men, excepting the sweepers, are 
on the woolrolling tables, doing 
work that is easilv supervised, 
and intelligible. A day or two 
after the start, the ordinary wool- 
roller drops into the method as if 
he had done, nothing else a